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1.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 6630343, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659638

RESUMO

Renal tubular epithelial cell damage is the basis for the formation of kidney stones. Oxalate can induce human proximal tubular (HK-2) cells to undergo autophagy and ferroptosis. The present study was aimed at investigating whether the ferroptosis of HK-2 cells induced by oxalate is caused by the excessive activation of autophagy. We treated HK-2 cells with 2 mmol/L of oxalate to establish a kidney stone model. First, we tested the degree of oxidative damage and the level of autophagy and ferroptosis in the control group and the oxalate intervention group. We then knocked down and overexpressed the BECN1 gene and knocked down the NCOA4 gene in HK-2 cells, followed by redetection of the above indicators. We confirmed that oxalate could induce autophagy and ferroptosis in HK-2 cells. Moreover, after oxalate treatment, overexpression of the BENC1 gene increased cell oxidative damage and ferroptosis. In addition, knockdown of NCOA4 reversed the effect of oxalate-induced ferroptosis in HK-2 cells. Our results show that the effects of oxalate on the ferroptosis of HK-2 cells are caused by the activation of autophagy, and knockdown of the NCOA4 could ameliorate this effect.

2.
Adv Mater ; : e2106732, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636085

RESUMO

Top-performance organic solar cells (OSCs) consisting of conjugated polymer donors and nonfullerene small molecule acceptors (NF-SMAs) deliver rapid increases in efficiencies. Nevertheless, many of the polymer donors exhibit high stiffness and small molecule acceptors are very brittle, which limit their applications in wearable devices. Here, a simple and effective strategy is reported to improve the stretchability and reduce the stiffness of high-efficiency polymer:NF-SMA blends and simultaneously maintain the high efficiency by incorporating a low-cost commercial thermoplastic elastomer, polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polystyrene (SEBS). The microstructure, mechanical properties, and photovoltaic performance of PM6:N3 with varied SEBS contents and the molecular weight dependence of SEBS on microstructure and mechanical properties are thoroughly characterized. This strategy for mechanical performance improvement exhibits excellent applicability in some other OSC blend systems, e.g., PBQx-TF:eC9-2Cl and PBDB-T:ITIC. More crucially, the elastic modulus of such complex ternary blends can be nicely predicted by a mechanical model. Therefore, incorporating thermoplastic elastomers is a widely applicable and cost-effective strategy to improve mechanical properties of nonfullerene OSCs and beyond.

3.
Curr Microbiol ; 78(10): 3791-3797, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383131

RESUMO

Strain HX-7-19T was isolated from the activated sludge collected from an abandoned herbicide manufacturing plant in Kunshan, China. Cells were Gram-reaction-negative, rod-shaped, and non-motile. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene indicated that strain HX-7-19T formed a clade with Rhodobacter blasticus CGMCC 1.3365T (96.3% sequence similarity). The average nucleotide identity (ANI) and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) values between strain HX-7-19T and R. blasticus CGMCC 1.3365T were 76.2% and 20.3%, respectively. The genomic DNA G + C content of strain HX-7-19T was 65.9%. The major fatty acids (> 10% of the total fatty acids) were C18:1 ω7c and C18:1 ω7c 11-methyl. The major respiratory quinone was quinone Q-10. The major polar lipid profile consists of phosphatidylglycerol (PG), diphosphatidyl-glycerol (DPG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and phosphatidylcholine (PC). Photosynthesis pigments bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids were formed and photosynthesis genes pufL and pufM were detected. On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic evidences, strain HX-7-19T is considered as a novel species in the genus Rhodobacter, for which the name Rhodobacter kunshanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HX-7-19T (= KCTC 72471T = CCTCC AB 2020148T).


