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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 382: 121103, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479824

RESUMO

An in situ freeze method (in liquid N2) is developed to study the adsorption behaviours of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Using the proposed method, the adsorption state and adsorption mechanism of adsorbates (pore filling effect or mono/multilayer stacking) in pores of adsorbent can be perceived clearly. We can also acquire the contribution rate of each pore to adsorption capacity. It is found that for toluene adsorption, more pores smaller than around 1.1 nm should be made in activated carbon if it's below 100 ppm, while more pores of around 1.2-5 nm should be made if it's beyond 1000 ppm. This measurement method presents a more comprehensive description on the adsorption state of VOCs in micro- and mesopores, extending the development of adsorbent design and adsorption mechanism in chemical and environmental engineering.

2.
Food Chem ; 307: 125546, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639580

RESUMO

Zearalenone (ZEN) is one of the most widely distributed harmful mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species, especially deposited in corn oil. In this study, we systematically tracked the changes of ZEN in the refining of corn oil, and especially during neutralization process. An alkali neutralization process could remove certain amounts of ZEN that was much more than that of others refining steps. In a mimicking condition, ZEN contents decreased continuously and significantly with increasing neutralization temperature. However, when returned to neutral, recoverable ZEN decreased with increasing temperature, which confirmed more degradation of ZEN at high temperature. HPLC-Q/TOF MS and NMR evidence showed that non-reversible hydrolyzate followed decarboxylation was observed in a high-temperature alkali neutralization condition. The results may serve as the scientific basis for the elimination of zearalenone in refined vegetable oils, and provide clues to understanding the oil-safety aspects of elimination of zearalenone.

3.
Food Chem ; 305: 125382, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525590

RESUMO

During the mashing process for brewing beer, incomplete degradation of arabinoxylan in barley malt may cause an intense filterability problem. The present study cloned a putative arabinofuranosidase (AnAbf), one of the debranching enzymes, from Aspergillus niger, to explore its application for improving filterability. Recombinant AnAbf (rAnAbf) showed activity towards both synthetic and natural substrates, such as 4-nitrophenyl α-l-arabinofuranoside (pNPαAraf) and malt water extractable arabinoxylan (WEAX), which was maximized at a temperature of 50 °C and pH of 5.5. Metal ions did not increase the activity of rAnAbf, indicating a difference in its C-terminal domain from that of type II GH43 family members. rAnAbf also exhibited a synergistic effect with ß-xylanase against WEAX. The filtration rate of the wort increased by 12.8% after supplementing with rAnAbf during the initial stage of mashing. A slight decrease in viscosity and an unexpected increase in turbidity were observed.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671212

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Hepcidin is a peptide hormone that plays a central role in regulating iron metabolism. It is a potential biomarker for the diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of iron metabolism disorders. Serum hepcidin level can differ by 3 orders of magnitude depending on the patient's condition. Existing LC/MS assays lack clinical sensitivity or require costly sample preparation steps. A simple, sensitive, robust, and cost-effective assay for serum hepcidin quantitation in routine clinical laboratories is needed. METHODS: An HPLC/MS/MS method was developed to quantify hepcidin in human serum using chemically synthesized hepcidin as a standard and stable isotope labeled hepcidin as internal standard. The method was validated according to CLSI-C62A guidelines. Calibrators were prepared with hepcidin-free serum. Clinical samples were separately processed and compared using solid phase extraction (SPE) and acetonitrile (ACN) protein precipitation. RESULTS: The calibration curve was validated over the range of 0.1-100 nmol/L with R2 >0.99. Both SPE and ACN had excellent and comparable reproducibility. The intra-day and inter-day CVs were <3% and <6%,. There was 89% and 88% hepcidin recovery by SPE and ACN preparation. Measurement of secondary reference material using non-traceable calibrators yielded up to 30% positive bias, comparable with values obtained by an external comparator. Hepcidin was stable in serum at ambient temperature and at 4°C. Relative errors (RE) were ≤1.2% and ≤4.4%, respectively. Freeze-thaw (-70°C) stability after 3 cycles showed a RE of ≤1.8%. The impact on hepcidin recovery due to hemolysis (4+), lipemia (4+) and Icterus (4+) was < 3%. CONCLUSION: We have developed and validated a simple, sensitive, robust, and cost-effective HPLC/MS/MS method for the quantitation of serum hepcidin. The method uses ACN protein precipitation for sample preparation and reverse-phase normal flow HPLC. Sample preparation is inexpensive; it can be automated with a liquid handling system to allow high-throughput application.

