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1.
J Nat Prod ; 83(6): 1931-1938, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520548

RESUMO

Seven new modified fusicoccane-type diterpenoids (1-7), together with two known congeners (8 and 9), were obtained from Alternaria brassicicola. Their structures were elucidated from a combination of NMR and HRESIMS data and 13C NMR calculation as well as DP4+ probability analyses, and the absolute configurations of 1-5 were determined by ECD calculation and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (Cu Kα). Compounds 1-3 belong to a rare class of 16-nor-dicyclopenta[a,d]cyclooctane diterpenoids, and compounds 2 and 4 represent the first examples of fusicoccane-type diterpenoids featuring two previously undescribed tetracyclic 5/6/6/5 ring systems, while compound 5 features a previously undescribed tetracyclic 5/8/5/3 ring system. Compound 7 was moderately anti-inflammatory, and compounds 2, 3, 5, and 7 were weakly cytotoxic.

2.
Small ; 16(24): e2001473, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419372

RESUMO

Bulk metals lack chirality. Recently, metals have been sculptured with metastable chirality varying from the micro- to nano-scale. The manipulation of molecular chirality could be novelly performed using metals composed of chiral lattices at atomic scales (i.e., chiral nanoparticles or CNPs) if one could fundamentally understand the interactions between molecules and the chiral metal lattices. The incorporation of chiral ligands has been generally adapted to form metal CNPs. However, post-fabrication removal of chiral ligands usually causes relaxation of the metastable chiral lattices to thermodynamically stable achiral structures, and thus the coexisting chiral ligands will unavoidably disturb or screen the interactions of interest. Herein, a concept of metal CNPs that are free of chiral ligands and consist of atomically chiral lattices is introduced. Without chiral ligands, shear forces applied by substrate rotation along with the translation of incident atoms lead to imposing the metastable chiral lattices onto metals. Metal CNPs show not only the chiroptical effect but the enantiospecific interactions of chiral lattices and molecules. These two unique chiral effects have resulted in the applications of enantiodifferentiation and asymmetric synthesis. Prospectively, the extension in composition space and constituent engineering will apply alloy CNPs to enantiodiscrimination, enantioseperation, bio-imaging, bio-sensing, and asymmetric catalysis.

3.
Bioorg Chem ; 100: 103887, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371250

RESUMO

Fusicoccane-derived diterpenoids bearing a unique bridgehead double-bond-containing tricyclo[9.2.1.03,7]tetradecane (5-9-5 ring system) core skeleton represent a rarely reported class of rearranged terpenoids, which traced back to fusicoccanes with a classical dicyclopenta[a,d]cyclooctane (5-8-5 ring system) core skeleton via a crucial Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement reaction. In this research, alterbrassicenes B-D (1-3), three new rearranged fusicoccane diterpenoids bearing a rare bridgehead double-bond-containing tricyclo[9.2.1.03,7]tetradecane core skeleton, together with two known congeners, brassicicenes O and K (4 and 5), were isolated from the modified cultures of fungus Alternaria brassicicola. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive analyses of the NMR and HRESIMS data, and the absolute configurations of 1 and 4 were further confirmed via a combination of 13C NMR and ECD calculations and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis (Cu Kα). Interestingly, alterbrassicene B (1) represented the second case of bridgehead C-10-C-11 double-bond-containing natural products with a bicyclo[6.2.1]undecane core skeleton, and also featured an undescribed oxygen bridge between C-6 and C-14 to construct an unprecedentedly caged tetracyclic system. Alterbrassicenes B-D showed moderate cytotoxic activity against certain human tumor cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 15.87-36.85 µM.

4.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(2): 239-248, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337685

