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1.
Biomed J ; 43(1): 32-43, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CDGSH iron sulfur domain-containing protein 1 (CISD-1) belongs to the CISD protein family that is evolutionary conserved across different species. In mammals, CISD-1 protein has been implicated in diseases such as cancers and diabetes. As a tractable model organism to study disease-associated proteins, we employed Caenorhabditis elegans in this study with an aim to establish a model for interrogating the functional relevance of CISD-1 in human metabolic conditions. METHODS: We first bioinformatically identified the human Cisd-1 homologue in worms. We then employed N2 wild-type and cisd-1(tm4993) mutant to investigate the consequences of CISD-1 loss-of-function on: 1) the expression pattern of CISD-1, 2) mitochondrial morphology pattern, 3) mitochondrial function and bioenergetics, and 4) the effects of anti-diabetes drugs. RESULTS: We first identified C. elegans W02B12.15 gene as the human Cisd-1 homologous gene, and pinpointed the localization of CISD-1 to the outer membrane of mitochondria. As compared with the N2 wild-type worm, cisd-1(tm4993) mutant exhibited a higher proportion of hyperfused form of mitochondria. This structural abnormality was associated with the generation of higher levels of ROS and mitochondrial superoxide but lower ATP. These physiological changes in mutants did not result in discernable effects on animal motility and lifespan. Moreover, the amount of glucose in N2 wild-type worms treated with troglitazone and pioglitazone, derivatives of TZD, was reduced to a comparable level as in the mutant animals. CONCLUSIONS: By focusing on the Cisd-1 gene, our study established a C. elegans genetic system suitable for modeling human diabetes-related diseases.

2.
Environ Pollut ; 261: 114207, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220751

RESUMO

Exposure to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) has been shown to cause mitochondrial dysfunction and injury to neural cells. Resveratrol (RSV) has been studied as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and anticancer agent and can modulate mitochondrial function in vitro and in vivo. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying RSV's protection against mitochondrial dysfunction have not been fully elucidated. To investigate whether RSV can effectively prevent BaP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, we tested the effects of RSV in primary neuronal models. Our results confirmed that neurons exhibited mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in the mitochondrial pathway after BaP-treatment, and that pretreatment with RSV could reduce that dysfunction. Further, our results indicated that RSV pretreatment enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis via the AMPK/PGC-1α pathway and activated mitophagy via the PINK1-Parkin and AMPK/ULK1 pathways, thereby coordinating mitochondrial homeostasis. We also found that RSV could alleviate mitochondrial network fragmentation caused by BaP. This work provided insights into the role of RSV in preventing BaP-induced primary neuronal apoptosis in the mitochondrial pathway, mainly via regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy through AMPK pathway, thus maintaining the integrity of the mitochondrial network.

3.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 108: 103667, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147468

RESUMO

Viral glycoproteins are expressed by many viruses, and during infection they usually play very important roles, such as receptor attachment or membrane fusion. The mature virion of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is unusual in that it contains no glycosylated proteins, and there are currently no reports of any glycosylation mechanisms in the pathogenesis of this virus. In this study, we cloned a glycosylase, mannosyl-glycoprotein endo-ß-N-acetylglucosaminidase (ENGase, EC 3.2.1.96), from Penaeus monodon and found that it was significantly up-regulated in WSSV-infected shrimp. A yeast two-hybrid assay showed that PmENGase interacted with both structural and non-structural proteins, and GST-pull down and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assays confirmed its interaction with the envelope protein VP41B. In the WSSV challenge tests, the cumulative mortality and viral copy number were significantly decreased in the PmEngase-silenced shrimp, from which we conclude that shrimp glycosylase interacts with WSSV in a way that benefits the virus. Lastly, we speculate that the deglycosylation activity of PmENGase might account for the absence of glycosylated proteins in the WSSV virion.

4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4240, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144327

RESUMO

We evaluated the efficacy of second-line hormonal therapy for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) in a real-world retrospective study. We conducted a population-based real-world cohort study of 258 mCRPC patients between 2014 and 2018 using the Chang Gung Research Database (CGRD) of Taiwan. The second-line hormonal therapy included abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide. The clinical efficacy outcomes were overall survival (OS) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time. The median PSA level was also assessed. In total, 223 mCRPC patients who underwent second-line hormonal therapy met all of the inclusion and exclusion criteria for this study. Among them, 65 (29.1%) patients were in the PSA response group and 158 (70.9%) were in the non-response group. The median age was 72.9 years. The median OS was 12.3 months (range: 9.9-19.9 months) and 9.6 months (range: 5.3-15.9 months) in the response and non-response groups, respectively, and the respective PSA doubling times were 9.0 months (range: 4.4-11.6 months) and 3.9 months (range: 2.2-9.1 months), with a median follow-up period of 10.5 months. A significantly longer median OS was seen in the PSA response group. This real-world database study demonstrated that clinical outcomes of second-line hormonal therapy were better in patients with a PSA response. Further studies are warranted to achieve a better understanding of second-line hormonal therapy for mCRPC in Asian populations.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041361