5.
Opt Express ; 27(19): 27046-27061, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674573

RESUMO

We present an efficient and faithful hyperentanglement purification protocol (hyper-EPP) for three-photon system in mixed hyperentangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states with bit-flip errors in both spatial-mode and polarization degrees of freedom (DOFs), resorting to the fidelity-robust quantum gates and hyperentanglement link. Our high-efficiency hyper-EPP comes from two aspects. One is to pump the higher-fidelity hyperentanglement from different three-photon systems into the same three-photon system with fidelity-robust swap gates, the other is to reproduce some hyperentangled three-photon systems from hyperentangled two-photon subsystems based on hyperentanglement link. Moreover, as the infidelity originating from imperfect single-photon scattering can be heralded as a failure by triggering a detector, our hyper-EPP operates faithfully with the present quantum circuits. Furthermore, our hyper-EPP can be directly extended to purify multiple photon systems entangled in one DOF or hyperentangled in multiple DOFs.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677789

RESUMO

WW domain containing E3 Ub-protein ligase 2 (WWP2) plays an important role in tumor progression as an E3 ligase of PTEN. Here, we investigated the role of WWP2 in gastric cancer (GC). We found that WWP2 is overexpressed in GC tissues, which is closely related to poor prognosis of GC patients. Using a WWP2-shRNA lentivirus expressing system, we established WWP2 stable-knockdown GC cell lines and found that knockdown of WWP2 inhibits the proliferation of GC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Also, WWP2 silencing induced the up-regulation of PTEN protein level and down-regulation of AKT phosphorylation level. We further investigated the role of PTEN in this regulating process by performing rescue assay and found that PTEN is essential for WWP2-mediated regulation of GC cells proliferation. Taken together, our results demonstrated that WWP2 promotes proliferation of GC cells by downregulating PTEN, which may provide new therapeutic targets for GC.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677907

RESUMO

Artificial pigment is a common food additive in cream products. If added in excess, it will do harm to human body. At present, there is no research on the detection of cream pigment by Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. In this paper, a method based on random forest was applied to determine the indigotine in cream. Weighting in the experiments was accomplished using analytical balances with precision as low as 0.0001 g. The NIR spectra data of cream with different concentration of indigotine were recorded. The original spectra was pretreated by SG smoothing, mean centering and second derivative. Random forest was applied to establish a quantitative analysis model for cream pigment content, and multiple evaluation criteria were selected to comprehensively evaluate the model. The R2 was 0.9402, RMSEP was 0.2509 and RPD was 4.0893. Consequently, NIR spectroscopy, combined with data pretreatments and random forest model, was confirmed to be an interesting tool for non-destructive evaluation of pigment content in cream.

8.
Fitoterapia ; : 104391, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682871

RESUMO

Two new quinolizidine-based alkaloids (2 and 12), along with ten known ones (1, 3-11) were isolated from the roots of S. tonkinensis. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic data (including NMR, MS, IR, and UV), X-ray single crystal diffraction, electronic circular dichroism analyses (ECD), and comparing with related literatures. Compounds 1, 3-12 at non-toxic concentrations exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activities according to in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory tests. Among them, (-)-anagyrine (4), sophocarpine (8), 14ß-hydroxymatrine (10), and 7ß-sophoramine (12) showed more potent in vitro anti-inflammatory activities, and 5α,14ß-dihydroxymatrine (2), (-)-anagyrine (4), sophocarpine (8), and 5α-hydroxymatrine (9) exhibited better in vivo anti-inflammatory effects.

