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1.
Brain Res Bull ; 185: 39-48, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35452749

RESUMO

Remote ischemic postconditioning (RIPostC) is a protective procedure for brain damage caused by ischemia/reperfusion (IR), yet the mechanism of this treatment remains to be elucidated. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are endogenous non-coding RNAs that have recently been recognized to play vital roles in ischemic brain injury. The aim of this study was to explore the role of circRNAs in the protective mechanism of RIPostC and to analyze the circRNA-microRNA (miRNA) regulation network in RIPostC. Nine rats were assigned randomly into three groups (three rats per group): sham, IR, and RIPostC. Their brain tissues were extracted for next-generation RNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis was performed for two comparisons: sham vs. IR and IR vs. RIPostC. The expression patterns of selected circRNAs and miRNAs were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). We detected 82 upregulated and 51 downregulated circRNAs and 137 upregulated and 127 downregulated miRNAs in the IR group compared with the sham group, and 41 upregulated and 100 downregulated circRNAs and 45 upregulated and 64 downregulated miRNAs in the RIPostC group compared with the IR group. The proposed competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network, which included 24 circRNAs, 20 miRNAs, and 145 mRNAs, indicated that the dysregulated circRNAs played important roles in brain IR injury. On the basis of the expression patterns of selected circRNAs, miRNAs, and mRNAs obtained by qPCR, we proposed a circRNA_0002286-miR-124-3p-VLCAD pathway. In PC12 cell, the expression level of miR-124-3p was significantly upregulated when the expression of circRNA_0002286 was repressed and the expression level of VLCAD (very-long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase) was significantly downregulated, which suggested that circRNA_0002286 may act as a miRNA sponge for miR-124-3p to regulate the expression of VLCAD. We found that upregulation of circRNA_0002286 attenuated IR injury and was associated with downregulation of miR-124-3p and upregulation of VLCAD. This is the first time that circRNAs have been shown to be closely related to brain IR injury and RIPostC and suggests that targeting the circRNA_0002286-miR-124-3p-VLCAD pathway might attenuate brain IR injury.

2.
Biosci Rep ; 42(1)2022 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34897384

RESUMO

Treatment of peripheral nerve regeneration with stem cells (SCs) alone has some limitations. For this reason, we evaluate the efficacy of neurotrophic factors combined with stem cell transplantation in the treatment of sciatic nerve injury (SNI) in rats. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, WanFang, VIP and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were retrieved from inception to October 2021, and control experiments on neurotrophic factors combined with stem cells in the treatment of SNI in rats were searched. Nine articles and 551 rats were included in the meta-analysis. The results of meta-analysis confirmed that neurotrophic factor combined with stem cells for the treatment of SNI yielded more effective repair than normal rats with regard to sciatic nerve index, electrophysiological detection index, electron microscope observation index, and recovery rate of muscle wet weight. The conclusion is that neurotrophic factor combined with stem cells is more conducive to peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery than stem cells alone. However, due to the limitation of the quality of the included literature, the above conclusions need to be verified by randomized controlled experiments with higher quality and larger samples.


Assuntos
Regeneração Nervosa , Nervo Isquiático , Animais , Fatores de Crescimento Neural , Ratos , Transplante de Células-Tronco
3.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(6): 1299-1309, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782575

