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1.
Diagn Interv Radiol ; 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32071022

RESUMO

PURPOSE We aimed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) combined with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) guided by multiple imaging modalities for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) in special (i.e., high-risk or unfavorable) locations compared with those in conventional locations. METHODS A total of 122 HCC patients were enrolled, including 85 patients (69.7%) with HCC in conventional locations and 37 (30.3%) with HCC in special locations. The clinical data, overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and procedure-related adverse events were analyzed. RESULTS RFA combined with TACE was successfully performed in all patients. Three complications (2.5%) occurred, with no significant difference between the conventional (n=1, 1.2%) and special (n=2, 5.4%) locations (P = 0.218). Complete tumor necrosis rate was not significantly different between the conventional (n=73, 85.9%) and special (n=34, 91.9%) locations at one-month imaging (P = 0.353). After a follow-up of 3-48 months, the PFS was 17 months for patients with HCC in conventional locations and 14 months for patients with HCC in special locations; one-year PFS rate was 68.1% in the conventional location group, not significantly (P = 0.741) different from 59.1% in the special location group. The OS was 28 months in the conventional location group while 32 months in the special location group. The cumulative one- and two-year OS rates were 89.9% and 63.3%, respectively, in the conventional location group, not significantly different from 96.3% and 65% in the special location group (P = 0.273). Age (P = 0.043) and tumor size (P < 0.001) were significant prognostic factors for OS, and tumor size (P < 0.001) was the only significant prognostic factor for PFS. CONCLUSION RFA guided by multiple imaging modalities combined with TACE may be safe and effective for treating HCCs in special locations.

2.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-10, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009445

RESUMO

Ten cycloart-7-ene triterpenoid glycosides, including three new compounds (1-3), were isolated from the roots of Cimicifuga dahurica. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses, chemical methods and comparison with literatures. In addition, the isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on the production of NO, as well as the expressions of iNOS and COX-2 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results showed that compounds 3, 5, 6, 7 and 8 can reduce the release of NO in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistically, Western blot analysis indicated that the NO inhibitory effects relied on down-regulating the expression of iNOS, and partially associated with lowering the expression of COX-2.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031702

RESUMO

MUC15 is a novel mucin associated with the cell membrane that is overexpressed in human gliomas. Its function in glioma is unclear. In this study, high MUC15 levels were detected in glioma tissues and cells. We found that transfection with MUC15 siRNA in U251 and T98G cells reduced MUC15 expression and decreased cell proliferation, invasion, and migration (p<0.05). After transfecting U251 and T98G cells with pcDNA3.1-myc-His-MUC15 plasmid to overexpress MUC15, MUC15 expression was significantly upregulated and cell proliferation, invasion, and migration were increased (p<0.05). MUC15 activated Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway and the ERK inhibitor PD98059 partly reversed MUC15-enhanced proliferation, invasion, and migration of glioma cells (p<0.05). The results indicate that MUC15 plays a part in glioma tumorigenesis, and the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling is involved in the regulation of MUC15 on glioma cell activity.

4.
World Neurosurg ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The most common sites of breast cancer metastases are the bone, lung, liver and brain. Scalp involvement in breast cancer metastasis is extraordinarily rare. CASE PRESENTATION: This study reports a 52-year-old woman who had a history of malignant right breast cancer and underwent a mastectomy. PET/CT revealed a soft tissue nodule measuring 1.0*0.7 cm located subcutaneously on the top left side of the scalp. A scalp mass excision operation was performed with an extended 'S'-shaped incision, and the mass was sent for pathology. Immunohistochemistry showed the following results: CK7: +; ER: 2+, 90%; GATA3: +; GCDFP-15: scattered cells+; mammaglobin: -, napsin A: -; and TTF-1: -. These results were consistent with the characteristics of primary right breast cancer, supporting scalp metastasis from breast cancer. CONCLUSION: Scalp metastasis from breast cancer is an exceedingly infrequent phenomenon. Close attention should be paid to soft tissue masses in patients with a healthy appearance and in those with a history of malignant cancer. When neurosurgeons operate on the mass, the circumscription and depth of the tumor must be given further attention.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017424