RESUMO

Phenolic compounds such as chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are widely distributed in fruits, vegetables and traditional Chinese medicines with a wide range of biological activities. Tyrosinase plays a critical role in the food industry, but recent studies have proposed unexplored aspects of clinical application. Tyrosinase-catalyzed oxidation of four polyphenols as well as its underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the current work, we investigated the kinetic properties of tyrosinase-catalyzed oxidation of the four polyphenols of interest. To measure the unstable o-quinone products, an analytical method using 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) was established. The optimal incubation time, buffer pH, temperature and enzyme concentration for the enzyme activity in the presence of each polyphenol of interest were investigated. Under the final optimized conditions, the kinetics and substrate specificity of four polyphenols were examined. Kinetic data showed that tyrosinase had the greatest substrate affnity to chlorogenic acid compared with its isomers and caffeic acid. The catalytic effciency with chlorogenic acid was 8- to 15-fold higher than that with the other 3 polyphenols. Molecular docking study demonstrated that the tight binding of chlorogenic acid at the peripheral site should be the major reason for the specifcity to chlorogenic acid. In light of this, the rational design of high-affnity inhibitors against tyrosinase may focus on the binding of both the Cu site and peripheral site. This study will supply a basis for the selection of phenolic acids in food industry and health care.

5.
Phytochemistry ; 175: 112374, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315839

RESUMO

Seven undescribed alkaloids, namely fischeramides A and B, 5,6-dimethoxycircumdatin C, 6-hydroxyacetylaszonalenin, 3-methoxyglyantrypine, 9-methoxyfumitremorgin C, and spirotryprostatin M, one undescribed natural product, namely 11-deacetyl pyripyropene A, together with nine known congeners, were isolated from the solid cultures of fungus Neosartorya fischeri, which was separated from a medicinal insect Cryptotympana atrata. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic data, electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Structurally, fischeramides A and B represented a pair of rare geometric isomers of the benzodiazepinedione derivatives with a highly conjugated feature. Fischeramide A showed potential immunosuppressive activity in LPS and anti-CD3/anti-CD28 mAbs activated murine splenocytes proliferation with IC50 values of 7.08 and 6.31 µM, respectively, and also showed anti-inflammatory activity against the lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production with an IC50 value of 25 ± 1 µM. In addition, 5,6-dimethoxycircumdatin C showed remarkable antibacterial activity against ESBL-producing E. coli with an MIC value of 2.0 µg/mL.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Neosartorya , Animais , Aspergillus , Escherichia coli , Insetos , Camundongos
6.
Bioorg Chem ; 99: 103816, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305693

RESUMO

Three previously undescribed compounds, including a meroterpenoid, guignardone T (1), and two ophiobolin-type sesterterpenoids, maydispenoids A and B (2 and 3), along with four known compounds (4-7), were isolated from the phytopathogenic fungus Bipolaris maydis collected from Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl leaves. The structures of all undescribed compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Structurally, maydispenoids A was characterized by a fascinating decahydro-3-oxacycloocta[cd]pentalene fragment. It is notable that the compounds 2 and 3 exhibited potential inhibitory activity in anti-CD3/anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) stimulated murine splenocytes proliferation, with IC50 values of 5.28 and 9.38 µM, respectively, and also suppress the murine splenocytes proliferation activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), with IC50 values of 7.25 and 16.82 µM, respectively. This is the first report of ophiobolin-type sesterterpenoids as immunosuppressor, and may provide new chemical templates for the development of new immunosuppressive drugs for autoimmune disease treatment.

8.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 43(4): 731-735, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238715

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the formation of extracellular amyloid plaques containing the amyloid ß-protein (Aß) within the parenchyma of the brain. Aß is considered to be the key pathogenic factor of AD. Recently, we showed that Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), which regulates blood pressure, is involved in Aß production, and that telmisartan (Telm), which is an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), increased Aß production via AT1R. However, the precise mechanism underlying how AT1R is involved in Aß production is unknown. Interestingly, AT1R, a G protein-coupled receptor, was strongly suggested to be involved in signal transduction by heterodimerization with ß2-adrenergic receptor (ß2-AR), which is also shown to be involved in Aß generation. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to clarify whether the interaction between AT1R and ß2-AR is involved in the regulation of Aß production. To address this, we analyzed whether the increase in Aß production by Telm treatment is affected by ß-AR antagonist using fibroblasts overexpressing amyloid precursor protein (APP). We found that the increase in Aß production by Telm treatment was decreased by the treatment of ß2-AR selective antagonist ICI-118551 more strongly than the treatment of ß1-AR selective antagonists. Furthermore, deficiency of AT1R abolished the effect of ß2-AR antagonist on the stimulation of Aß production caused by Telm. Taken together, the interaction between AT1R and ß2-AR is likely to be involved in Aß production.