9.
Opt Express ; 27(22): 31376-31384, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684372

RESUMO

We theoretically study the angular rotation displacement based on the hybrid interferometers, which contain a beam splitter (BS) and an optical parameter amplication (OPA) for beam splitting and recombination. Two schemes with different orders of an OPA and a BS are discussed and both of them can realize the super resolving and sensitive angular rotation displacement. The sensitivity of angular rotation displacement can surpass the shot noise limit 12l N with the orbital angular momentum input beams. The squeezing strength of an OPA and the reflectivity of the BS play a decisive role on the resolutions and sensitivities while the losses play a negative effect on the sensitivity.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690665

RESUMO

Primary cilia carry out numerous signaling and sensory functions, and defects in them, "ciliopathies," cause a range of symptoms, including blindness. Understanding of their nanometer-scale ciliary substructures and their disruptions in ciliopathies has been hindered by limitations of conventional microscopic techniques. We have combined cryoelectron tomography, enhanced by subtomogram averaging, with superresolution stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) to define subdomains within the light-sensing rod sensory cilium of mouse retinas and reveal previously unknown substructures formed by resident proteins. Domains are demarcated by structural features such as the axoneme and its connections to the ciliary membrane, and are correlated with molecular markers of subcompartments, including the lumen and walls of the axoneme, the membrane glycocalyx, and the intervening cytoplasm. Within this framework, we report spatial distributions of key proteins in wild-type (WT) mice and the effects on them of genetic deficiencies in 3 models of Bardet-Biedl syndrome.

11.
Chemistry ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691387

RESUMO

Triarylboranes that exhibit p-π* conjugation serve as versatile building blocks to design n-type organic/polymer semiconductors. Here, we report a series of new molecular acceptors based on triarylborane. These molecules are designed with a boron atom that bears a bulky 2,4,6-tri- tert -butylphenyl substituent at the core and strong electron-withdrawing 2-(3-oxo-2,3-dihydroinden-1-ylidene)malononitrile units as the endcapping groups that are linked to the core by bithiophene bridges. Butyl or butoxy groups are introduced to the bithiophene units to tune the optoelectronic properties. These molecules show nearly planar backbones with highly localized steric hindrance at the core, low LUMO/HOMO energy levels, and broad absorption bands spanning the visible region, which are all very desirable characteristics for use as electron acceptors in organic solar cell (OSC) applications. The attachment of butyl groups to the bithiophene bridges brings about a slightly twisted backbone, which in turn promotes good solubility and homogeneous donor/acceptor blend morphology, while the introduction of butoxy groups leads to improved planarity, favorable stacking in the film state and a greatly reduced bandgap. OSC devices based on these molecules exhibit encouraging photovoltaic performances with power conversion efficiencies reaching up to 4.07%. These results further substantiate the strong potential of triarylboranes as the core unit of small molecule acceptors for OSC applications.

12.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol ; : 1-8, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691624