Assuntos
Fosfolipídeos , Esgotos , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rhodobacter/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 8849415, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337056

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant tumor of the digestive system, and its early asymptomatic characteristic increases the difficulty of diagnosis and treatment. This study is aimed at obtaining some novel biomarkers with diagnostic and prognostic meaning and may find out potential therapeutic targets for HCC. We screen differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from the HCC gene expression profile GSE14520 using GEO2R. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis were conducted by using the clusterProfiler software while a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was performed based on the STRING database. Then, prognosis analysis of hub genes was conducted using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was utilized to further verify the expression of hub genes and explore the correlation between gene expression and clinicopathological parameters. A total of 1053 DEGs were captured, containing 497 upregulated genes and 556 downregulated genes. GO and KEGG analysis indicated that the downregulated DEGs were mainly enriched in the fatty acid catabolic process while upregulated DEGs were primarily enriched in the cell cycle. Simultaneously, ten hub genes (CYP3A4, UGT1A6, AOX1, UGT1A4, UGT2B15, CDK1, CCNB1, MAD2L1, CCNB2, and CDC20) were identified by the PPI network. Five prognosis-related hub genes (CYP3A4, CDK1, CCNB1, MAD2L1, and CDC20) were uncovered by the survival analysis based on TCGA database. The ten hub genes were further validated by qRT-PCR using samples obtained from our hospital. The prognosis-related hub genes such as CYP3A4, CDK1, CCNB1, MAD2L1, and CDC20 could be considered potential diagnosis biomarkers and prognosis targets for HCC. We also use Oncomine for further verification, and we found CCNB1, CCNB2, CDK1, and CYP3A4 which were highly expressed in HCC. Meanwhile, CCNB1, CCNB2, and CDK1 are highly expressed in almost all cancer types, which may play an important role in cancer. Still, further functional study should be conducted to explore the underlying mechanism and biological effect in the near future.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Biologia Computacional , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise de Sobrevida , Transcriptoma , Regulação para Cima/genética
5.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 114(10): 1541-1549, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34401954

RESUMO

An obligate anaerobic bacterial BAD-10 T was isolated from anaerobic acetochlor-degrading sludge. The strain was Gram-stain negative, curved rod-shaped, non-motile and non-spore-forming. Growth was observed in PYT medium at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.5), at 25-47 °C (37 °C) and with 0-1.0% NaCl (w/v, 0%). Strain BAD-10 T could degrade acetochlor. The major fermentation products from peptone-yeast (PY) medium were acetate and butyrate. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0 FAME, anteiso-C15:0 FAME and C16:0 FAME. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the strain BAD-10 T showed closest affiliation to Proteiniclasticum ruminis D3RC-2 T, with a sequence similarity of 97.6%. Genome sequencing revealed a genome size of 2,983,986 bp, a G + C content of 51.4 mol% and protein-coding genes of 3,102. The average nucleotide identity and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain BAD-10 T and Proteiniclasticum ruminis D3RC-2 T were 71.0% and 20.4%, respectively, which were below the standard thresholds for species differentiation. On the basis of phenotypic, physiological and phylogenetic evidence, strain BAD-10 T represents a novel species in the genus Proteiniclasticum, for which the name Proteiniclasticum sediminis sp. nov. is proposed. Strain BAD-10 T (= CCTCC AB 2021091 T = KCTC 25288 T) is the type strain of the proposed novel species.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Clostridiaceae , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
6.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 114(10): 1609-1617, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410564

RESUMO

An obligate anaerobic bacterial strain (BAD-6T) capable of degrading acetochlor and butachlor was isolated from an anaerobic acetochlor-degrading reactor. Cells were Gram-stain positive, straight to gently curved rods with flagella. The major fermentation products in peptone-yeast broth were acetate and butyrate. The optimum temperature and pH for growth was 30 °C and 7.2-7.5, respectively. The major cellular fatty acids (> 10%) were C14:0 FAME, C16:0 FAME and cyc-9,10-C19:0 DMA. Genome sequencing revealed a genome size of 4.80 Mb, a G + C content of 43.6 mol% and 4741 protein-coding genes. The most closely related described species on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences was Anaerovorax odorimutans NorPutT in the order Clostridiales of the class Clostridia with sequence similarity of 94.9%. The nucleotide identity (ANI) value and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) between the genomes of strain BAD-6T and Ana. odorimutans NorPutT were 70.9% and 15.9%, respectively. Based on the distinct differences in phylogenetic and phenotypic characteristics between strain BAD-6T and related species, Sinanaerobacter chloroacetimidivorans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate the strain. Strain BAD-6T is the type strain (= CCTCC AB 2021092T = KCTC 25290T).


