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1.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 394: 114953, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165127

RESUMO

Exercise training is one of the major non-pharmacological treatments for hypertension. However, the central mechanism by which exercise training attenuates the hypertensive responses remains unclear. Irisin is a muscle-secreted cytokine derived from fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5) that will be released into the circulation during exercise. We hypothesized that irisin may play a role in the blood pressure regulation by exercise. To examine the hypothesis, our study investigated the effect of irisin on hypertension and its central mechanism. The study was performed in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. We found that intravenous injection of irisin effectively reduced blood pressure, plasma norepinephrine, paraventricular nucleus (PVN) levels of neuronal activation, oxidative stress and inflammation in SHRs. Moreover, irisin activated nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and restored the imbalance of neurotransmitters in the PVN. Our study also found PVN knockdown of Nrf2 abolished the protective effects of irisin on hypertension. These findings demonstrate irisin can improve hypertension via Nrf2-mediated antioxidant in the PVN.

2.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 193(1): 14-22, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847765

RESUMO

Patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis (HD) are known to have abnormal blood concentrations of antioxidant minerals; concurrent oxidative stress can contribute to increased vascular calcification. This study aims to evaluate the associations between circulating antioxidant minerals and clinical biomarkers of vascular calcification in HD patients. Blood biochemical parameters, antioxidant minerals (selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and magnesium (Mg)), and several promoters and inhibitors of calcification (matrix Gla protein (MGP), fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and -9), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1 and -2)) were determined in HD patients (n = 62) and age- and sex-matched healthy individuals (n = 30). Compared with healthy subjects, HD patients had significantly lower plasma concentrations of Se and Zn, increased Cu and Mg, and higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory markers (Cu/Zn ratios, malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and C-reactive protein (CRP)). We observed that HD patients had significantly lower concentrations of MGP and higher levels of FGF-23, MMP-2 and -9, TIMP-1 and -2, and MMP-2/TIMP-2 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratios. We also observed significant relationships between the concentrations of these minerals and calcification biomarkers in HD patients. These results suggest that changes in the homeostasis of antioxidant minerals (Se, Zn, Cu, and Mg) may contribute to the effects of oxidative stress and inflammatory status, thereby participating in the mechanism for accelerated vascular calcification in patients undergoing long-term HD.

3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2047: 363-375, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552665

RESUMO

The dynamic expression pattern analysis provides the primary information of gene function. Differences of the RNA and/or protein location will provide valuable information for gene expression regulation. Generally, in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) are two main techniques to visualize the locations of gene transcripts and protein products in situ, respectively. Here we describe the protocol for the whole brain dissection, the in situ hybridization, and the immunostaining of the developing Xenopus brain sections. Additionally, we point out the modification of in situ hybridization for microRNA expression detection.

4.
Nutrition ; 69: 110554, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536856

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Indoxyl sulfate (IS), a uremic toxin, has been shown to promote the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of human proximal tubular cells and to accelerate the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Despite the well-known protective role of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2 D3] in EMT, the effect of 1,25(OH)2 D3 on IS-induced EMT in human proximal tubular epithelial cells and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether IS (0-1 mM) dose-dependently inhibited the protein expression of E-cadherin and increased the protein expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, N-cadherin, and fibronectin. METHODS: This study investigated the molecular mechanism by which 1,25(OH)2 D3 attenuates IS-induced EMT. HK-2 human renal tubular epithelial cells was used as the study model, and the MTT assay, Western Blotting, siRNA knockdown technique were used to explore the effects of 1,25(OH)2 D3 on EMT in the presence of IS. RESULTS: Pretreatment with 1,25(OH)2 D3 inhibited the IS-induced EMT-associated protein expression in HK-2 cells. IS induced the phosphorylation of Akt (S473) and ß-catenin (S552) and subsequently increased the nuclear accumulation of ß-catenin. Pretreatment with 1,25(OH)2 D3 and LY294002 (phosphoinositide 3-kinase [PIK3] inhibitor) significantly inhibited the IS-induced phosphorylation of Akt and ß-catenin, nuclear ß-catenin accumulation, and EMT-associated protein expression. CONCLUSIONS: Results from the present study revealed that the anti-EMT effect of 1,25(OH)2 D3 is likely through inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/ß-catenin pathway, which leads to down-regulation of IS-driven EMT-associated protein expression in HK-2 human renal tubular epithelial cells.