RESUMO

A variety of controlled release carriers for bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) delivery have been developed and tested in animal models. An alginate-based polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) for controlled release of low-dose BMP-2 has shown promising results in preclinical research. However, the poor handling properties and long-term stability of PEC need to be improved for translational applications. This study aimed to address these limitations of alginate-based PEC by employing a freeze-drying technique. The size and structure of freeze-dried PEC (FD-PEC) were maintained with the addition of a cryoprotectant, trehalose. The release profile of BMP-2 from FD-PEC was similar to that of freshly prepared PEC. In vitro bioactivity analysis of the released BMP-2 showed that the carrier performance of PEC was not compromised by freeze-drying up to three-month storage at room temperature. BMP-2-bound FD-PEC induced comparable bone formation to that using freshly prepared regular PEC in a rat posterolateral spinal fusion model. These results suggest that FD-PEC is capable of delivering low-dose BMP-2 and could be developed as an off-the-shelf product for translational applications. The simplicity of this preservation method provides promise for the translational application of PEC.

6.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022386

RESUMO

Th22 cells are a novel subset of CD4+ T cells that primarily mediate biological effects through IL-22, with both Th22 cells and IL-22 being closely associated with multiple autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated whether and how Th22 cells affect atherosclerosis. ApoE-/- mice and age-matched C57BL/6J mice were fed a Western diet for 0, 4, 8 or 12 weeks. The results of dynamic analyses showed that Th22 cells, which secrete the majority of IL-22 among the known CD4+ cells, play a major role in atherosclerosis. ApoE-/- mice fed a Western diet for 12 weeks and administered recombinant mouse IL-22 (rIL-22) developed substantially larger plaques in both the aorta and aortic root and higher levels of CD3+ T cells, CD68+ macrophages, collagen, IL-6, Th17 cells, dendritic cells (DCs) and pSTAT3 but lower smooth muscle cell (SMC) α-actin expression than the control mice. Treatment with a neutralizing anti-IL-22 monoclonal antibody (IL-22 mAb) reversed the above effects. Bone marrow-derived DCs exhibited increased differentiation into mature DCs following rIL-22 and ox-LDL stimulation. IL-17 and pSTAT3 were up-regulated after stimulation with IL-22 and ox-LDL in cells cocultured with CD4+ T cells and mature DC supernatant, but this up-regulation was significantly inhibited by IL-6mAb or the cell-permeable STAT3 inhibitor S31-201. Thus, Th22 cell-derived IL-22 aggravates atherosclerosis development through a mechanism that is associated with IL-6/STAT3 activation, DC-induced Th17 cell proliferation and IL-22-stimulated SMC dedifferentiation into a synthetic phenotype.

7.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cholinesterase as a sensitive biomarker for prognosis in a variety of conditions but it is rare in stroke studies. The very elderly (≥ 80 years of age) represent the most susceptible group of ischemic stroke. We aimed to determine whether admission serum cholinesterase concentration had any effect on clinical outcome in very elderly patients (individuals aged ≥ 80 years) with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: A retrospective record review was conducted in two tertiary university hospitals. Elderly patients aged ≥ 80 years admitted with a diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke from January 1, 2014 to November 30, 2019, who had a cholinesterase concentration drawn, were included. The patients were grouped based on the inflection points of the locally weighted regression and smoothing scatterplot (LOESS) curve between cholinesterase levels and in-hospital mortality (study outcome) with lower concentration as reference group. RESULTS: A total of 612 patients were admitted with a diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke, and 569 met the inclusion criteria. A threshold effect was identified using regression smoothing scatterplot (LOESS), with one cutoff point of 4.0 KU/L. There was a significant difference in-hospital mortality was observed (P < 0.001). After adjusted demographic and clinical features, the OR of cholinesterase for mortality was 0.43 (95% CI 0.34-0.54, P < 0.001), suggesting that lower admission cholinesterase level was an independent risk factors for all-cause mortality among patients with AIS. CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated a significant association between admission cholinesterase concentration and in-hospital mortality in very elderly patients with AIS.