RESUMO

In this study, we explored the release characteristics of analgesics, namely levobupivacaine, lidocaine, and acemetacin, from electrosprayed poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticles. The drug-loaded particles were prepared using electrospraying techniques and evaluated for their morphology, drug release kinetics, and pain relief activity. The morphology of the produced microparticles elucidated by scanning electron microscopy revealed that the optimal parameters for electrospraying were 9 kV, 1 mL/h, and 10 cm for voltage, flow rate, and travel distance, respectively. Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry indicated that the analgesics had been successfully incorporated into the PLGA microparticles. The analgesic-loaded microparticles possessed low toxicity against human fibroblasts and were able to sustainably elute levobupivacaine, lidocaine, and acemetacin in vitro. Furthermore, electrosprayed microparticles were found to release high levels of lidocaine and acemetacin (well over the minimum therapeutic concentrations) and levobupivacaine at the fracture site of rats for more than 28 days and 12 days, respectively. Analgesic-loaded microparticles demonstrated their effectiveness and sustained performance for pain relief in fracture injuries.

6.
Cytokine ; 128: 155001, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035329

RESUMO

Neutrophilic granule protein (NGP) belongs to the cystatin superfamily. Even though this superfamily is critically involved in cancer biology and adaptive immunity, the relationship of macrophage NGP to inflammation and phagocytosis remains poorly understood. In this study, we observed a significant increase of NGP in peritoneal macrophages (PMs) isolated from mice challenged with E. coli or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as judged by NGP mRNA microarray. We also found changes in NGP to be mainly Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent. By western blot and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, we demonstrated NGP overexpression to reduce TNF-α and IL-1ß production by LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells (RAW) via suppression of the NF-κB (p65 and p50) signalling pathway, rather than the JNK1/AP-1 (fos and jun) signalling pathway. NGP overexpression by LPS-induced RAW also induced IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, which was partially involved in the anti-inflammatory effect produced by NGP overexpression. Moreover, upregulated NGP enhanced the phagocytosis of E. coli by RAW. Taken together, these results demonstrated NGP to be an important host defense component that regulates inflammatory responses and phagocytosis by activated macrophages. As such, NGP may be useful for the treatment of inflammatory based disease.

7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(7): e19215, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049859

RESUMO

This study compared the surgical outcomes of two surgical methods for treating multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy (MCSM) combined with cervical kyphotic deformity (CKD): (1) the ELTA method consisted of expansive open-door laminoplasty (EOLP) followed by three-segment anterior cervical discectomy fusion (ACDF), and (2) the LAPI method consisted of long-segment ACDF followed by long-level posterior instrumented fusion (PIF). Surgical treatment of CKD combined with MCSM remains challenging. Surgical considerations should include adequate spinal cord decompression and restoration of satisfactory cervical sagittal alignment (CSA). In certain situations, a solid PIF structure is vital to prevent failure.We included 105 patients who underwent the aforementioned surgical methods for MCSM combined with CKD from January 2013 to December 2017. The minimum follow-up period was 1 year. Comparative analysis was performed to compare the two surgical strategies' preoperative and postoperative functional outcomes, including a visual analog scale for neck pain, neck disability index, the Japanese Orthopedic Association cervical myelopathy score, and the Nurick score, as well as the CSA radiographic outcomes, including C2-7 Cobb angle, C2-7 sagittal vertical axis, and C7 slope. The risk factors related to reduced improvement in functional status were analyzed.A total of 63 patients underwent ELTA and 42 patients underwent LAPI. Improvements in functional outcomes were considerable in both groups. The mean C2-7 Cobb angle was restored from 7.4°â€Š±â€Š2.1° kyphosis to 8.8°â€Š±â€Š4.7° lordosis in the ELTA group and from 15.3°â€Š±â€Š4.2° kyphosis to 15.8°â€Š±â€Š8.1° lordosis in the LAPI group. The maximal correction angle was 22.6° in the ELTA group and 42.6° in the LAPI group.Although changes in CSA seemed to be significantly correlated with improvements of functional status, the ELTA and LAPI methods were both effective for treating MCSM combined with CKD, when appropriately selected. The ELTA method was indicated for MCSM patients who had a low degree of CKD, whereas the LAPI method was indicated for MCSM patients who had poor function scores and a high degree of CKD.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Cifose/cirurgia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças da Medula Espinal/cirurgia , Espondilose/cirurgia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Cifose/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças da Medula Espinal/etiologia , Espondilose/complicações
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 469, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949231