5.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 303(3): 527-543, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883312

RESUMO

Analysis of gene expression has the potential to assist in the understanding of multiple cellular processes including proliferation, cell-fate specification, senesence, and activity in both healthy and disease states. Zebrafish model has been increasingly used to understand the process of hearing and the development of the vertebrate auditory system. Within the zebrafish inner ear, there are three otolith organs, each containing a sensory macula of hair cells. The saccular macula is primarily involved in hearing, the utricular macula is primarily involved in balance and the function of the lagenar macula is not completely understood. The goal of this study is to understand the transcriptional differences in the sensory macula associated with different otolith organs with the intention of understanding the genetic mechanisms responsible for the distinct role each organ plays in sensory perception. The sensory maculae of the saccule, utricle, and lagena were dissected out of adult Et(krt4:GFP)sqet4 zebrafish expressing green fluorescent protein in hair cells for transcriptional analysis. The total RNAs of the maculae were isolated and analyzed by RNA GeneChip microarray. Several of the differentially expressed genes are known to be involved in deafness, otolith development and balance. Gene expression among these otolith organs was very well conserved with less than 10% of genes showing differential expression. Data from this study will help to elucidate which genes are involved in hearing and balance. Furthermore, the findings of this study will assist in the development of the zebrafish model for human hearing and balance disorders. Anat Rec, 303:527-543, 2020. © 2019 American Association for Anatomy.

6.
Clin Exp Med ; 20(1): 109-119, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845129

RESUMO

Carboxyl terminus of Hsc-70-interacting protein (CHIP), as U-box-type ubiquitin ligase, connects the chaperone and proteasome systems and plays a pivotal role in maintaining protein homeostasis in the cytoplasm. CHIP induces the ubiquitination and degradation of diverse oncogenic substrate proteins and therefore involves in the progression of tumorigenesis. In this study, the CHIP expression was examined in different human breast cancer cell lines and a group of breast cancer tissues. We found, for the first time, that CHIP expression was correlated with the molecular subtyping of breast cancer. CHIP was least expressed in the base-like subtype of breast cancer, which are triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) breast cancer predominantly. Accordingly, CHIP expression was evidently decreased in the TNBC MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. Enforced induction of CHIP in the MDA-MB-231 cells exerted no obvious influences on cellular growth and cell cycle. The apoptotic and proliferation cells in hCHIP cells were both reduced compared to the ctrl cells. The mRNA and protein expressions of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL were markedly increased in the hCHIP cells compared to that of the ctrl cells. The expression of RelA was significantly reduced in the nuclear extract in hCHIP cells compared to that in the ctrl cells. The protein expressions of IKKß were markedly decreased in the hCHIP cells compared to the ctrl cells. The reduced cellular proliferation was largely due to the attenuated IKKß-p65/NF-κB activity. Meanwhile, the invasion ability but not the migration ability was diminished when CHIP was overexpressed in the MDA-MB-231 cells. The activity of MMP2 but not MMP9 was significantly decreased in the hCHIP cells compared to the ctrl cells. Taken together, these observations here provide functional evidence for CHIP behaved as a tumor suppressor in the TNBC breast cancer cells. CHIP influenced diverse biological aspects of the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Importantly, CHIP expression is a useful indicator of the molecular subtyping of breast cancer.

7.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 1138, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708733

RESUMO

Exercise training (ExT) is beneficial for cardiovascular health, yet the central mechanism by which aerobic ExT attenuates the hypertensive responses remains unclear. Activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is important for the sympathoexcitation and hypertensive response. We thus hypothesized that aerobic ExT can decrease the blood pressure of hypertensive rats by reducing the levels of PICs through TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling within the PVN. To examine this hypothesis, two-kidney-one-clip (2K1C) renovascular hypertensive rats were assigned to two groups: sedentary or exercise training and examined for 8 weeks. At the same time, bilateral PVN infusion of vehicle or TAK242, a TLR4 inhibitor, was performed on both groups. As a result, the systolic blood pressure (SBP), renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and plasma levels of norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (EPI) were found significantly increased in 2K1C hypertensive rats. These rats also had higher levels of Fra-like activity, NF-κB p65 activity, TLR4, MyD88, IL-1ß and TNF-α in the PVN than SHAM rats. Eight weeks of ExT attenuated the RSNA and SBP, repressed the NF-κB p65 activity, and reduced the increase of plasma levels of NE, EPI, and the expression of Fra-like, TLR4, MyD88, IL-1ß and TNF-α in the PVN of 2K1C rats. These findings are highly similar to the results in 2K1C rats with bilateral PVN infusions of TLR4 inhibitor (TAK242). This suggests that 8 weeks of aerobic ExT may decrease blood pressure in hypertensive rats by reducing the PICs activation through TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling within the PVN, and thus delays the progression of 2K1C renovascular hypertension.