8.
Pathol Res Pract ; : 152854, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057517

RESUMO

MiRNAs affect various biological pathways associated with the development, progression, clinical outcome and treatment response improvement in cervical cancer. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of miRNA 96 on cervical cancer and to clarify the mechanism. Vivo and vitro experiments were conducted in our trial. MiR-96 is upregulated in cervical cancer cell lines and cervical cancer tissues and is correlated with clinical features in cervical cancer patients. Overexpression of miR-96 enhances proliferation of cervical cancer cells, while inhibiting miR-96 reduces the proliferation of cervical cancer cells. Inhibition of miR-96 significantly decreased the percentage of cells in the S phase and increased the percentage of cells in G1/G0 peak in both SiHa and CaSki cells compared with NC cells and decreased the expressions of p21, p27 and cyclin D1. FOXO1 3'-UTR was sub cloned into a luciferase reporter vector and the putative miR-96 binding site in the FOXO1 3'-UTR was mutated. Treated with miR-96 inhibitor consistently enhanced the luciferase activity of the FOXO1 3'-UTR luciferase reporter plasmids in both SiHa and CaSki cells, whereas mutations in the miR-96-binding site abolished the effect. Vivo experiment also support these results. Therefore, inhibition of miR-96 might suppress growth, proliferation of CC cells and promote apoptosis of CC cells both in vitro and in vivo.

9.
Trials ; 21(1): 170, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the leading cause of death among preterm infants born at < 30 weeks' gestation. The incidence of NEC is reduced when infants are fed human milk. However, in many neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), it is standard practice to freeze and/or pasteurize human milk, which deactivates bioactive components that may offer additional protective benefits. Indeed, our pilot study showed that one feed of fresh mother's own milk per day was safe, feasible, and can reduce morbidity in preterm infants. To further evaluate the benefits of fresh human milk in the NICU, a randomized controlled trial is needed. METHODS: Our prospective multicenter, double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial will include infants born at < 30 weeks' gestation and admitted to one of 29 tertiary NICUs in China. Infants in the intervention (fresh human milk) group (n = 1549) will receive at least two feeds of fresh human milk (i.e., within 4 h of expression) per day from the time of enrollment until 32 weeks' corrected age or discharge to home. Infants in the control group (n = 1549) will receive previously frozen human milk following the current standard protocols. Following informed consent, enrolled infants will be randomly allocated to the control or fresh human milk groups. The primary outcome is the composite outcome mortality or NEC ≥ stage 2 at 32 weeks' corrected age, and the secondary outcomes are mortality, NEC ≥ stage 2, NEC needing surgery, late-onset sepsis, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), weight gain, change in weight, increase in length, increase in head circumference, time to full enteral feeds, and finally, the number and type of critical incident reports, including feeding errors. DISCUSSION: Our double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial aims to examine whether fresh human milk can improve infant outcomes. The results of this study will impact both Chinese and international medical practice and feeding policy for preterm infants. In addition, data from our study will inform changes in health policy in NICUs across China, such that mothers are encouraged to enter the NICU and express fresh milk for their infants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry; #ChiCTR1900020577; registered January 1, 2019; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showprojen.aspx?proj=34276.

10.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 21(1): 11, 2020 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quercetin, a pigment (flavonoid) found in many plants and foods, has good effects on protecting liver function but poor solubility and bioavailability in vivo. A drug delivery system can improve the accumulation and bioavailability of quercetin in liver. In this study, we used liposomal nanoparticles to entrap quercetin and evaluated its protective and therapeutic effects on drug-induced liver injury in rats. METHODS: The nanoliposomal quercetin was prepared by a thin film evaporation-high pressure homogenization method and characterized by morphology, particle size and drug content. Acute liver injury was induced in rats by composite factors, including carbon tetrachloride injection, high-fat corn powder intake and ethanol drinking. After pure quercetin or nanoliposomal quercetin treatment, liver function was evaluated by detecting serum levels of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), glutamic-oxal acetic transaminase (GOT) and direct bilirubin (DBIL). Histology of injured liver tissues was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining. RESULTS: On histology, liposomal nanoparticles loading quercetin were evenly distributed spherical particles. The nanoliposomal quercetin showed high bioactivity and bioavailability in rat liver and markedly attenuated the liver index and pathologic changes in injured liver tissue. With nanoliposomal quercetin treatment, the serum levels of GPT, GOT and DBIL were significantly better than treated with pure quercetin. Using liposomal nanoparticles to entrap quercetin might be an effective strategy to reduce hepatic injury and protect hepatocytes against damage. CONCLUSION: Liposomal nanoparticles may improve the solubility and bioavailability of quercetin in liver. Furthermore, nanoliposomal quercetin could effectively protect rats against acute liver injury and may be a new hepatoprotective and therapeutic agent for patients with liver diseases.