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Clostridiales , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
7.
Bioinformatics ; 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320625

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Mass cytometry (Cytometry by time-of-flight, CyTOF) is a single-cell technology that is able to quantify multiplex biomarker expressions and is commonly used in basic life science and translational research. However, the widely used Gadolinium (Gd) based contrast agents (GBCAs) in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanning in clinical practice can lead to signal contamination on the Gd channels in the CyTOF analysis. This Gd contamination greatly affects the characterization of the real signal from Gd-isotope-conjugated antibodies, severely impairing the CyTOF data quality and ruining downstream single-cell data interpretation. RESULTS: We first in-depth characterized the signals of Gd isotopes from a control sample that was not stained with Gd-labeled antibodies but was contaminated by Gd isotopes from GBCAs, and revealed the collinear intensity relationship across Gd contamination signals. We also found that the intensity ratios of detected Gd contamination signals to the reference Gd signal were highly correlated with the natural abundance ratios of corresponding Gd isotopes. We then developed a computational method named by GdClean to remove the Gd contamination signal at the single-cell level in the CyTOF data. We further demonstrated that the GdClean effectively cleaned up the Gd contamination signal while preserving the real Gd-labeled antibodies signal in Gd channels. All of these shed lights on the promising applications of the GdClean method in pre-processing CyTOF datasets for revealing the true single-cell information. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

8.
Curr Biol ; 31(17): 3848-3860.e8, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314676

RESUMO

The Great Himalayan Mountains and their foothills are believed to be the place of origin and development of many plant species. The genetic basis of adaptation to high plateaus is a fascinating topic that is poorly understood at the population level. We comprehensively collected and sequenced 377 accessions of Prunus germplasm along altitude gradients ranging from 2,067 to 4,492 m in the Himalayas. We de novo assembled three high-quality genomes of Tibetan Prunus species. A comparative analysis of Prunus genomes indicated a remarkable expansion of the SINE retrotransposons occurred in the genomes of Tibetan species. We observed genetic differentiation between Tibetan peaches from high and low altitudes and that genes associated with light stress signaling, especially UV stress signaling, were enriched in the differentiated regions. By profiling the metabolomes of Tibetan peach fruit, we determined 379 metabolites had significant genetic correlations with altitudes and that in particular phenylpropanoids were positively correlated with altitudes. We identified 62 Tibetan peach-specific SINEs that colocalized with metabolites differentially accumualted in Tibetan relative to cultivated peach. We demonstrated that two SINEs were inserted in a locus controlling the accumulation of 3-O-feruloyl quinic acid. SINE1 was specific to Tibetan peach. SINE2 was predominant in high altitudes and associated with the accumulation of 3-O-feruloyl quinic acid. These genomic and metabolic data for Prunus populations native to the Himalayan region indicate that the expansion of SINE retrotransposons helped Tibetan Prunus species adapt to the harsh environment of the Himalayan plateau by promoting the accumulation of beneficial metabolites.

9.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(18): e0092321, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232707