8.
Neuroendocrinology ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation and oxidative stressplay important roles in energy imbalance and its complications.Recent research indicates that hypothalamic inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and cardiac dysfunction, but the mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that suppression of proinflammatory pathway of IKKß/NF-κBin the hypothalamuscan improve energy balance and cardiac function in type 2 diabetic (T2D)rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: Normal rats and T2D rats received bilateral hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) infusions of IKKß inhibitor SC-514 or vehicle via osmotic minipump.Metabolic phenotyping, immunohistochemical analyses, and biochemical analyses were used to investigate the outcomes of inhibition of the hypothalamic IKKß. Echocardiography and glucometer were used for measuring cardiac function and blood glucose,respectively. Blood samples were collected for the evaluation of circulating proinflammatory cytokines (PICs). Heart was harvested for cardiacmorphology evaluations. The ARC was harvested and analyzed for IKKß, NF-κB, PICs, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NAD(P)H (gp91phox,p47phox) oxidase activitylevels and neuropeptides.Compared with normal rats, T2D rats were characterized by hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, cardiac dysfunction, as well as higher ARC levels of IKKß, NF-κB, PICs, ROS, gp91phox and p47phox. ARC infusion of IKKß inhibitor SC-514 attenuated all these changes in T2D rats, but not in normal rats. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that hypothalamic IKKß/NF-κB pathway plays a key role in modulatingenergy imbalance and cardiac dysfunction, suggesting its potential therapeutic role during type 2diabetes.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(22)2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717306

RESUMO

Radiation is a widely used therapeutic method for treating breast cancer. N-dihydrogalactochitosan (GC), a biocompatible immunostimulant, is known to enhance the effects of various treatment modalities in different tumor types. However, whether GC can enhance the radiosensitivity of cancer cells remains to be explored. In this study, triple-negative murine 4T1 breast cancer cells transduced with multi-reporter genes were implanted in immunocompetent Balb/C mice to track, dissect, and identify liver-metastatic 4T1 cells. These cells expressed cancer stem cell (CSC) -related characteristics, including the ability to form spheroids, the expression of the CD44 marker, and the increase of protein stability. We then ex vivo investigated the potential effect of GC on the radiosensitivity of the liver-metastatic 4T1 breast cancer cells and compared the results to those of parental 4T1 cells subjected to the same treatment. The cells were irradiated with increased doses of X-rays with or without GC treatment. Colony formation assays were then performed to determine the survival fractions and radiosensitivity of these cells. We found that GC preferably increased the radiosensitivity of liver-metastatic 4T1 breast cancer cells rather than that of the parental cells. Additionally, the single-cell DNA electrophoresis assay (SCDEA) and γ-H2AX foci assay were performed to assess the level of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs). Compared to the parental cells, DNA damage was significantly increased in liver-metastatic 4T1 cells after they were treated with GC plus radiation. Further studies on apoptosis showed that this combination treatment increased the sub-G1 population of cells, but not caspase-3 cleavage, in liver-metastatic breast cancer cells. Taken together, the current data suggest that the synergistic effects of GC and irradiation might be used to enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy in treating metastatic tumors.

10.
Exp Neurol ; 322: 113056, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494101

RESUMO

Inflammatory response triggered by nerve injury plays important roles in the development of neurological disorders, such as neuropathic pain. The signaling events leading to inflammation in the nervous system remain poorly understood. Here, by deleting Dlk in sensory neurons driven by Wnt1a-Cre, we show that dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) is required for the neuronal intrinsic immune response to induce cytokines and chemokines such as Ccl2, Ccl7, and Ccl12 upon nerve injury. The DLK-controlled injury response in sensory neurons could regulate CD11b+ immune cell infiltration in the dorsal root ganglia, as well as microgliosis and astrogliosis in the spinal dorsal horn but not the ventral horn. Deficiency of Dlk drastically alleviates the neuropathic pain elicited by chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve. Thus, DLK is an essential component that mediates the neuronal intrinsic immune response to nerve injury in sensory neurons and regulates inflammation in the spinal cord.