11.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 107: 103640, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078959

RESUMO

In contrast to that hypoacetylation of histones is associated with condensed chromatin and gene silencing, the hyperacetylation of histones can promote an "open chromatin" conformation and transcriptional activation, which is recruited by some viruses to enhance the viral genome replication in host cells. However, the function of histone acetylation modification in the infection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), one of the most virulent pathogens for crustaceans like shrimp and crayfish at present, is still unknown. Previously, we found that the transcript of a histone K-Lysine acetyltransferase CqKAT2A-like gene was down-regulated in a differentially expressed transcriptome library of the haematopietic tissue (Hpt) cells from red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus upon WSSV infection at 12 hpi. To further reveal its possible role in anti-WSSV response, CqKAT2A-like gene was then identified with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2523 bp encoding 840 amino acids, which contained a conserved PCAF-N domain, acetyltransf1 domain and bromo domain. Gene expression analysis showed that CqKAT2A-like was distributed in all tissues examined with high presence in haemocyte and muscle, and the transcript was significantly down-regulated after WSSV infection in Hpt cells. Furthermore, the level of histone H3 acetylation (H3ac) was strongly reduced by gene silencing of CqKAT2A-like, which was accompanied with the significantly decreased gene expression of WSSV in Hpt cells, suggesting that CqKAT2A-like gene can promote the activity H3ac and the replication of WSSV. When the H3ac was induced by histone deacetyltransferase inhibitor TSA, the transcription of WSSV genes including both IE1 and VP28 genes was significantly increased, indicating that H3ac participated in WSSV infection in Hpt cells. Taken together, these data suggest that CqKAT2A-like gene might promote the replication of WSSV by regulating H3ac, which sheds new light on the pathogenesis of WSSV in crustaceans.

12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(8): e19330, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has gradually drawn the attention of clinicians as an alternative choice for insomniacs and TCM Yangxin Anshen Therapy (TYAT) is a crucial therapy of treating insomniacs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of TYAT for insomnia. METHODS: Seven electronic databases were searched from inception to July 2019. Two authors independently identified Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs), extracted data and assessed risk of bias by Cochrane risk bias assessment tool. Comprehensive meta-analysis was conducted with the Review Manager for eligible and appropriate studies. RESULTS: Fourteen trials (1549 participants) were finally included in this study. The included studies were of moderate-to-high quality. Twelve trials reported the specific methods of random sequence generation, and 4 of them used the allocation concealment. Blinding of participants and personnel were used in 7 studies, and blinding of outcome assessment was performed in 3 studies. The main meta-analysis showed: CONCLUSION:: TYAT is an effective alternative therapy for insomnia, and its clinical application appears safe. The conclusions of this paper have a certain reference value for further research and clinical practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD 42019135115.