RESUMO

Cotinine is a stable toxic contaminant, produced as a by-product of smoking. It is of emerging concern due to its global distribution in aquatic environments. Microorganisms have the potential to degrade cotinine; however, the genetic mechanisms of this process are unknown. Nocardioides sp. strain JQ2195 is a pure-culture strain that has been reported to degrade cotinine at micropollutant concentrations. This strain utilizes cotinine as its sole carbon and nitrogen source. In this study, a 50-kb gene cluster (designated cot), involved in cotinine degradation, was predicted based on genomic and transcriptomic analyses. A novel three-component cotinine hydroxylase gene (designated cotA1A2A3), which initiated cotinine catabolism, was identified and characterized. CotA from Shinella sp. strain HZN7 was heterologously expressed and purified and was shown to convert cotinine into 6-hydroxycotinine. H218O-labeling and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis confirmed that the hydroxyl group incorporated into 6-hydroxycotinine was derived from water. This study provides new molecular insights into the microbial metabolism of heterocyclic chemical pollutants. IMPORTANCE In the human body, cotinine is the major metabolite of nicotine, and 10 to 15% of generated cotinine is excreted in urine. Cotinine is a structural analogue of nicotine and is much more stable than nicotine. Increased tobacco consumption has led to high environmental concentrations of cotinine, which may have detrimental effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health. Nocardioides sp. strain JQ2195 is a unique cotinine-degrading bacterium. However, the underlying genetic and biochemical foundations of cotinine degradation are still unknown. In this study, a 50-kb gene cluster (designated cot) was identified by genomic and transcriptomic analyses as being involved in the degradation of cotinine. A novel three-component cotinine hydroxylase gene (designated cotA1A2A3) catalyzed cotinine to 6-hydroxy-cotinine. This study provides new molecular insights into the microbial degradation and enzymatic transformation of cotinine.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Cotinina/metabolismo , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Nocardioides/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biotransformação , Cotinina/análogos & derivados , Genoma Bacteriano , Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética , Nocardioides/genética , Transcriptoma , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia
10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 697412, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34177965

RESUMO

The tumor microenvironment (TME) is an ecosystem that contains various cell types, including cancer cells, immune cells, stromal cells, and many others. In the TME, cancer cells aggressively proliferate, evolve, transmigrate to the circulation system and other organs, and frequently communicate with adjacent immune cells to suppress local tumor immunity. It is essential to delineate this ecosystem's complex cellular compositions and their dynamic intercellular interactions to understand cancer biology and tumor immunology and to benefit tumor immunotherapy. But technically, this is extremely challenging due to the high complexities of the TME. The rapid developments of single-cell techniques provide us powerful means to systemically profile the multiple omics status of the TME at a single-cell resolution, shedding light on the pathogenic mechanisms of cancers and dysfunctions of tumor immunity in an unprecedently resolution. Furthermore, more advanced techniques have been developed to simultaneously characterize multi-omics and even spatial information at the single-cell level, helping us reveal the phenotypes and functionalities of disease-specific cell populations more comprehensively. Meanwhile, the connections between single-cell data and clinical characteristics are also intensively interrogated to achieve better clinical diagnosis and prognosis. In this review, we summarize recent progress in single-cell techniques, discuss their technical advantages, limitations, and applications, particularly in tumor biology and immunology, aiming to promote the research of cancer pathogenesis, clinically relevant cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and immunotherapy design with the help of single-cell techniques.

11.
Adv Mater ; 33(29): e2008115, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085736

RESUMO

Lead chalcogenide colloidal quantum dot solar cells (CQDSCs) have received considerable attention due to their broad and tunable absorption and high stability. Presently, lead chalcogenide CQDSC has achieved a power conversion efficiency of ≈14%. However, the state-of-the-art lead chalcogenide CQDSC still has an open-circuit voltage (Voc ) loss of ≈0.45 V, which is significantly higher than those of c-Si and perovskite solar cells. Such high Voc loss severely limits the performance improvement and commercialization of lead chalcogenide CQDSCs. In this review, the Voc loss is first analyzed via detailed balance theory and the origin of Voc loss from both solar absorber and interface is summarized. Subsequently, various strategies for improving the Voc from the solar absorber, including the passivation strategies during the synthesis and ligand exchange are overviewed. The great impact of the ligand exchange process on CQD passivation is highlighted and the corresponding strategies to further reduce the Voc loss are summarized. Finally, various strategies are discussed to reduce interface Voc loss from charge transport layers. More importantly, the great potential of achieving performance breakthroughs via various organic hole transport layers is highlighted and the existing challenges toward commercialization are discussed.