RESUMO

New-onset carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and trigger finger after distal radius fractures (DRFs) with or without open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) have been reported inconsistently across different studies. This study assessed the incidence of CTS and trigger finger after DRFs using Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. In total, 1454 patients in the case (ORIF) cohort and 1454 patients in the control (non-ORIF) cohort were included in this retrospective study. The mean age was approximately 55 years old, and the female to male ratio was approximately 3/2. Nine patients underwent carpal tunnel release (CTR) surgery after diagnosis of CTS in the case group, and no patients did in the control group; whereas 19 cases of CTS were diagnosed without CTR in the case group, and 4 such cases were observed in the control group. Five cases of trigger finger were diagnosed in the case group, and 3 cases were diagnosed in the control group. CTS were significantly associated with ORIF for DRFs within 9 months after the fracture, whereas trigger finger was not significantly different between groups. Diabetes mellitus was a significant risk factor for CTS and trigger finger within 9 months after the incidence of DRFs.

10.
Transplant Proc ; 52(1): 73-77, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to discuss the reasons for kidney donation withdrawal and related factors among the potential donors of living kidney transplant. METHODS: This study was conducted in outpatient departments with purposive sampling. Potential donors received relevant examinations and completed questionnaires when they would donate their kidneys for living related kidney transplant. Researchers tracked the final decision of potential donors. The structured questionnaire included basic data, psychosocial adjustment to illness scale, and decisional conflict scale. RESULTS: A total of 53 potential donors participated in this study, 46 of whom completed the kidney donation surgery (86.6%). The factors related to the final decision of kidney donation or kidney donation withdrawal included self-ranking health condition, value clarity, feeling supported in decision making, and overall decisional conflict. CONCLUSION: Organ transplant teams should conduct a complete physical and psychological assessment of potential donors, provide information and support, and assist potential donors to clarify their true values and willingness to undergo kidney donation. Thus, each potential donor can decide to donate in true accordance with their willingness.

11.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999438

RESUMO

Advancement of the synthesis and control of the self-assembly process of new high-nucleus silver clusters with desired structures is important for both the material sciences and the many applications. Herein, three new silver clusters, 20-, 22-, and 8-nucleus, based on alkynyl ligands were constructed and their structures were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, elemental analyses, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). For the first time, the trivalent tetrahedron anion of AsO43-, as a template, and the surface ligand of Ph2PO2H, with new coordination modes, were employed in preparation of the silver clusters. The role of surface ligands and template anions in the size and structure of the clusters was investigated. The presence of the template in the structure of the clusters led to the formation of the high-nucleus clusters. Also, in this report, it was shown that the participation of the template in the assembly of a cluster can be controlled by the surface ligands. UV-vis absorption and luminescent properties of the clusters and the thermal stability of the 8-nucleus cluster were also studied.

12.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 16(1): 475-487, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765559

RESUMO

We introduce an implementation of the truncated many-body expansion, MBE(n), in which the n-body corrections are screened using the effective fragment potential force field, and only those that exceed a specified energy threshold are computed at a quantum-mechanical level of theory. This energy-screened MBE(n) approach is tested at the n = 3 level for a sequence of water clusters, (H2O)N=6-34. A threshold of 0.25 kJ/mol eliminates more than 80% of the subsystem electronic structure calculations and is even more efficacious in that respect than is distance-based screening. Even so, the energy-screened MBE(3) method is faithful to a full-system quantum chemistry calculation to within 1-2 kJ/mol/monomer, even in good quality basis sets such as aug-cc-pVTZ. These errors can be reduced by means of a two-layer approach that involves a Hartree-Fock calculation for the entire cluster. Such a correction proves to be necessary in order to obtain accurate relative energies for conformational isomers of (H2O)20, but the cost of a full-system Hartree-Fock calculation remains smaller than the cost of three-body subsystem calculations at correlated levels of theory. At the level of second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), a screened MBE(3) calculation plus a full-system Hartree-Fock calculation is less expensive than a full-system MP2 calculation starting at N = 12 water molecules. This is true even if all MBE(3) subsystem calculations are performed on a single 40-core compute node, i.e., without significant parallelization. Energy-screened MBE(n) thus provides a fragment-based method that is accurate, stable in large basis sets, and low in cost, even when the latter is measured in aggregate computer time.