RESUMO

During acute reperfusion, the expression profiles of long noncoding RNAs in adult rats with focal cerebral ischemia undergo broad changes. However, whether long noncoding RNAs are involved in neuroprotective effects following focal ischemic stroke in rats remains unclear. In this study, RNA isolation and library preparation was performed for long noncoding RNA sequencing, followed by determining the coding potential of identified long noncoding RNAs and target gene prediction. Differential expression analysis, long noncoding RNA functional enrichment analysis, and co-expression network analysis were performed comparing ischemic rats with and without ischemic postconditioning rats. Rats were subjected to ischemic postconditioning via the brief and repeated occlusion of the middle cerebral artery or femoral artery. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the expression levels of differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs after ischemic postconditioning in a rat model of ischemic stroke. The results showed that ischemic postconditioning greatly affected the expression profile of long noncoding RNAs and mRNAs in the brains of rats that underwent ischemic stroke. The predicted target genes of some of the identified long noncoding RNAs (cis targets) were related to the cellular response to ischemia and stress, cytokine signal transduction, inflammation, and apoptosis signal transduction pathways. In addition, 15 significantly differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs were identified in the brains of rats subjected to ischemic postconditioning. Nine candidate long noncoding RNAs that may be related to ischemic postconditioning were identified by a long noncoding RNA expression profile and long noncoding RNA-mRNA co-expression network analysis. Expression levels were verified by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. These results suggested that the identified long noncoding RNAs may be involved in the neuroprotective effects associated with ischemic postconditioning following ischemic stroke. The experimental animal procedures were approved by the Animal Experiment Ethics Committee of Kunming Medical University (approval No. KMMU2018018) in January 2018.

4.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 144: 112273, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34700232

RESUMO

Neurogenesis in the adult brain is well recognized and plays a critical role in the maintenance of brain function and homeostasis. However, whether neurogenesis also occurs in the adult peripheral nervous system remains unknown. Here, using sensory ganglia (dorsal root ganglia, DRGs) as a model, we show that neurogenesis also occurs in the peripheral nervous system, but in a manner different from that in the central nervous system. Satellite glial cells (SGCs) express the neuronal precursor markers Nestin, POU domain, class 4, transcription factor 1, and p75 pan-neurotrophin receptor. Following sciatic nerve injury, the suppression of endogenous proBDNF by proBDNF antibodies resulted in the transformation of proliferating SGCs into doublecortin-positive cells in the DRGs. Using purified SGCs migrating out from the DRGs, the inhibition of endogenous proBDNF promoted the conversion of SGCs into neuronal phenotypes in vitro. Our findings suggest that SGCs are neuronal precursors, and that proBDNF maintains the SGC phenotype. Furthermore, the suppression of proBDNF signaling is necessary for neuronal phenotype acquisition by SGCs. Thus, we propose that peripheral neurogenesis may occur via the direct conversion of SGCs into neurons, and that this process is negatively regulated by proBDNF.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Gânglios Espinais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Neurogênese , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/metabolismo , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Transdiferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Gânglios Espinais/patologia , Gânglios Espinais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Células-Tronco Neurais/patologia , Neuroglia/patologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/patologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Fator de Crescimento Neural/genética , Receptores de Fator de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
5.
Metab Brain Dis ; 36(1): 53-65, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044640

RESUMO

Ischemic postconditioning (PostC) conventionally refers to a series of brief blood vessel occlusions and reperfusions, which can induce an endogenous neuroprotective effect and reduce cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Depending on the site of adaptive ischemic intervention, PostC can be classified as in situ ischemic postconditioning (ISPostC) and remote ischemic postconditioning (RIPostC). Many studies have shown that ISPostC and RIPostC can reduce cerebral IS injury through protective mechanisms that increase cerebral blood flow after reperfusion, decrease antioxidant stress and anti-neuronal apoptosis, reduce brain edema, and regulate autophagy as well as Akt, MAPK, PKC, and KATP channel cell signaling pathways. However, few studies have compared the intervention methods, protective mechanisms, and cell signaling pathways of ISPostC and RIPostC interventions. Thus, in this article, we compare the history, common intervention methods, neuroprotective mechanisms, and cell signaling pathways of ISPostC and RIPostC.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Pós-Condicionamento Isquêmico/métodos , Neuroproteção , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
6.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(22): 1694, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34988203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is an important mediator of neuroinflammatory responses that regulates inflammatory injury following cerebral ischemia and may be a potential target. Salidroside (Sal) has good anti-inflammatory effects; however, it remains unclear whether Sal can regulate NLRP3 inflammasome activation through the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway after cerebral ischemia to alleviate inflammatory injury. METHODS: We established an oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) model of BV2 cells and a middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) rat model. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay were used to detect the viability and apoptosis of BV2 cells. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the level of inflammatory factors. 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and modified Neurological Severity Score (mNSS) were used to detect cerebral infarction volume and neurological deficit in rats. Western blot, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining were used to detect the protein expression levels. RESULTS: Our results showed that Sal increased viability, inhibited lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and reduced apoptosis in OGD/R-induced BV2 cells. Sal reduced the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8. Following induction by OGD/R, BV2 cells exhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation and increased protein levels of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), caspase-1, IL-1ß, and IL-18. Protein levels of key TLR4 signaling pathway elements, such as TLR4, myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), and phosphorylated nuclear factor kappa B p65 (p-NF-κB p65)/NF-κB p65 were upregulated. Interestingly, it was revealed that Sal could reverse these changes. In addition, TAK242, a specific inhibitor of TLR4, had the same effect as Sal treatment on BV2 cells following induction by OGD/R. In the MCAO/R rat model, Sal was also observed to inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation in microglia, reduce cerebral infarction volume, and inhibit apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we found that Sal inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation and apoptosis in microglia induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibiting the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway, thus playing a protective role. Therefore, Sal may be a promising drug for the clinical treatment of ischemic stroke.