12.
Environ Res ; 200: 111389, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089743

RESUMO

Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes among offspring. Although DNA methylation is considered one of the underlying causes of these associations, few studies have focused on the association between prenatal BPA exposure and DNA methylation in the human placenta. In this study, we examined the association between prenatal BPA exposure and DNA methylation in the placenta of 146 mother-infant pairs from the Shanghai-Minhang Birth Cohort Study. BPA concentrations in maternal urine samples were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Six placenta samples were selected for whole-genome methylation analysis using Infinium Human Methylation 450K Beadchip, followed by pyrosequencing-based methylation analysis of three selected genes in 146 placentas. Among 282 differentially methylated CpGs, representing 208 genes, 127 were hypermethylated, and 155 were hypomethylated in the BPA exposure group. Prenatal BPA exposure was associated with a higher methylation level of HLA-DRB6 in individuals as determined using pyrosequencing, which was consistent with the whole-genome methylation analysis results. Compared with that subjects with low BPA exposure, the methylation level (ln-transformed) of HLA-DRB6 in placentas from those with high BPA exposure increased by 0.29% (95% confidence interval[CI]: 0.02%, 0.56%) at the CpG2 site, and the average methylation level (ln-transformed) of the three CpG sites increased by 0.30% (95%CI: -0.03%, 0.63%). Our findings provide evidence that prenatal BPA exposure might alter DNA methylation levels in the placenta.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , China , Estudos de Coortes , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Materna , Fenóis , Placenta , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética
13.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(10): 3478-3480, 2021 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114926

RESUMO

Vaccines are urgently needed to control the COVID-19 pandemic. To gradually increase the vaccination rate among residents, temporary vaccination clinic for COVID-19 plays an important role. It should be located in an area with convenient transportation and concentrated population. Functional zones including waiting and inquiry, registration and notification, injection, observation and emergency room should be established. All vaccine recipients' information should be uploaded to the national immunization information system. Medical staff at the temporary vaccination clinic should be professionally trained. A cautious disinfection and wiping are essential for the temporary vaccination clinic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2623, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976198

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 constitutes a global public health crisis with enormous economic consequences. Monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 can provide an important treatment option to fight COVID-19, especially for the most vulnerable populations. In this work, potent antibodies binding to SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein were identified from COVID-19 convalescent patients. Among them, P4A1 interacts directly with and covers majority of the Receptor Binding Motif of the Spike Receptor-Binding Domain, shown by high-resolution complex structure analysis. We further demonstrate the binding and neutralizing activities of P4A1 against wild type and mutant Spike proteins or pseudoviruses. P4A1 was subsequently engineered to reduce the potential risk for Antibody-Dependent Enhancement of infection and to extend its half-life. The engineered antibody exhibits an optimized pharmacokinetic and safety profile, and it results in complete viral clearance in a rhesus monkey model of COVID-19 following a single injection. These data suggest its potential against SARS-CoV-2 related diseases.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/metabolismo , Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , Especificidade de Anticorpos/imunologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Cultivadas , Chlorocebus aethiops , Feminino , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Mutação , Pandemias , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Células Vero
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2846, 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990597

RESUMO

We propose a new type of spin-valley locking (SVL), named C-paired SVL, in antiferromagnetic systems, which directly connects the spin/valley space with the real space, and hence enables both static and dynamical controls of spin and valley to realize a multifunctional antiferromagnetic material. The new emergent quantum degree of freedom in the C-paired SVL is comprised of spin-polarized valleys related by a crystal symmetry instead of the time-reversal symmetry. Thus, both spin and valley can be accessed by simply breaking the corresponding crystal symmetry. Typically, one can use a strain field to induce a large net valley polarization/magnetization and use a charge current to generate a large noncollinear spin current. We predict the realization of the C-paired SVL in monolayer V2Se2O, which indeed exhibits giant piezomagnetism and can generate a large transverse spin current. Our findings provide unprecedented opportunities to integrate various controls of spin and valley with nonvolatile information storage in a single material, which is highly desirable for versatile fundamental research and device applications.

