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1.
Helicobacter ; : e12856, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viable probiotics have shown effects on the eradication of Helicobacter pylori, but the role of non-viable probiotics in H. pylori eradication is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of non-viable Lactobacillus reuteri DSM17648 combining with 14-day standard triple therapy on H. pylori eradication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred treatment-naive H. pylori-positive adult patients were randomized equally to receive non-viable L. reuteri DSM17648 (LR group) or placebo for 4 weeks, with the latter 2 weeks treated together with triple therapy. The Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) was completed before and after treatment. Stool samples were collected for 16S rRNA gene sequencing at week0, week2, and week8. RESULTS: Eradication rates in the LR group and the placebo group were 81.8% and 83.7% in ITT analysis (p = 0.730), 86.2% and 87.2% in PP analysis (p = 0.830), respectively. After treatment, the mean GSRS score decreased significantly in the LR group as compared with the placebo group (1.9 ± 0.2 vs. 2.7 ± 0.3; p = 0.030). Significantly less patients in the LR group as compared with the placebo group reported abdominal distention (5.1% vs. 16.3%; p = 0.010) and diarrhea (11.1% vs. 23.5%; p = 0.022). The relative abundance of Proteobacteria phylum and Escherichia-Shigella genus in the placebo group was about 4.0-fold and 8.1-fold of that in the LR group at wk2, respectively. Significant changes of diversity and enhancements of Fusicatenibacter, Subdoligranulum, and Faecalibacterium were observed in the LR group compared with the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation of non-viable L. reuteri DSM17648 with triple therapy did not improve the eradication rate of H. pylori, but it helped to build up a beneficial microbial profile and reduced the frequencies of abdominal distention, diarrhea, and the GSRS score.

2.
Curr Med Sci ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596812

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diagnosis of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) requires the evaluation of renal biopsy specimens. However, renal biopsy is an invasive procedure and is not frequently performed for various reasons. Thus, recognized noninvasive biomarkers for predicting IgAN progression are urgently needed. METHODS: In the present study, we included 86 IgAN patients with renal biopsy from June 2015 to May 2016 and had their plasma interleukin-7 (IL-7) level measured with ELISA. The association between the plasma IL-7 level and clinico-pathological characteristics was analyzed. Immunohistochemical staining was used to assay the in situ expression of IL-7 in vivo. Western blotting was performed to examine the production of extracellular matrix, p-mTOR and the markers of autophagy under the treatment of IL-7 after TGF-ß1 stimulation in renal tubular epithelial cells. RESULTS: IL-7 was significantly decreased in patients with IgAN compared to healthy subjects (2.3077 vs. 8.6294 pg/mL, P<0.0001). There was a significant difference in the plasma IL-7 level between tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis T0 and T2 classes (P=0.0064). A lower plasma IL-7 value in patients at the time of biopsy indicated a poor renal outcome. In addition, IL-7 was over-expressed in renal tubular epithelial cells and significantly attenuated transforming growth factor ßl-induced extracellular matrix production by suppression of cellular autophagy via activation of mTOR1 signaling. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that IL-7 might be a noninvasive biomarker for predicating IgAN. It protected renal proximal tubular epithelial cells from cellular fibrosis by inhibiting autophagy via mTORl signaling.

3.
Plant Sci ; 312: 111055, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620449

RESUMO

High salt environments can induce stress in different plants. The genes containing the ZAT domain constitute a family that belongs to a branch of the C2H2 family, which plays a vital role in responding to abiotic stresses. In this study, we identified 169 ZAT genes from seven plant species, including 44 ZAT genes from G. hirsutum. Phylogenetic tree analysis divided ZAT genes in six groups with conserved gene structure, protein motifs. Two C2H2 domains and an EAR domain and even chromosomal distribution on At and Dt sub-genome chromosomes of G. hirsutum was observed. GhZAT6 was primarily expressed in the root tissue and responded to NaCl and ABA treatments. Subcellular localization found that GhZAT6 was located in the nucleus and demonstrated transactivation activity during a transactivation activity assay. Arabidopsis transgenic lines overexpressing the GhZAT6 gene showed salt tolerance and grew more vigorously than WT on MS medium supplemented with 100 mmol NaCl. Additionally, the silencing of the GhZAT6 gene in cotton plants showed more obvious leaf wilting than the control plants, which were subjected to 400 mmol NaCl treatment. Next, the expressions of GhAPX1, GhFSD1, GhFSD2, and GhSOS3 were significantly lower in the GhZAT6-silenced plants treated with NaCl than the control. Based on these findings, GhZAT6 may be involved in the ABA pathway and mediate salt stress tolerance by regulating ROS-related gene expression.