RESUMO

Purpose: Immunotherapy has demonstrated durable clinical responses in various cancers by disinhibiting the immune system, largely attributed to the success of immune-checkpoint blockade. However, there are still subsets of patients across multiple cancers not showing robust responses to these agents and one significant barrier to their efficacy may be the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) into the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we demonstrated that functional inhibition of MDSCs with (3 R)-5,6,7-trihydroxy-3-isopropyl-3-methylisochroman-1-one (TIMO), a potent PI3Kδ/γ inhibitor, enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of anti-PD1 antibody in the tumor model.Materials and methods: A syngeneic ovarian tumor model was established. MDSCs from the peripheral blood and tumor parenchyma were analyzed by flow cytometry. Proliferation and killing effects of T-lymphocytes were measured. IFNγ production was measured by ELISA assay. qPCR and western blot were used to detect the gene and protein expression. Furthermore, the therapeutic effects of TIMO combined with anti-PD1 antibody were assessed by the tumor model.Results: Our data demonstrated that inhibition of granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (G-MDSCs) function with TIMO could overcome MDSCs-mediated immunosuppression and promote antigen-specific T-lymphocyte responses, resulting in the restoration of cytotoxic T cell-mediated tumor control. We further demonstrated that TIMO and anti-PD1 combination therapy promoted tumor growth control in a syngeneic ovarian tumor model.Conclusions: Our results provided proof of concept for a new combination strategy involving the use of a selective inhibitor of PI3Kδ/γ to inhibit the function of MDSCs to enhance tumor responses to immune checkpoint blocking antibodies.

13.
Mol Cell ; 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676230

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A), the most abundant internal mRNA modification, and N6,2'-O-dimethyladenosine (m6Am), found at the first-transcribed nucleotide, are two reversible epitranscriptomic marks. However, the profiles and distribution patterns of m6A and m6Am across human and mouse tissues are poorly characterized. Here, we report the m6A and m6Am methylome through profiling of 43 human and 16 mouse tissues and demonstrate strongest tissue specificity for the brain tissues. A small subset of tissue-specific m6A peaks can also readily classify tissue types. The overall m6A and m6Am level is partially correlated with the expression level of their writers and erasers. Additionally, the m6A-containing regions are enriched for SNPs. Furthermore, cross-species analysis revealed that species rather than tissue type is the primary determinant of methylation. Collectively, our study provides an in-depth resource for dissecting the landscape and regulation of the m6A and m6Am epitranscriptomic marks across mammalian tissues.

14.
EBioMedicine ; 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Active immunotherapy is an effective, long-lasting, cheap, and safe approach to suppress cancer progression; however, the key issue is to develop appropriate tumour vaccines. Oncoproteins are up-regulated under various stress conditions and promote cell survival. Oncoproteins and their immunogenic domains could serve well as tumour vaccines and prime the hosts' active anti-tumour immunity. METHODS: Proteomic and bioinformatic analyses were performed to identify potential tumour associated antigens (TAAs). Then, peptides derived from CD151 were designed and synthesized according to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I binding and immunogenicity. Cytotoxicity assay, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and in vivo bioluminescence imaging were performed to assess the active anti-tumour immunity triggered by CD151 peptides in H22 primary hepatoma and experimental 4T1 breast cancer lung metastasis models. FINDINGS: CD151 was identified as an ideal TAA based on proteomic and bioinformatic analyses. CD151 peptides as tumour vaccines triggered active anti-tumour immunity against H22 hepatoma and the lung metastasis of 4T1 breast cancer in two mouse models through the activation of CD8+IFNγ+ lymphocytes and the subsequent targeted cytotoxicity. Further, the peptides suppressed the negative regulators, myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Survival was prolonged for mice with lung metastases from CD151 peptide-immunised groups. INTERPRETATION: The up-regulated oncoproteins in 8 Gy-irradiated tumour cells are good candidates for designing immunogenic peptides as tumour vaccines. Anti-tumour active immunity primed by peptides from CD151 may be an effective and safe approach to suppress cancer progression.