Assuntos
Inflamação/enzimologia , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/imunologia , Neuralgia/enzimologia , Neuralgia/imunologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/enzimologia , Animais , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neuralgia/patologia , Neuroglia/patologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/imunologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/patologia
12.
J Environ Manage ; 245: 105-113, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150901

RESUMO

Thin-walled multi-cavities ß-cyclodextrin polymers (Hß-CDs) were prepared by the suspension polymerization method using SiO2 nanoparticles as a template. The components and morphology structure of Hß-CDs were characterized by FTIR, BET, SEM, and TEM. The adsorption performances of the prepared nano-adsorbent Hß-CDs on crystal violet (CV), heavy metal ions, some cationic, neutral, and anionic dyes were investigated. The influences of the pH and ionic strength on CV adsorption by the Hß-CDs were explored. The correlation coefficient (R2) of pseudo-second-order kinetic model reached 0.9984 and the adsorption isotherm was closer to the Langmuir model. As the temperature increased, the R2 of the Freundlich isotherm model rose. Compared to anionic ones and heavy metal ions, Hß-CDs had a better adsorption efficiency for cationic dyes. Dynamic adsorption also indicated the thin-walled multi-cavities structure was beneficial for improving absorptivity and application of ß-cyclodextrin polymers. In addition, the Hß-CDs exhibited potentially applicable for the regeneration and reuse with the removal efficiency of CV was as high as 89% in the fourth cycle.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , beta-Ciclodextrinas , Adsorção , Celulose , Corantes , Ciclodextrinas , Polímeros , Dióxido de Silício
13.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(6): 414, 2019 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138778

RESUMO

The activation of p53 tumor suppressor is essential for preventing abnormal cell proliferation and carcinogenesis. ZCCHC10 was previously identified as a potential p53-interacting partner in a yeast two-hybrid screen, but the interaction in cells and its subsequent influence on p53 activity and cancer development have not been investigated. In this paper, we demonstrate that ZCCHC10 expression levels are statistically lower in lung adenocarcinoma tissues than the corresponding adjacent noncancerous tissues, and decreased expression of ZCCHC10 mRNA predicts poorer survival of the patients. Ectopic expression of ZCCHC10 in lung cancer cells harboring wild-type p53 dramatically suppresses cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, invasion and cisplatin resistance in vitro, as well as tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Conversely, knockdown of ZCCHC10 exerts opposite effects in the normal lung cell Beas-2b. However, ZCCHC10 has no influence on the biological behaviors of p53-null (H358) or p53-mutant (H1437) lung cancer cells. Mechanistically, ZCCHC10 binds and stabilizes p53 by disrupting the interaction between p53 and MDM2. The p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α attenuated the influences of ZCCHC10 overexpression on p53 pathway, cell cycle, apoptosis, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition, whereas the p53 activator Nutlin3 could reverse the effects of ZCCHC10 knockdown. Collectively, our results indicate that ZCCHC10 exerts its tumor-suppressive effects by stabilizing the p53 protein and can be used a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target in lung adenocarcinoma.

14.
Cardiovasc Toxicol ; 19(5): 451-464, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037602

RESUMO

Carbon monoxide (CO) presents anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities as a new gaseous neuromessenger produced by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the body. High salt-induced hypertension is relevant to the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and oxidative stress in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). We explored whether CO in PVN can attenuate high salt-induced hypertension by regulating PICs or oxidative stress. Male Dahl Salt-Sensitive rats were fed high-salt (8% NaCl) or normal-salt (0.3% NaCl) diet for 4 weeks. CORM-2, ZnPP IX, or vehicle was microinjected into bilateral PVN for 6 weeks. High-salt diet increased the levels of MAP, plasma norepinephrine (NE), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the expressions of COX2, IL-1ß, IL-6, NOX2, and NOX4 significantly in PVN (p < 0.05), but decreased the expressions of HO-1 and Cu/Zn-SOD in PVN (p < 0.05). Salt increased sympathetic activity as measured by circulating norepinephrine, and increased the ratio of basal RSNA to max RSNA, in part by decreasing max RSNA. PVN microinjection of CORM-2 decreased the levels of MAP, NE, RSNA, ROS and the expressions of COX2, IL-1ß, IL-6, NOX2, NOX4 significantly in PVN of hypertensive rat (p < 0.05), but increased the expressions of HO-1 and Cu/Zn-SOD significantly (p < 0.05), which were all opposite to the effects of ZnPP IX microinjected in PVN (p < 0.05). We concluded that exogenous or endogenous CO attenuates high salt-induced hypertension by regulating PICs and oxidative stress in PVN.