4.
Small ; : e2102407, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610208

RESUMO

A catalytic electrode with extraordinary performances for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) should achieve a low onset potential of the bulk electrode, as well as its uniform distribution. Herein, a total internal reflection imaging (TIRi) method to characterize the onset potential distribution of the catalytic electrode surface is presented. When the potential scans toward negative in a linear sweep voltammetry, the equivalent refractive index of the electrolyte on the electrode surface will decrease due to H2 microbubbles generation, leading to the increase in optical intensity. Analysis of the relationship between the optical intensity and potential in each region results in the onset potential distribution. The TIRi method reveals poor uniformity and repeatability in the catalytic electrodes which are fabricated by depositing Pt/C catalysts on a porous carbon support with polymer binders (e.g., Nafion). Further electrochemical stability test also shows poor durability, whose HER onset potential deteriorates from the edge to the middle of these catalytic electrodes. The present TIRi method realizes direct visualization of the activity distribution on the bulk electrode surface, which provides a powerful tool for better fabrication and evaluation of large-area HER electrodes in industrial energy devices.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(14): 144502, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652207

RESUMO

Despite a long history of studies, acoustic waves are generally regarded as spinless scalar waves, until recent research revealed their rich structures. Here, we report the experimental observation of skyrmion configurations in acoustic waves. We find that surface acoustic waves trapped by a designed hexagonal acoustic metasurface give rise to skyrmion lattice patterns in the dynamic acoustic velocity fields (i.e., the oscillating acoustic air flows). Using an acoustic velocity sensing technique, we directly visualize a Néel-type skyrmion configuration of the acoustic velocity fields. We further demonstrate, respectively, the controllability and robustness of the acoustic skyrmion lattices by tuning the phase differences between the acoustic sources and by introducing local perturbations in our setup. Our study unveils a fundamental acoustic phenomenon that may enable unprecedented manipulation of acoustic waves and may inspire future technologies including advanced acoustic tweezers for the control of small particles.

6.
J Dig Dis ; 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To perform a meta-analysis that investigates the prevalence and seroprevalence of celiac disease (CD) in Chinese general population and high-risk populations, and to summarize data from a serological survey of high-risk populations in Guangdong, China. METHODS: We collected data from the serological survey of high-risk populations in Guangdong, China (n = 1390) by testing serum tissue transglutaminase immunoglobulin A (tTG-IgA), deamidated gliadin peptides immunoglobulin A (DGP-IgA) and deamidated gliadin peptides immunoglobulin G (DGP-IgG), and also searched Medline, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane and 3 Chinese databases up to December 20, 2020 to estimate the pooled prevalence and seroprevalence of CD in China. RESULTS: In the serological survey, 0.94% (13/1390) individuals were positive for CD antibodies. In a meta-analysis of 18 studies, the seroprevalence of CD in Chinese general population was 0.27% (95% CI, 0.02-0.71). The seroprevalence of CD in Chinese high-risk populations was 8.34% (95% CI, 4.90-12.54), significantly higher than that in general population (OR 7.27, 95% CI, 4.06-13.04). The prevalence of biopsied-proven CD in high-risk Chinese populations was 4.44% (95% CI, 1.53-8.58). The seroprevalence of CD was varying with geographic origin, higher in Northern China than that in Southern China. CONCLUSIONS: The basis for diagnosis of CD in Chinese patients should be through early case-finding by serological screening in high-risk groups; generous serological testing in patients with vague symptoms, especially in Northern Chinese.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529925

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to explore the application value of the maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in gastric cancer. Methods: The data of 164 patients with gastric cancer who had undergone18F-FDG PET/CT before a biopsy were collected, and the correlation of SUVmax with clinical stage, pathological differentiation degree, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) status, and Ki-67 index of gastric cancer was analyzed. Results: The SUVmax of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma was significantly higher than that of moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma and signet-ring cell carcinoma (p < 0.01), and SUVmax in the well-differentiated adenocarcinoma group was higher than that in the signet-ring cell carcinoma group (p < 0.01). The SUVmax in the HER-2 negative group was higher than that in the HER-2 positive group (p < 0.01). The SUVmax was higher in the Ki-67 high expression group than in the low expression group (p < 0.01), and there was a significant positive correlation between the two (p < 0.01). Conclusion: 18F-FDG PET/CT SUVmax can, to some extent, predict the degree of differentiation, HER-2 status, and Ki-67 index of gastric cancer patients.