15.
Mol Med Rep ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702812

RESUMO

Vitamin D deficiency may lead to an increased risk of tuberculosis. In the present study, the effects of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection on dendritic cells (DCs) derived from vitamin D­deficient mice or normal control mice were investigated. A vitamin D­deficient mouse model was established, and bone marrow­derived DCs (BMDCs) were isolated and treated with GM­CSF and interleukin (IL)­4 for 6 days, followed by an additional 24 h of treatment with Bacillus Calmette­Guérin (BCG). The expression levels of surface molecules of DCs, including integrin alpha­X and T­lymphocyte activation antigen CD86, were significantly increased by BCG in the vitamin D­deficient mice model group compared with the control group, while those of T­lymphocyte activation antigen CD80, major histocompatibility complex class I and major histocompatibility complex class II were significantly decreased. These changes were BCG concentration­dependent. In addition, the levels of IL­4, IL­6 and IL­10 in the BMDCs from the vitamin D­deficient mice were significantly decreased compared with the control mice, while the levels of tumor necrosis factor­α, IL­5, IL­2, IL­12 and interferon­Î³ were significantly increased. Furthermore, the expression levels of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and CYP27B1 protein in the BMDCs from the vitamin D­deficient mice were decreased compared with the control. BCG significantly increased the expression levels of VDR and CYP27B1 in the BMDCs. The DCs treated with BCG significantly induced the viability of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Therefore, BCG increases DCs and may enhance immunofunction, which may assist in preventing the risk of tuberculosis in patients with a vitamin D deficiency.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699366

RESUMO

The abnormally high activity of the proteasome system is closely related to the occurrence and development of various tumors. PSMB4 is a non-catalytic subunit for the proteasome assembly. Although the reports from genetic screening have demonstrated it's a driver gene for cell growth in several types of solid tumor, its expression pattern and regulatory mechanisms in malignant diseases are still elusive. Here, we found that PSMB4 is overexpressed in cervical cancer tissues. And knockdown of PSMB4 significantly inhibited cervical cancer cell proliferation. The mechanistic study revealed that FoxM1, a master regulator of cell division, binds directly to the promoter region of PSMB4 and regulates the PSMB4 expression in the mRNA level. In addition, the data analysis from TCGA showed a positive correlation between FxoM1 and PSMB4 in cervical cancer. Furthermore, the loss of functional and rescue experiments confirmed that PSMB4 is required for FoxM1-driven cervical cancer cell proliferation. Collectively, our study explains the phenomenon of dysregulated expression of PSMB4 in cervical cancer tissues and verifies its driver effect on cancer cell proliferation. More importantly, it highlights a FoxM1-PSMB4 axis could be a potential target for the treatment of cervical cancer.

17.
J Biol Chem ; 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699894

RESUMO

Many Gram-negative bacteria use type III secretion systems (T3SSs) to inject virulence effector proteins into eukaryotic cells.  The T3SS apparatus (T3SA) is structurally conserved among diverse bacterial pathogens and consists of a cytoplasmic sorting platform, an envelope-spanning basal body, and an extracellular needle with tip complex.  The sorting platform is essential for effector recognition and powering secretion.  Studies using bacterial "minicells" have revealed an unprecedented level of structural detail of the sorting platform; however, many of the structure-function relationships within this complex remain enigmatic.  Here, we report on improved cryo-electron tomographic approaches to enhance the resolution of the Shigella T3SA sorting platform (at ≤ 2nm resolution) done in concert with biochemical and genetic methods to define the sorting platform interactome and interactions with the T3SA inner-membrane ring (IR).  We observed that the sorting platform consists of "pods" with six-fold symmetry that interact with the Spa47 ATPase via radial extensions comprising MxiN.  Most importantly, MxiK maintained an interaction with the IR via specific interactions with the cytoplasmic domain of the IR protein MxiG (MxiGC), which is a noncanonical forkhead-associated domain, and that MxiK has an elongated structure that interacts with the IR via MxiGC  T4 lysozyme-mediated insertional mutagenesis of MxiK revealed its orientation within the sorting platform and enabled disruption of interactions with its binding partners, which abolished sorting platform assembly.  Finally, a comparison with the homologous interactions in the Salmonella T3SS sorting platform revealed clear differences in their IR-sorting platform interfaces that have possible mechanistic implications.