13.
Neurosci Lett ; 716: 134685, 2020 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836569

RESUMO

Thalamocortical axons (TCAs) transmit sensory information to the neocortex by responding to a variety of guidance cues in the environment. Similar to classical guidance cues (ephrins, slits, semaphorins and netrins), morphogens of FGFs can also help axons navigate to their targets. Here, expression analyses reveal that FGF10 is expressed in the chick prethalamus during the navigation of TCAs. Then, using ex vivo analyses in chick explants, we demonstrate a dose-dependent effect of FGF10 on thalamic axons: low concentration of FGF10 attracts thalamic axons, while high concentration FGF10 repels thalamic axons. Moreover, inhibition of FGF10 function indicates that FGF10 exerts a direct effect on thalamic axons. Together, these studies reveal a direct role for the member of FGF7 subfamily, FGF10, in the axonal navigation of TCAs.

14.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134294, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783459

RESUMO

Exposure to excess levels of manganese (Mn) may lead to nitrosative stress and neurotoxic effects on the central nervous system (CNS). The dysfunction of autophagy correlates with Mn-induced nitrosative stress; however, the exact mechanism of Mn-mediated autophagy dysfunction is still unclear. Three S-nitrosylated target proteins, namely, JNK, Bcl-2, and IKKß, were classified as the pivotal signaling pathway mediators that could play a role in the regulation of autophagy. To reveal whether these three proteins were involved in Mn-mediated autophagy dysregulation, we studied the effects of Mn on C57/BL6 mice and human neuroblastoma cells. Exposing the mice or cells, to 300 µmol/kg or 200 µM Mn, inhibited the degradation system of the autophagy-lysosome pathway. Additionally, in Mn-treated mice or cells, S-nitrosylated JNK, Bcl-2, and IKKß increased while the level of their phosphorylation reduced. The interaction of Beclin1 and Bcl-2 significantly increased in response to 200 µM Mn, whereas the decrease in phosphorylation of AMPK activated the mTOR pathway. We then used 20 µM 1400 W, an iNOS-specific inhibitor, to neutralize the nitrosative stress induced by Mn. Our results show that 1400 W reduced the S-nitrosylated JNK, Bcl-2, and Ikkß and relieved their downstream signaling molecular functions. Moreover, pretreatment with 20 µM 1400 W alleviated Mn-induced autophagic dysregulation and nerve cell injury. These findings revealed that S-nitrosylated JNK, Bcl-2, and IKKß are crucial signaling molecules in the Mn-mediated autophagic dysfunction.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Manganês/toxicidade , Animais , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia , Humanos , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR , Testes de Toxicidade
15.
Environ Toxicol ; 35(1): 55-65, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497924

RESUMO

Overexposure to manganese (Mn) is widely known to induce alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) oligomerization, which has been attributed to the oxidative damage of α-Syn protein. Trehalose has been shown to induce autophagy and serve as a chemical chaperone, but little information has been reported about its effect on Mn-induced α-Syn oligomerization. In this study, we investigate whether trehalose can effectively interfere with Mn-induced α-Syn oligomerization, using different concentrations of trehalose (2% and 4% (g/vol [mL])) in a mouse model of manganism. After 6 weeks of exposure to Mn, both oxidative stress and autophagy were activated and resulted in α-Syn oligomerization and neuronal cell damage in the mouse brain tissue. Our results also revealed that pretreatment with trehalose significantly reduced the oxidative damage to α-Syn protein and increased autophagy activation. These findings clearly demonstrated that trehalose can relieve Mn-induced α-Syn oligomerization and neuronal cell damage through its anti-oxidative and autophagy-inducing effects.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Manganês/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Trealose/farmacologia , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/ultraestrutura , Multimerização Proteica
16.
Cancer Nurs ; 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Presently, few studies have examined the impact of positive thinking on the HRQoL of prostate cancer patients who receive androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). OBJECTIVES: We explored the factors that affect health-related quality of life (HRQoL), particularly positive thinking, of prostate cancer patients who receive ADT. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was used. A total of 132 prostate cancer patients, drawn from outpatient clinics of 2 medical centers, who were receiving ADT were included. Structured questionnaires, including a basic information sheet, the Positive Thinking Scale, Social Support Scale, and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P), were used for data collection. Statistical analysis was performed by using independent-sample t tests, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson correlation, and multiple regression. RESULTS: Prostate cancer patients who were receiving ADT were more likely to engage in positive thinking, which was correlated with better social/family well-being, emotional well-being, functional well-being, prostate cancer concern, and a higher score on the FACT-P. Improved self-reported health status was correlated better with all subdimensions of HRQoL and better scores on the FACT-P. Greater social support was correlated with high social/family well-being. CONCLUSIONS: Positive thinking, self-reported health status, and social support are important associated factors of HRQoL in prostate cancer patients who receive ADT. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Oncology nurses can improve HRQoL by improving positive thinking, self-reported health status, and social support of prostate cancer patients who receive ADT.