8.
Planta ; 254(4): 75, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533620

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Brassinosteroid (BR) synthesis genes in different cotton species was comprehensively identified, and the participation of GhCPD-3 in the BR synthesis signaling pathway for regulating plant development was verified. Brassinosteroid is a natural steroidal phytohormone that plays fundamental roles in plant growth and development. In cotton, detailed characterization and functional validation of BR biosynthesis genes remain rare. Here, 16, 8 and 9 BR biosynthesis genes were identified in Gossypium hirsutum, Gossypium raimondii and Gossypium arboreum, respectively, and their phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, conserved motifs of the encoded proteins, chromosomal locations were determined and a synteny analysis was performed. Gossypium hirsutum and Arabidopsis BR biosynthesis genes closely clustered in the phylogenetic tree and fragment duplication was likely the primary cause promoting gene family expansion in G. hirsutum. Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) enrichment analysis showed their relevance as BR biosynthesis genes. GhCPD-3 was highly expressed in roots and stems and the loci of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were significantly associated with these traits.Ectopic overexpression of GhCPD-3 in the cpd91 Arabidopsis mutant rescued the mutant phenotype by increasing plant height and leaf size in comparison to those of cpd91 and WT plants. Moreover, overexpressed GhCPD-3 in cpd91 mutants showed greater hypocotyl and root lengths than those of cpd91 and WT plants under light and dark conditions, respectively, indicating that BR actively promotes hypocotyl and root growth. Similar to CPD (CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC DWARF), GhCPD-3 restores BR biosynthesis thereby mediating plant growth and development.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Filogenia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
9.
Anal Chem ; 93(38): 12914-12920, 2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523343

RESUMO

Flow battery electrodes are vital for performing redox reactions, and an in-depth understanding of reaction kinetics and spatial distribution differences in electrodes is very important for improving the efficiency of electrochemical reactions. In this study, a reflection-type phase-sensitive weak measurement imaging system was developed for the detection of flow batteries. The phase difference between two polarization components in total internal reflection caused by electrode redox processes was measured by weak value amplification. The resulting refractive index resolution of the imaging system was estimated to be 2.8-4.2 × 10-6 RIU. The real-time monitoring ability of the system was demonstrated by linear sweep voltammetry tests of vanadium redox batteries. Compared to traditional optical methods, the proposed weak measurement imaging sensor did not require coating, as it can be used in acid electrolytes of vanadium flow batteries. Meanwhile, the weak value amplification effect led to a higher resolution than the total internal reflection system shown in our previous work, thereby resulting in more accurate detection of electrochemical reactions. In sum, the proposed sensor looks very promising for the detection of electrochemical reactions in flow batteries, water splitting, electrochemical corrosion, and electrocatalysis.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Eletrólitos , Eletrodos , Oxirredução , Vanádio
10.
Anesth Analg ; 133(4): 1048-1059, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiotoxicity can be induced by the commonly used amide local anesthetic, bupivacaine. Bupivacaine can inhibit protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation and activated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα). It can decouple mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and enhance reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Apelin enhances the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and AMPK/acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) pathways, promotes the complete fatty acid oxidation in the heart, and reduces the release of ROS. In this study, we examined whether exogenous (Pyr1) apelin-13 could reverse bupivacaine-induced cardiotoxicity. METHODS: We used the bupivacaine-induced inhibition model in adult male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (n = 48) and H9c2 cardiomyocyte cell cultures to explore the role of apelin-13 in the reversal of bupivacaine cardiotoxicity, and its possible mechanism of action. AMPKα, ACC, carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT), PI3K, AKT, superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (p47-phox) were quantified. Changes in mitochondrial ultrastructure were examined, and mitochondrial DNA, cell viability, ROS release, oxygen consumption rate (OCR) were determined. RESULTS: Apelin-13 reduced bupivacaine-induced mitochondrial DNA lesions in SD rats (P < .001), while increasing the expression of AMPKα (P = .007) and PI3K (P = .002). Furthermore, apelin-13 blocked bupivacaine-induced depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (P = .019) and the bupivacaine-induced increases in ROS (P = .001). Also, the AMPK pathway was activated by bupivacaine as well as apelin-13 (P = .002) in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Additionally, the reduction in the PI3K expression by bupivacaine was mitigated by apelin-13 in H9c2 cardiomyocytes (P = .001). While the aforementioned changes induced by bupivacaine were not abated by apelin-13 after pretreatment with AMPK inhibitor compound C; the bupivacaine-induced changes were still mitigated by apelin-13, even when pretreated with PI3K inhibitor-LY294002. CONCLUSIONS: Apelin-13 treatment reduced bupivacaine-induced oxidative stress, attenuated mitochondrial morphological changes and mitochondrial DNA damage, enhanced mitochondrial energy metabolism, and ultimately reversed bupivacaine-induced cardiotoxicity. Our results suggest a role for the AMPK in apelin-13 reversal of bupivacaine-induced cardiotoxicity.