13.
J Clin Lab Anal ; : e23163, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Establishment of cohesion 1 homolog 2 (ESCO2) has been identified as an essential factor for cohesion in cell cycle in human multiple cancers. Nonetheless, its functional implication on prognosis and cellular behaviors of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rarely elucidated. We performed this study to detect the effects of ESCO2 in RCC progression. METHODS: We accessed The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database to evaluate the ESCO2 expression levels in tumor tissues, including 32 normal tissues and 289 tumor tissues. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot were implemented for expression detection. After ESCO2 knockdown using siRNAs interference, functional experiments were conducted to explore the role of ESCO2, such as cell proliferation analysis and colony formation assay. Transwell assays for migration and invasion was also performed. RESULTS: In this study, ESCO2 was significantly increased in RCC tissues and cell lines. The RCC patients with high expression of ESCO2 were susceptible to unfavorable prognosis, and its expression has a marked association with clinical features containing age, gender, pathologic stage, and so on. Furthermore, knockdown of ESCO2 inhibited cell growth, invasion, and migration. Mechanistically, phosphorylation protein kinase B (AKT) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and p53 were all down-regulated due to the ESCO2 inhibition. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, our results raised the possibility that ESCO2 may act as a promising option for tumor therapeutic interference by exhibiting enhanced selectivity over conventional chemotherapy.

14.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902948

RESUMO

The prognosis role of CCT3 in MM and the possible pathways it involved were studied in our research. By analyzing ten independent datasets (including 48 healthy donors, 2220 MM, 73 MGUS, and 6 PCL), CCT3 was found to express higher in MM than healthy donors, and the expression level was gradually increased from MGUS, SMM, MM to PCL (all P < 0.01). By analyzing three independent datasets (GSE24080, GSE2658, and GSE4204), we found that CCT3 was a significant indicator of poor prognosis (all P < 0.01). KEGG and GSEA analysis showed that CCT3 expression was associated with JAK-STAT3 pathway, Hippo signaling pathway, and WNT signaling pathway. In addition, different expressed genes analysis revealed MYC, which was one of the downstream genes regulated by JAK-STAT3 pathway, was upregulated in MM. This confirms that JAK-STAT3 signaling pathway may promote the progress of disease which was regulated by CCT3 expression. Our study revealed that CCT3 may play a supporting role at the diagnosis of myeloid, and high expression of CCT3 suggested poor prognosis in MM. CCT3 expression may promote the progression of MM mainly by regulating MYC through JAK-STAT3 signaling pathway.

15.
Molecules ; 25(3)2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31979166

RESUMO

Two new xanthone derivatives, pestalotiones A (1) and B (2), one new diphenyl ketone riboside, pestalotione C (7), and one new diphenyl ether, pestalotione D (8), along with five known compounds isosulochrin dehydrate (3), 3,8-dihydroxy-6-methyl-9-oxo-9H-xanthene-1-carboxylate (4), isosulochrin (5), chloroisosulochrin (6), and pestalotether D (9), were isolated from the crude extract of the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis theae (N635). The structures of the new compounds were unambiguously deduced by HRESIMS and 1D/2D-NMR spectroscopic data. Compound 6 showed modest cytotoxicity against the HeLa cell line with an IC50 value of 35.2 µM. Compound 9 also showed cytotoxic to the HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines, with IC50 values of 60.8 and 22.6 µM, respectively. Additionally, compounds 1 and 2 exhibited antioxidant activity in scavenging DPPH radical with IC50 values of 54.2 and 59.2 µg/mL, respectively.

16.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(1): 193-203, 2020 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901899