16.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2021: 8856048, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859966

RESUMO

Currently, endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) monotherapy is the standard therapy for managing esophageal variceal hemorrhage. Patients generally need several sessions of endoscopy to achieve optimal variceal ablation, and the varices can recur afterward. Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) is an older technique, associated with certain complications. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of EVL alone versus combined EVL and EIS in the treatment of esophageal varices. This retrospective study included 84 patients, of which 40 patients were treated with EVL monotherapy and 44 patients were treated with combined EVL + EIS. The main outcomes were rebleeding rates, recurrence at six months, number of treatment sessions, length of hospital stay, cost of hospitalization, and procedural complications. At six months, the rebleeding rate and recurrence were significantly lower in the EVL + EIS group compared to the EVL group (2.3% versus 15.0%; and 9.1% versus 27.5%, respectively). The number of treatment sessions, length of hospital stay, and cost of hospitalization were significantly lower in the EVL + EIS group compared to those in the EVL group (2.3 ± 0.6 versus 3.2 ± 0.8 times; 14.5 ± 3.4 versus 23.5 ± 5.9 days; and 23918.6 ± 4220.4 versus 26165.2 ± 4765.1 renminbi, respectively). Chest pain was significantly lower in the EVL + EIS group compared to that in the EVL group (15.9% versus 45.0%). There were no statistically significant differences in the presence of fever or esophageal stricture in both groups. In conclusion, combined EVL + EIS showed less rebleeding rates and recurrence at six months and less chest pain and was more cost effective compared to EVL alone in the treatment of gastroesophageal varices.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/terapia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Humanos , Ligadura , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escleroterapia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(14): e25449, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gallbladder neuroendocrine carcinoma (GB-NEC) is rare and there are few reports at present. We sought to review the current knowledge of GB-NEC and provide recommendations for clinical management. METHODS: A systemic literature research was conducted in the websites of Pubmed, Medline, Web of Science, CNKI, Wanfang Data using the keywords including gallbladder combined with neuroendocrine carcinoma or neuroendocrine tumor or neuroendocrine neoplasm. Two reviewers independently screened the articles by reading the title, abstract and full-text. RESULTS: In computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination, a well-defined margin, gallbladder replacing type with larger hepatic and lymphatic metastases could be helpful for differential diagnosis of GB-NEC and gallbladder adenocarcinoma (GB-ADC). Older age, unmarried status, large tumor size (>5 cm), positive margins, and distant Surveillance, Epidemiology and End result (SEER) stage are independently associated with poor survival. Surgical resection remains as the preferred and primary treatment. The potential survival benefit of lymphadenectomy for patients remains controversial. Platinum-based postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy may improve the survival. The efficacy of other treatments including immunotherapy, targeted therapy and somatostatin analogue needs further investigation. CONCLUSION: Typical imaging features could be helpful for preoperative diagnosis. Age, margin status, tumor size, marital status, histopathologic subtype and SEER stage may be independent predictors for the survival. Remarkable advances regarding the treatment for GB-NEC have been achieved in recent years. Further studies are needed to investigate the survival benefit of lymphadenectomy for patients with GB-NEC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/terapia , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/terapia , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/mortalidade , Terapia Combinada , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/mortalidade , Humanos , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
Am J Surg ; 222(4): 751-758, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is common among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) in areas with endemic hepatitis B virus infection. We sought to characterize clinical features and long-term outcomes among AYAs versus older adults (OAs) who underwent HCC resection. METHODS: From a Chinese multicenter database, patients were categorized as AYA (aged 13-39 years) versus OA (aged ≥40 years). Patient clinical features, perioperative outcomes, overall survival (OS) and time-to-recurrence (TTR) were compared. Multivariable Cox-regression analyses were performed to identify the impact of age on OS and TTR. RESULTS: Among 1952 patients, 354(22.2%) were AYAs. AYAs were less likely to have cirrhosis yet were likely to have advanced tumor pathological characteristics than OAs. Postoperative morbidity and mortality were comparable. Compared with OAs, AYAs had a comparable OS but a decreased TTR. Multivariable analyses identified that young age (<40 years) was independently associated with poorer TTR. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with OAs, AYAs had a higher incidence of recurrence following liver resection among patients with HCC, suggesting that enhanced surveillance for postoperative recurrence may be required among AYAs.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
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