11.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 73(4): 539-550, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405210

RESUMO

The article aims to study the effect and mechanism of shear stress on eicosanoids produced by the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids in endothelial cells. First, human umbilical vein endothelial cells were treated by control (Static), laminar shear stress (LSS) and oscillatory shear stress (OSS) for 6 h. Then the endothelial cells were incubated with fresh M199 medium for 3 h, and the cell culture medium was collected. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer was used to detect the level of eicosanoid metabolites secreted by endothelial cells. The results showed that under different shear stress, the level of eicosanoid metabolites were changed significantly. We found 10 metabolites were significantly up-regulated by OSS compared with those in LSS group, including PGD2, PGE2, PGF2α and PGJ2 produced by cyclooxygenase; 11-HETE, 15-HETE, 13-HDoHE produced by lipoxygenase or spontaneous oxidation; 12,13-EpOME, 9,10-EpOME, 9,10-DiHOME produced by cytochrome P450 oxidase and soluble epoxide hydrolase. The transcription levels of these up-regulated eicosanoids metabolic enzyme-related genes were also increased in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that OSS may promote the increase of metabolites by up-regulating the transcription level of metabolic enzyme-related genes, which playing a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. This study reveals the effect of shear stress on eicosanoid metabolism in endothelial cells, which provides a novel supplement to the systems biology approach to study systemic hemodynamics.


Assuntos
Eicosanoides , Metabolômica , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Estresse Mecânico
12.
Pharmacol Res ; 172: 105857, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461223

RESUMO

Opioid relapse is generally caused by the recurrence of context-induced memory reinstatement of reward. However, the internal mechanisms that facilitate and modify these processes remain unknown. One of the key regions of the reward is the nucleus accumbens (NAc) which receives glutamatergic projections from the dorsal hippocampus CA1 (dCA1). It is not yet known whether the dCA1 projection to the NAc shell regulates the context-induced memory recall of morphine. Here, we used a common model of addiction-related behavior conditioned place preference paradigm, combined with immunofluorescence, chemogenetics, optogenetics, and electrophysiology techniques to characterize the projection of the dCA1 to the NAc shell, in context-induced relapse memory to morphine. We found that glutamatergic neurons of the dCA1 and gamma aminobutyric acidergic (GABA) neurons of the NAc shell are the key brain areas and neurons involved in the context-induced reinstatement of morphine memory. The dCA1-NAc shell glutamatergic input pathway and the excitatory synaptic transmission of the dCA1-NAc shell were enhanced via the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) when mice were re-exposed to environmental cues previously associated with drug intake. Furthermore, chemogenetic and optogenetic inactivation of the dCA1-NAc shell pathway decreased the recurrence of long- and short-term morphine-paired context memory in mice. These results provided evidence that the dCA1-NAc shell glutamatergic projections mediated the context-induced memory recall of morphine.