9.
Nat Chem ; 12(6): 551-559, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32313237

RESUMO

The generation of molecular chirality in the absence of any molecular chiral inductor is challenging and of fundamental interest for developing a better understanding of homochirality. Here, we show the manipulation of molecular chirality through control of the handedness of helical metal nanostructures (referred to as nanohelices) that are produced by glancing angle deposition onto a substrate that rotates in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction. A prochiral molecule, 2-anthracenecarboxylic acid, is stereoselectively adsorbed on the metal nanohelices as enantiomorphous anti-head-to-head dimers. The dimers show either Si-Si or Re-Re facial stacking depending on the handedness of the nanohelices, which results in a specific enantiopreference during their photoinduced cyclodimerization: a left-handed nanohelix leads to the formation of (+)-cyclodimers, whereas a right-handed one gives (-)-cyclodimers. Density functional theory calculations, in good agreement with the experimental results, point to the enantioselectivity mainly arising from the selective spatial matching of either Si-Si or Re-Re facial stacking at the helical surface; it may also be influenced by chiroplasmonic effects.

10.
J Org Chem ; 85(7): 4973-4980, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118426

RESUMO

Four unusual polyketides possessing three unambiguous chemical architectures were discovered from the fermentation of Penicillium canescens assisted by the one strain-many compounds (OSMAC) strategy and MS2-based molecular networking. Penicanone (1) is the first naturally occurring polyketide characterized by a 6/6/8 tricyclic carbon skeleton incorporating an unusual bicyclo[5.3.1]hendecane core. Penicanesones A-C (2-4) are aromatic polyketide dimers simultaneously featuring inconsistent 6/5/5/6 and 6/6/5/6 heterotetracyclic ring cores. Their plausible biosynthetic pathways and screening of biological activity were described here.

11.
Arch Virol ; 165(4): 923-935, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32128611

RESUMO

Strawberry mild yellow edge virus (SMYEV) is a member of the genus Potexvirus, family Alphaflexiviridae. It is one of the most common pathogenic viruses infecting cultivated strawberries worldwide. In this study, we investigated the genetic diversity of SMYEV in strawberry fields that were severely affected by strawberry decline disease in the eastern Canadian provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Quebec. A total of 134 SMYEV coat protein (CP) gene sequences, representing 85 nucleic acid haplotypes, were identified in 56 field samples. A highly divergent SMYEV population was found in all four provinces, but there was little genetic differentiation among the populations, and moreover, the Canadian SMYEV isolates formed a unique dissimilar, genetically divergent population group when compared to those reported in other countries. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three new SMYEV subclades that consisted mainly of Canadian variants and were composed of 76 sequence haplotypes (76/85, 88%). Mixed infections by different SMYEV variants were observed in 38 samples (38/56, 68%). Evolutionary analysis suggested that the SMYEV strains in eastern Canada possibly originated outside of Canada but adapted to conditions in the region through genetic mutations.


Assuntos
Fragaria/virologia , Variação Genética , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Potexvirus/genética , Canadá , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral , Filogenia , Potexvirus/classificação , Potexvirus/isolamento & purificação
12.
Adv Mater ; 32(17): e1906641, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191372

RESUMO

Development of high-performance carbon dots (CDs) with emission wavelength longer than 660 nm (deep red emission) is critical in deep-tissue bioimaging, yet it is still a major challenge to obtain CDs with both narrow full width at half maximum (FWHM) and high deep red/near-infrared emission yield. Here, deep red emissive carbonized polymer dots (CPDs) with unprecedented FWHM of 20 nm are synthesized. The purified CPDs in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution possess quantum yield (QY) as high as 59% under 413 nm excitation, as well as recorded QY of 31% under 660 nm excitation in the deep red fluorescent window. Detailed characterizations identify that CPDs have unique polymer characteristics, consisting of carbon cores and the shells of polymer chains, and π conjugated system formed with N heterocycles and aromatic rings governs the single photoluminescence (PL) center, which is responsible for high QY in deep red emissive CPDs with narrow FWHM. The CPDs exhibit strong absorption and emission in the deep red light region, low toxicity, and good biocompatibility, making them an efficient probe for both one-photon and two-photon bioimaging. CPDs are rapidly excreted via the kidney system and hepatobiliary system.