7.
J Neurosci Methods ; 346: 108921, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have confirmed that "in situ ischemia postconditioning" (ISPostC) and "remote ischemic postconditioning" (RIPostC) can reduce cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, but there is no comparison was made on the consistency of neuroprotection in ISPostC and RIPostC to different ischemic duration and number of cycles. NEW METHOD: We used a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model to compare the neuroprotection of ISPostC and RIPostC. We conducted ISPostC and RIPostC via brief and repeated MCA and Femoral artery occlusion followed by different ischemic duration and number of cycles. Infarct volume, brain edema, Neurological deficit scores and Apoptosis were evaluated. RESULTS: First, the ISPostC with three cycles of 10-s occlusion/30-s release of both carotid arteries and the RIPostC with three cycles of 10-min occlusion/10-min release of the left and right femoral arteries can obviously reduce cerebral infarction size, brain edema, apoptosis, and improve behavioral deficits than other approaches. Second, three cycles of ischemia/reperfusion may be the best for RIPostC. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHOD(S): In this paper, we compared different ischemic duration and frequency of ISPostC and RIPostC models to determine the best method. This conclusion helps to unify the experimental methods. CONCLUSIONS: Different ischemic duration and frequency of ischemic postconditioning affect neuroprotection. three cycles of 10-s occlusion/30-s release of both carotid arteries and three cycles of 10-min occlusion/10-min release of both femoral arteries could be the first choice to study mechanisms of ischemic postconditioning and be conducive to the unification of research results.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Pós-Condicionamento Isquêmico , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Animais , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/terapia , Neuroproteção , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
8.
CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets ; 17(7): 547-556, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Notoginsenoside R1 (NGR1) is one of the main effective components of Panax notoginseng. METHOD: Primary cortical neurons were harvested from neonatal rats and cultured to analyze the role of NGR1 in neuronal growth and the effects of NGR1 on the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. Following treatment with NGR1, immunocytochemistry was used to detect expression of Tuj1 and MAP2, and RT-qPCR was used to measure mRNA levels of key factors in the Wnt signaling pathway. RESULTS: Results showed that NGR1 promotes growth of cultured neurons and significantly upregulates mRNA levels of ß-catenin, Dishevelled, and Frizzled. To further confirm whether NGR1 promoted cortical neuron growth via the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway, we knocked down ß- catenin mRNA by siRNA interference; following NGR1 treatment of ß-catenin-knockdown neurons, ß-catenin mRNA levels increased significantly. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, these results demonstrate that NGR1 promotes growth of cultured cortical neurons from the neonatal rat, possibly via the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais de Ação/genética , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Embrião de Mamíferos , Ginsenosídeos/genética , Ginsenosídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transfecção , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , beta Catenina/genética
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