18.
Orthop Surg ; 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701667

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Surgery is indicated when antibiotic treatment fails in pyogenic spondylodiscitis, which is caused by pathogens such as the Staphylococcus species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of the oblique lateral interbody fusion (OLIF) corridor approach combined with posterior pedicle screw fixation for treating pyogenic spondylodiscitis. METHODS: This was a retrospective case series study. A total of 11 patients with an average age of 60.7 years (range, 40-70 years; 10 males and 1 females) with lumbar pyogenic spondylodiscitis who underwent single-stage debridement and reconstruction using the OLIF corridor combined with posterior pedicle screw fixation were recruited in our study from June 2016 to July 2017. All patients had single-level pyogenic spondylodiscitis between T12 and L5 . The baseline data, perioperative outcomes (operative time, intra-operative blood loss, and intra-operative complication), postoperative laboratory tests (erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR], C-reactive protein [CRP], white blood count [WBC], and tissue culture results), long-term complications (recurrence, fixation failure, and bony non-fusion rates), and duration of antibiotic administration were reviewed. Outcomes evaluated using a variety of scales including visual analog scale (VAS) score and Oswestry disability index (ODI), were compared pre-operatively and post-operatively. RESULTS: The mean follow-up period of time was 18.3 months. The average operative time and intra-operative blood loss were 217.0 ± 91.91 min and 220.9 ± 166.10 mL, respectively. There were no intra-operative complications, except in 1 patient who encountered somatosensory evoked potentials changes and 1 patient who had motor evoked potentials changes, both without post-surgery neurological deficits. Causative organisms were identified in 4 patients: Staphylococcus aureus in 1 patient and Streptococcus in 3 patients. At approximately 8.8 weeks after surgery, WBC, CRP, and ESR had returned to normal levels. All patients were pain free with no recurring infection. There was no fixation failure during follow up. Solid bony fusions were observed in all cases within 6 months. At the final follow up, the mean VAS (0.6 ± 0.69) and ODI (14.4 ± 4.27) were significantly lower than those before surgery (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: One-stage debridement with autogenous iliac bone graft through the OLIF corridor combined with posterior pedicle screw fixation is effective and safe for single-level spontaneous lumbar pyogenic spondylodiscitis after antibiotic treatment fails.

20.
J Virol ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666372

RESUMO

Follicular helper T (TFH) cells have been shown to support productive human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) replication and to serve as a key component of the latent viral reservoir. However, the viral characteristics of this latent reservoir and the clinical relevance of this reservoir remain unclear. In this study, we assessed the tropic composition of latent viruses from peripheral TFH (pTFH), non-TFH memory and naïve CD4+ T cells from individuals with HIV-1-infections on suppressive combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). X4-tropic latent HIV-1 was preferentially enriched in pTFH cells compared to the other two subsets. Interestingly, the ratio of X4-tropic latent HIV-1 in pTFH cells was not only robustly and inversely correlated with blood CD4+ T cell counts across patients but was also prognostic of CD4+ T cell recovery in individuals on long-term cART. Moreover, patients with higher X4-tropic latent HIV-1 ratios in pTFH cells showed greater risks of opportunistic coinfections. These findings reveal the characteristics of latent HIV-1 in TFH cells and suggest that the ratio of X4-tropic latent HIV-1 in pTFH cells is a valuable indicator for disease progression and cART efficacy.Importance TFH cells have been shown to harbor a significant amount of latent HIV-1; however, the viral characteristics of this reservoir and its clinical relevance remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that X4-tropic latent HIV-1 is preferentially enriched in pTFH cells, which also accurately reflects the viral tropism shift. The ratio of X4-tropic proviruses in pTFH cells but not in other memory CD4+ T cell subsets is inversely and closely correlated with blood CD4+ T cell counts and CD4+ T cell recovery rates with cART. Our data suggest that the ratio of X4-tropic provirus in peripheral TFH cells can be easily measured and reflects disease progression and treatment outcomes during cART.

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