13.
Phytochemistry ; 173: 112295, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113065

RESUMO

Four undescribed bioxanthracene derivatives, dongtinganthracenes A-D, along with a previously reported analog, ES-242-3, were obtained from the solid culture broth of the fungus Penicillium sp. DT10, which was isolated from wetland soil obtained from Dongting Lake. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated based on extensive NMR analyses, mass spectroscopic analyses, and ECD calculations. Dongtinganthracene A represents the first 7',8'-seco-bioxanthracene produced via oxidation, and dongtinganthracenes A-D show a much higher degree of oxidation in aromatic rings compared with normal naturally occurring bioxanthracene derivatives. Dongtinganthracenes B and D and ES-242-3 exhibit cytotoxic activity, while dongtinganthracene A shows inhibitory activity against LPS-induced NO production.


Assuntos
Penicillium , Lagos , Estrutura Molecular , Solo , Áreas Alagadas
14.
Bioorg Chem ; 96: 103598, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007721

RESUMO

Sixteen lanostane-type triterpene glycosides including eight new ones, named lyonicarposides A-H (1-8), were isolated from the flowers of Lyonia ovalifolia var. hebecarpa (Franch. ex F.B. Forbes & Hemsl.) Chun (Ericaceae). The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated by the comprehensive spectroscopic techniques and chemical methods. The Mo2(OAc)4-induced electronic circular dichroism method was used to determine the absolute configurations of C-24 in lyonicarposides A (1), C (3), and E (5). This is the first phytochemical study on the flowers of L. ovalifolia var. hebecarpa. All the isolates were evaluated for their antiproliferative activities against SMMC-7721, HL-60, SW480, MCF-7, and A-549 cell lines. Lyonicarposides A (1) and B (2) showed moderate antiproliferative activities against five cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 12.39 to 28.71 µM. Lyonicarposides C (3) and G (7) and lyonifoloside M (12) selectively inhibited the proliferation of HL-60 and MCF-7 cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 13.03 to 17.71 µM. Interestingly, lyonifoloside L (13) selectively inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cell line with an IC50 value of 16.27 µM. Their structure-activity-relationships were discussed.

15.
Cancer Med ; 9(7): 2414-2426, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048471

RESUMO

Tamoxifen-based hormone therapy is central for the treatment of estrogen receptor positive (ER+ ) breast cancer. However, the acquired tamoxifen resistance, typically co-exists with hypoxia, remains a major challenge. We aimed to develop a non-invasive, targeted ultrasound imaging approach to dynamically monitory of tamoxifen resistance. After we assessed acquired tamoxifen resistance in 235 breast cancer patients and a list of breast cancer cell lines, we developed poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-carbonic anhydrase IX mono antibody nanobubbles (PLGA-PEG-mAbCAIX NBs) to detect hypoxic breast cancer cells upon exposure of tamoxifen in nude mice. We demonstrate that carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) expression is associated with breast cancer local recurrence and tamoxifen resistance both in clinical and cellular models. We find that CAIX overexpression increases tamoxifen tolerance in MCF-7 cells and predicts early tamoxifen resistance along with an oscillating pattern in intracellular ATP level in vitro. PLGA-PEG-mAbCAIX NBs are able to dynamically detect tamoxifen-induced hypoxia and tamoxifen resistance in vivo. CAIX-conjugated NBs with noninvasive ultrasound imaging is powerful for dynamically monitoring hypoxic microenvironment in ER+ breast cancer with tamoxifen resistance.

16.
Life Sci ; 245: 117344, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981634

RESUMO

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) play a crucial role in many major diseases, such as diabetes and atherosclerosis. AGE accumulation in the body is generally considered a consequence of hyperglycaemia. However, recent studies have shown that AGEs may also be an important cause of the initial pathogenesis of diabetes and atherosclerosis. The objective of the present review is to provide an update on the AGE-induced mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of glucose and lipid metabolism, even though the unique mechanisms involved in these diseases are not well understood. AGE precursors (methylglyoxal) and AGE receptors have been demonstrated in animal models to mediate insulin resistance and lipid metabolism disorders. Although we have not yet achieved a complete understanding of the role of AGEs, emerging therapeutic interventions targeting AGE reduction and AGE-RAGE signalling have yielded some beneficial clinical outcomes. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the utility and mechanism of circulating and tissue AGEs to support the identification of efficient and specific interventions.