17.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 8(44)2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672739

RESUMO

Elizabethkingia sp. strain 2-6 was collected from a water faucet in the intensive care unit of a medical center in Taiwan. The complete genome sequence and annotation are reported. Analysis of the genetic relatedness to the known Elizabethkingia genomes indicated that strain 2-6 may be a new genomospecies of Elizabethkingia.

18.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 31(9): 1163-1166, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657346

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Infection is one of the main causes of death in clinical patients, and multi-drug resistance leads to ineffective treatment with conventional antibiotics. Therefore, it is imperative to develop new anti-infective drugs. Antimicrobial peptides cathelicidins are cationic host defense peptides found in many organisms. It has been demonstrated by in vivo and in vitro studies that antimicrobial peptides cathelicidins not only show broad-spectrum antibacterial activity and high sensitivity to drug-resistant bacteria, but also have a good guiding effect on the immune response. This paper summarizes the reports of antimicrobial peptides cathelicidins in recent years, highlighting their research achievements in antibiosis, anti-inflammatory, chemotaxis regulation and phagocytosis, providing new ideas for the treatment of infection-related diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos , Catelicidinas , Antibacterianos , Bactérias , Humanos
19.
PLoS Med ; 16(10): e1002935, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although women at all career stages are more likely to leave academia than men, early-career women are a particularly high-risk group. Research supports that women are less likely than men to receive research funding; however, whether funding success rates vary based on research content is unknown. We addressed gender differences in funding success rates for applications directed to one or more of 13 institutes, representing research communities, over a 15-year period. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We retrospectively reviewed 55,700 grant and 4,087 personnel award applications submitted to the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. We analyzed application success rates according to gender and the primary institute selected by applicants, pooled gender differences in success rates using random effects models, and fitted Poisson regression models to assess the effects of gender, time, and institute. We noted variable success rates among grant applications directed to selected institutes and declining success rates over time. Women submitted 31.1% and 44.7% of grant and personnel award applications, respectively. In the pooled estimate, women had significantly lower grant success (risk ratio [RR] 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84-0.94; p < 0.001; absolute difference 3.2%) compared with men, with substantial heterogeneity (I2 = 58%). Compared with men, women who directed grants to the Institutes of Cancer Research (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.78-0.96), Circulatory and Respiratory Health (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.66-0.84), Health Services and Policy Research (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.68-0.90), and Musculoskeletal Health and Arthritis (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.69-0.93) were significantly less likely to be funded, and those who directed grants to the Institute of Aboriginal People's Health (RR 1.67, 95% CI 1.0-2.7) were more likely to be funded. Overall, women also had significantly lower personnel award success (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.65-0.86; p < 0.001; absolute difference 6.6%). Regression modelling identified that the effect of gender on grant success rates differed by institute and not time. Study limitations include use of institutes as a surrogate identifier, variability in designation of primary institute, and lack of access to metrics reflecting applicants, coapplicants, peer reviewers, and the peer-review process. CONCLUSIONS: Gender disparity existed overall in grant and personnel award success rates, especially for grants directed to selected research communities. Funding agencies should monitor for gender differences in grant success rates overall and by research content.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Pesquisadores , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto , Distribuição por Sexo , Academias e Institutos , Adulto , Distinções e Prêmios , Canadá , Escolha da Profissão , Feminino , Organização do Financiamento , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição de Poisson , Saúde Pública , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Small ; 15(47): e1903977, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608586

RESUMO

Black phosphorous quantum dots (BPQDs) possess ambipolar charge transport, high mobility, and a tunable direct bandgap. Here, liquid-exfoliated BPQDs are used as interlayers to modify both the electron transport layer and hole transport layer in organic solar cells (OSCs). The incorporation of BPQDs is beneficial to the formation of a cascade band structure and electron/hole transfer and extraction. The power conversion efficiency of the BPQDs-incorporated OSC based on PTB7-Th:FOIC blend is enhanced from 11.8% to 13.1%. In addition, power conversion efficiency enhancement is also achieved for other nonfullerene and fullerene-based devices, demonstrating the universality of this interlayer methodology.

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