15.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 7: 13, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886848

RESUMO

The study of model organisms has revolutionized our understanding of the mechanisms underlying normal development, adult homeostasis, and human disease. Much of what we know about gene function in model organisms (and its application to humans) has come from gene knockouts: the ability to show analogous phenotypes upon gene inactivation in animal models. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become a popular model organism for many reasons, including the fact that it is amenable to various forms of genetic manipulation. The RNA-guided CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted mutagenesis approaches have provided powerful tools to manipulate the genome toward developing new disease models and understanding the pathophysiology of human diseases. CRISPR-based approaches are being used for the generation of both knockout and knock-in alleles, and also for applications including transcriptional modulation, epigenome editing, live imaging of the genome, and lineage tracing. Currently, substantial effort is being made to improve the specificity of Cas9, and to expand the target coverage of the Cas9 enzymes. Novel types of naturally occurring CRISPR systems [Cas12a (Cpf1); engineered variants of Cas9, such as xCas9 and SpCas9-NG], are being studied and applied to genome editing. Since the majority of pathogenic mutations are single point mutations, development of base editors to convert C:G to T:A or A:T to G:C has further strengthened the CRISPR toolbox. In this review, we provide an overview of the increasing number of novel CRISPR-based tools and approaches, including lineage tracing and base editing.

16.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 131, 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dysfunction of p53 is a key cause of cancer development, while CCDC106 can reduce p53 stability and is associated with lung cancer. However, the roles of CCDC106 in other cancer types and its upstream regulators have not been investigated. METHODS: The phosphorylation status was investigated by in vitro kinase assay and Western blotting using phosphorylation-specific antibodies. Co-immunoprecipitation assay and GST-pulldown were used to detect protein interaction. Cell viability, apoptosis, colony formation, wound-healing and invasion assays were measured for in vitro functional analyses. The in vivo effect of CCDC106 on tumor growth was investigated using a subcutaneous xenograft tumor mouse model. RESULTS: We demonstrated that CCDC106 knockdown enhanced apoptosis by stabilizing p53 and suppressed cell viability, colony formation, migration and invasion in cervical cancer HeLa and breast cancer MCF7 cells with wild-type p53 (wtp53), whereas CCDC106 overexpression exerted the opposite effects in normal breast epithelial HBL100 and cervical cancer SiHa cells with wtp53. However, CCDC106 had no similar effects on p53-mutant cervical and breast cancer cells (C33A and MDA-MB-231). Further study showed that CK2 interacts with CCDC106 through its regulatory ß subunit and then phosphorylates CCDC106 at Ser-130 and Ser-147. The phosphorylation of CCDC106 at Ser-130 and Ser-147 is required for its interaction with p53 and nuclear localization, respectively. Inhibiting CCDC106 phosphorylation by substituting both Ser-130 and Ser-147 with alanine or treating cells with the CK2 inhibitor CX-4945 abrogated CCDC106-induced p53 degradation and its oncogenic function in cells with wtp53. Wildtype CCDC106, but not Ser-130/- 147 mutant CCDC106, enhanced tumor growth and p53 degradation in a xenograft mouse model. Moreover, suppression of CCDC106 increased CX-4945 sensitivity of cancer cells with wtp53. CONCLUSION: This study revealed a CK2/CCDC106/p53 signaling axis in the progression of breast and cervical cancers, which may provide a new therapeutic target for cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Caseína Quinase II/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proteínas de Transporte/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Caseína Quinase II/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Fosforilação , Transfecção , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
17.
Dalton Trans ; 48(16): 5144-5148, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919864

RESUMO

A microporous metal-organic framework functionalized with in situ generated NHC-CuCl units (1) has been successfully synthesized from a novel imidazolium-containing ligand. In particular, the MOF 1 can catalyze ß-boration of α,ß-unsaturated carbonyl compounds, while the isoreticular version of 1 (1-im) modified with only imidazolium moiety cannot. This work demonstrates for the first time the heterogeneous catalysis of NHC-Cu(i)Cl within a MOF solid.