Assuntos
Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Glicolipídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos
17.
Pharmacol Res ; 152: 104628, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904506

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are more aggressive due to lacking receptors for hormone therapy and maintaining stemness features in cancer cells. Herein we found long non-coding RNA CCAT2 overexpressed specially in TNBC, and in breast cancer stem cells (BCSC) as well. Enforced overexpression and targeted knockdown demonstrated the oncogenic function of CCAT2 both in vitro and in vivo. CCAT2 promoted the expression of stemness markers including OCT4, Nanog and KLF4, increased mammosphere formation and induced ALDH+ cancer stem cell population in TNBC. A chromosomally adjacent gene OCT4-PG1, as a pseudogene of OCT4, was upregulated by CCAT2, and positively regulated the stemness features of TNBC cells. miR-205 was identified as a target gene of CCAT2 in TNBC. Point-mutation in CCAT2 impaired the sponge inhibition of miR-205. Overexpression of miR-205 rescued the oncogenic phenotypes induced by CCAT2. In addition, Notch2, as a target gene of miR-205, was downregulated by miR-205 and upregulated by CCAT2 in TNBC. Collectively, the current study revealed a novel function of CCAT2 in promoting tumor initiation and progression in TNBC through upregulating OCT4-PG1 expression and activating Notch signaling. These findings not only demonstrated a lncRNA-based therapeutic strategy in treatment of TNBC, but also added a node to the regulatory network of CCAT2 that controls aggressiveness of breast cancer stem cells.

18.
Org Lett ; 22(3): 1071-1075, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939304

RESUMO

Incarnolides A (1) and B (2), two schinortriterpenoids (SNTs) featuring a tricyclo[9.2.1.02,8]tetradecane-bridged system, together with two biosynthetically related known SNTs, lancifonins A (3) and C (4), were isolated from the stems of Schisandra incarnata. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses, and the absolute configurations were assigned by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and electronic circular dichroism calculation. The hypothetical biogenetic pathway of 1 and 2 was postulated. Compound 1 exhibited antiviral and neuroprotective activities.

19.
Small ; 16(6): e1906048, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961482

RESUMO

Metallic chiral nanoparticles (CNPs) with a nominal helical pitch (P) of sub-10 nm contain inherent chirality and are promisingly applied to diverse prominent enantiomer-related applications. However, the sub-wavelength P physically results in weak optical activity (OA) to prohibit the development of these applications. Herein, a facile method to amplify the CNPs' OA by alloying the host CNPs with metals through a three-step layer-by-layer glancing angle deposition (GLAD) method is devised. Promoted by the GLAD-induced heating effect, the solute metallic atoms diffuse into the host CNPs to create binary alloy CNPs. Chiral alloying not only induces the plasmonic OA of the diffused solute and the created alloys but also amplifies that of the host CNPs, generally occurring for alloying Ag CNPs with diverse metals (including Cu, Au, Al, and Fe) and alloying Cu CNPs with Ag. Furthermore, the chiral alloying leads to an enhancement of refractive index sensitivity of the CNPs. The alloy CNPs with amplified plasmonic OA pave the way for potentially developing important chirality-related applications in the fields of heterogeneous asymmetric catalysis, enantiodifferentiation, enantioseparation, biosensing, and bioimaging.

20.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 72(2): 259-270, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729764

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our present study focused on assessing whether Sinomenine (SIN) could attenuate sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI). METHODS: The mice were conditioned with SIN 1 h before intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Lung wet/dry (W/D) ratio, inflammatory level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and inflammatory cytokines production were detected. The expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (Nrf2) and autophagy-related proteins were detected by Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. In addition, the RAW264.7 cells were treated with SIN 1 h before treatment with LPS. Inflammatory cytokines, iNOS and COX2 were detected. The expression of Nrf2 and autophagy-related proteins were explored by Western blot analysis. KEY FINDINGS: Experiments in vivo and in vitro discovered that LPS significantly increased the degree of injury, inflammatory cytokines production and oxidative stress. However, the increase was significantly inhibited by treatment of SIN. In addition, SIN was found to upregulate the expression of Nrf2 and autophagy-related proteins both in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggested that SIN could attenuate septic-associated ALI effectively, probably due to the inhibition of inflammation and oxidative stress through Nrf2 and autophagy pathways.

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