13.
Environ Int ; 157: 106829, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425483

RESUMO

The sulfonate compound 2,3-dihydroxypropane-1-sulfonate (DHPS) is one of the most abundant organic sulfur compounds in the biosphere. DHPS derived from dietary intake could be transformed into sulfide by intestinal microbiota and thus impacts human health. However, little is known about its sulfur transformation and subsequent impacts in marine environment. In this study, laboratory-culturing was combined with targeted metabolomic, chemical fluorescence probing, and comparative proteomic methods to examine the bioavailability of chiral DHPS (R and S isomers) for bacteria belonging to the marine Roseobacter clade. The metabolic potential of DHPS in bacteria was further assessed based on genomic analysis. Roseobacter members Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3, Dinoroseobacter shibae DFL 12, and Roseobacter denitrificans OCh 114 could utilize chiral DHPS for growth, producing sulfite. They all contained a similar gene cluster for DHPS metabolism but differed in the genes encoding enzymes for desulfonation. There was no significant difference in the growth rate and DHPS consumption rate for R. pomeroyi DSS-3 between R- and S-DHPS cultures, with few proteins expressed differentially were found. Proteomic data suggested that a series of hydrogenases oxidized DHPS, after which desulfonation could proceed via three distinct enzymatic pathways. Strain R. pomeroyi DSS-3 completed the desulfonation via L-cysteate sulfo-lyase, while D. shibae DFL 12 and R. denitrificans OCh 114 primarily utilized sulfolactate sulfo-lyase, and sulfopyruvate decarboxylase followed by sulfoacetaldehyde acetyltransferase, respectively, to complete desulfonation releasing the sulfonate-moiety. The sulfite could be further oxidized or incorporated into sulfate assimilation, indicated by the proteomic data. Furthermore, DHPS metabolic pathways were found primarily in marine bacterial groups, including the majority of sequenced Roseobacter genomes. Our results suggest that chiral DHPS, as a vital reduced sulfur reservoir, could be metabolized by marine bacteria, providing a resource for bacterial growth, rather than acting as a source of toxic sulfide within the marine ecosystem.


Assuntos
Roseobacter , Alcanossulfonatos , Ecossistema , Humanos , Proteômica , Rhodobacteraceae , Roseobacter/genética
14.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(10): 2561-2575, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326694

RESUMO

Neointimal hyperplasia caused by the excessive proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is the pathological basis of restenosis. However, there are few effective strategies to prevent restenosis. Celastrol, a pentacyclic triterpene, has been recently documented to be beneficial to certain cardiovascular diseases. Based on its significant effect on autophagy, we proposed that celastrol could attenuate restenosis through enhancing autophagy of VSMCs. In the present study, we found that celastrol effectively inhibited the intimal hyperplasia and hyperproliferation of VSMCs by inducing autophagy. It was revealed that autophagy promoted by celastrol could induce the lysosomal degradation of c-MYC, which might be a possible mechanism contributing to the reduction of VSMCs proliferation. The Wnt5a/PKC/mTOR signaling pathway was found to be an underlying mechanism for celastrol to induce autophagy and inhibit the VSMCs proliferation. These observations indicate that celastrol may be a novel drug with a great potential to prevent restenosis.

15.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 173: 7-18, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252540

RESUMO

Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MIRI) is closely related to oxidative stress. However, the redox environment of the heart has not been evaluated thoroughly after MIRI, which limits precise redox intervention. In this study, we developed the redox environment metabolomic evaluation (REME) method to analyze the redox metabolites of the heart after MIRI. Based on the targeted metabolomics strategy, we established a detection panel for 22 redox-related molecules, including the major redox couples nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH/NAD+), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH/NADP+), and glutathione/glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG), reactive oxygen and nitrogen species-related molecules, and some lipid peroxidation products. The high sensitivity and specificity of the method make it suitable for evaluating the endogenous redox environment. The REME method showed that the heart tissue in a MIRI mouse model had a different redox profile from that in the control group. Different redox species changed in different ways. The ratios of GSSG/GSH and NADP+/NADPH increased, but the levels of both NAD+ and NADH decreased in the risk area of the infarcted heart after reperfusion. In addition, some reactive nitrogen species-related metabolites (tetrahydrobiopterin, arginine, and S-nitrosoglutathione) decreased and some lipid peroxides (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, and benzaldehyde) increased. The redox metabolites GSH, GSSG, NADPH, NAD+, S-nitrosoglutathione, arginine, and tetrahydrobiopterin had a positive correlation with the ejection fraction and a negative correlation with the level of lactate dehydrogenase in plasma. In summary, we achieved a comprehensive, systemic understanding of the changes in the redox environment after MIRI. Our REME method could be used to evaluate the redox environment in other processes.