18.
Life Sci ; 221: 241-248, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Impaired neurogenesis in hippocampus may contribute to a variety of neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and depression. Baicalin (BA), which is mainly isolated from the root Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (traditional Chinese herb), which was reported to facilitate neurogenesis, but how to play the role and the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unknown. MAIN METHODS: In this study, we adopted the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced mouse model of depression, and then explore antidepressant-like effects and possible molecular mechanisms. KEY FINDINGS: We found that BA significantly increased sucrose consumption in sucrose preference test, the number of crossing in open filed test and attenuated immobility time in tail suspension test. Additionally, BA administration notably promoted neuronal differentiation and the number of DCX+ cells. Moreover, BA facilitated immature neurons develop into mature neurons and their survival. FOXG1, a transcription factor gene, which is crucial for mammalian telencephalon development, specifically stimulates dendrite elongation. BA could reverse the decrease of p-Akt, FOXG1 and FGF2 caused by CUMS-induced. Additionally, the expression of FOXG1 and FGF2 significantly decreased when the Akt pathway were inhibited by LY294002 in SH-SY5Y cells. Interestingly, BA failed to counteract the decline. SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that BA could promote the differentiation of neurons, which transformation into mature neurons and their survival via the Akt/FOXG1 pathway to exert antidepressant effects.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Animais , Antidepressivos/metabolismo , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Hipocampo , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Psicológico
19.
Phytomedicine ; 52: 157-167, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30599895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata), a traditional herb in Southeastern Asia, is used to treat inflammation-mediated diseases. PURPOSE: The two major bioactive diterpenoids in A. paniculata are andrographolide (AND) and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (deAND). Because of the anti-inflammatory evidence for AND, we hypothesized that deAND might possess similar potency for inhibiting monocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium, which is a critical event for atherosclerotic lesion formation. MATERIAL: In the present study, we used 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay to determine cell viability. We evaluated the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by using DCFDA assay. We assayed the protein expression by using Western blot analysis, the mRNA expression by using RT-PCR, and the nuclear protein-DNA binding activity by using EMSA. RESULTS: We showed that pretreatment of EA.hy926 cells with A. paniculata ethanolic extract (APE), deAND, and AND significantly inhibited TNFα-induced ICAM-1 protein and mRNA expression, ICAM-1 promoter activity, and monocyte adhesion. TNFα-stimulated IKKß phosphorylation, IκBα phosphorylation and degradation, p65 nuclear translocation, and NFκB nuclear protein-DNA binding activity were attenuated by pretreatment with APE, deAND, and AND. APE, deAND, and AND attenuated TNFα-induced Src phosphorylation and membrane translocation of the NOX subunits p47phox and p67phox. Both APE and AND induced protein expression of heme oxygenase 1 and the glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit and enhanced glutathione content. Pretreatment with AND and deAND inhibited TNFα-induced ROS generation. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the mechanism by which APE, deAND, and AND down-regulates TNFα-induced ICAM-1 expression in EA.hy926 cells is via attenuation of activation of the IKK/IκB/NFκB pathway.


Assuntos
Andrographis/química , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Quinase I-kappa B/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
20.
Phytomedicine ; 52: 216-224, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30599901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Berberine (BBR), a Chinese traditional herbal medicine, has many pharmacologic benefits such as anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation. It is widely used in clinical treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. However, the mechanism of how BBR attenuates hypertension through affecting central neural system is not clear. PURPOSE: This study was designed to determine whether chronic infusion of BBR into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates hypertension and sympathoexcitation via the ROS/Erk1/2/iNOS pathway. METHODS: Two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) renovascular hypertensive rats were randomly assigned and treated with bilateral PVN infusion of BBR (2µg/h) or vehicle (artificial cerebrospinal fluid) via osmotic minipumps for 28 days. RESULTS: 2K1C rats showed higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) and PVN Fra-like activity, plasma levels of norepinephrine (NE), PVN levels of NOX2, NOX4, Erk1/2 and iNOS, and lower PVN levels of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD). Chronic infusion of BBR reduced MAP, PVN Fra-like activity and plasma levels of NE, reduced NOX2, NOX4, Erk1/2, iNOS and induced Cu/Zn-SOD in the PVN. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that BBR attenuates hypertension and sympathoexcitation via the ROS/Erk1/2/iNOS pathway in 2K1C renovascular hypertensive rats.


Assuntos
Berberina/farmacologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Pressão Arterial , Masculino , NADPH Oxidase 2/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidase 4/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Norepinefrina/sangue , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase-1/metabolismo
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