Assuntos
Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica , Animais , Dissulfeto de Glutationa/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Camundongos , NADP/metabolismo , Oxirredução
16.
Methods Cell Biol ; 165: 103-110, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311859

RESUMO

Mitophagy is an autophagic mechanism for targeting damaged or unnecessary mitochondria and responsible for mitochondria quality control. Emerging evidence revealed that mitophagy is associated with many physiological processes and cellular activities. Therefore, the determination of mitophagy may provide insights into human physiological and pathological processes. Electron microscopy, one of the best approaches, can directly provide the ultrastructure evidence for mitophagy. Here, we detail an experiment protocol for electron microscopy preparation, so as to detect mitophagy in biological samples. Compare with other biochemical techmology, conventional electron microscopy are still essential for strengthening or replacing biochemical methods, and a better understanding of this method could be important to investigate mitophagy.

17.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 166: 328-340, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147725

RESUMO

Cytokinin (CK) is an important plant hormone that promotes plant cell division and differentiation, and participates in salt response under osmotic stress. LOGs (LONELY GUY) are CK-activating enzymes involved in CK synthesis. The LOG gene family has not been comprehensively characterized in cotton. In this study we identified 151 LOG genes from nine plant species, including 28 LOG genes in Gossypium hirsutum. Phylogenetic analysis divided LOG genes into three groups. Exon/intron structures and protein motifs of GhLOG genes were highly conserved. Synteny analysis revealed that several gene loci were highly conserved between the A and D sub-genomes of G. hirsutum with purifying selection pressure during evolution. Expression profiles showed that most LOG genes were constitutively expressed in eight different tissues. Furthermore, LOG genes can be regulated by abiotic stresses and phytohormone treatments. Moreover, subcellular localization revealed that GhLOG3_At resides inside the cell membrane. Overexpression of GhLOG3 enhanced salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of GhLOG3_At in cotton enhanced sensitivity of plants to salt stress with increased H2O2 contents and decreased chlorophyll and proline (PRO) activity. Our results suggested that GhLOG3_At induces salt stress tolerance in cotton, and provides a basis for the use of CK synthesis genes to regulate cotton growth and stress resistance.


Assuntos
Gossypium , Tolerância ao Sal , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
18.
Microb Pathog ; 158: 105024, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089790

RESUMO

African swine fever (ASF) is an acute, hemorrhagic and severe infectious disease caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV) in domestic pigs and various wild boars, with a mortality rate up to 100%. ASF was first discovered in 1921 in Kenya. ASFV has a large genome and complex immune escape mechanism creating difficulties in the production of vaccines. Recently, remarkable advances have been made in vaccine development all over the world especially in live-attenuated vaccine. This article aims to review the research progress of ASF attenuated live vaccines in order to provide a reference for the development of vaccines for this disease.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana , Febre Suína Africana , Vacinas Virais , Febre Suína Africana/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/genética , Animais , Humanos , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Vacinas Atenuadas
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066665

RESUMO

Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) typically act as transporters of odor molecules and play an important role in insect host location. Here, we identified an OBP in brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens salivary glands via transcriptome sequencing. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting analysis results showed that NlugOBP11 was highly expressed in salivary glands and secreted into rice plant during feeding, suggesting that it assists in BPH feeding on rice. Functional analysis in N. lugens saliva revealed that silencing this gene by RNA interference decreased the BPH stylet performance in the phloem of rice plants, reduced sap sucking, and ultimately led to insect death. Moreover, overexpression of NlugOBP11 in rice protoplasts or Nicotiana benthamiana leaves inhibited the production of defense-related signaling molecule salicylic acid in rice plant. The results demonstrate that NlugOBP11 is not only essential for BPH feeding, but also acts as an effector that inhibits plant defense.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Oryza/parasitologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Receptores Odorantes/metabolismo , Saliva/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Hemípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Receptores Odorantes/química , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Tabaco/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Opt Express ; 29(12): 18976-18987, 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34154141

RESUMO

This study proposes an encryption scheme combining cellular automata (CA) and DNA encoding to improve security of a coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) system, wherein key sequences are generated with good randomness and unpredictability by a 4-dimensional hyper-chaotic system. A base scrambling pseudo random binary sequence (PRBS) generated by the CA is introduced, which results in better scrambling effect and randomness in the conventional complex DNA encoding. The randomness, complexity and security of the system is enhanced due to 6 variable keys (key space of ∼10138). An experiment conducted in a 40 GHz 16QAM CO-OFDM system over an 80 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) shows that the authorized user can successfully decrypt the received signal, while the eavesdroppers cannot derive useful information with bit error rate (BER) at approximately 0.5. An allowable optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) penalty of 0.5 dB will be introduced to achieve same BER before and after encryption due to the error propagation of cellular automata.

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