RESUMO

Our previous studies have demonstrated that interleukin-12p35 knockout (IL-12p35 KO) regulates the progression of various cardiovascular diseases, such as acute cardiac injury and hypertension. The aims of this study were to investigate whether IL-12p35 KO affects aging-related cardiac remodeling and to explore the possible mechanisms. First, the effects of IL-12p35 KO on heart structure and function were detected, and the results showed that IL-12p35 KO exacerbated cardiac remodeling and increased cardiac senescence-related protein levels in aged mice. In addition, whether IL-12p35 KO regulates cardiac senescence-related protein expression, cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction and cardiomyocyte apoptosis was also investigated. IL-12p35 KO increased mitochondrial calcium fluorescence intensity and ROS fluorescence intensity, while it reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, reduced mitochondrial complex (I-IV) activity and ATP levels and increased apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF)-related cardiomyocyte apoptosis were observed in aged IL-12p35 KO mice compared with wild-type mice. Our results demonstrate that aging is aggravated by IL-12p35 KO and that the mechanism may be related to exacerbation of mitochondrial dysfunction and AIF-related cardiomyocyte apoptosis.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A large number of studies have been conducted to investigate associations between genetic variants and esophageal cancer risk in the past several decades. However, findings from these studies have been generally inconsistent. We aimed to provide a summary of the current understanding of the genetic architecture of esophageal cancer susceptibility. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive field synopsis and meta-analysis to evaluate associations between 95 variants in 70 genes or loci and esophageal cancer risk using data from 304 eligible publications, including 104,904 cases and 159,797 controls, through screening a total of 21,328 citations. We graded levels of cumulative epidemiological evidence of a significant association with esophageal cancer using the Venice criteria and false-positive report probability tests. We constructed functional annotations for these variants using data from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements Project and other databases. RESULTS: Thirty variants were nominally significantly associated with esophageal cancer risk. Cumulative epidemiological evidence of a significant association with overall esophageal cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, or esophageal adenocarcinoma was strong for 13 variants in or near 13 genes (ADH1B, BARX1, CDKN1A, CHEK2, CLPTM1L, CRTC1, CYP1A1, EGF, LTA, MIR34BC, PLCE1, PTEN and PTGS2). Bioinformatics analysis suggested that these variants and others correlated with them might fall in putative functional regions. CONCLUSIONS: Our study summarizes current literature on the genetic architecture of esophageal cancer susceptibility and identifies several potential polymorphisms that could be involved in esophageal cancer susceptibility. IMPACT: These findings provide direction for future studies to identify new genetic factors for esophageal cancer.

18.
Cell Death Differ ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969692

RESUMO

Lack of insight into the identity of the cells that initiate metastasis hampers the development of antimetastatic therapies. Only a tiny fraction of tumor cells termed metastasis-initiating cells (MICs) are able to successfully seed metastases, causing recurrence and therapeutic resistance. Using metastasis models, we describe a subpopulation of MIC derivates from lung metastases that do not have proliferation advantages, express high levels of the PDGF receptors and EMT/stemness-related genes, and are unique in their ability to initiate metastasis. PDGF factors specifically boost the metastatic potential of MIC populations in a PDGFR-dependent manner. However, PDGFR inhibition preferentially suppresses lung metastases, but does not reduce the primary tumor burden. Thus, we found that PDGFR inhibition blocks AKT activation, whereas SGK1, which shares high-similarity kinase domain and overlap substrates with AKT overexpression remains active in MICs. SGK1 and PDGF signaling act in concert to promote metastatic formation, and SGK1 inhibition confers vulnerability to PDGFR inhibitors, also eliciting a powerful antitumor effect. In vivo, SGK1 inhibitors sensitize xenograft tumors to PDGFR-targeted therapies by reducing primary tumor growth and lung metastasis. Consequently, dual inhibition of PDGFR and SGK1 exhibited strong antitumor activities in established breast cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, this approach not only provides insight into MIC transformation but also aids the design of improved therapeutic strategies for advanced breast cancer.

19.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970474

RESUMO

A fractured catheter in the posterior auricular vein is exceedingly rare. Imaging revealed that it was migrating freely and currently overlapped the temporal bone. With multidisciplinary cooperation, general anesthesia, and three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) for guidance, the catheter was removed uneventfully.

20.
Mol Cancer Res ; 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941752

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among American women and a major cause of mortality. To identify metabolic pathways as potential targets to treat metastatic breast cancer, we performed metabolomics profiling on the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and its tissue-tropic metastatic subclones. Here, we report that these subclones with increased metastatic potential display an altered metabolic profile compared with the parental population. In particular, the mitochondrial serine and one-carbon (1C) unit pathway is upregulated in metastatic subclones. Mechanistically, the mitochondrial serine and 1C unit pathway drives the faster proliferation of subclones through enhanced de novo purine biosynthesis. Inhibition of the first rate-limiting enzyme of the mitochondrial serine and 1C unit pathway, serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT2), potently suppresses proliferation of metastatic subclones in culture and impairs growth of lung metastatic subclones at both primary and metastatic sites in mice. Some human breast cancers exhibit a significant association between the expression of genes in the mitochondrial serine and 1C unit pathway with disease outcome and higher expression of SHMT2 in metastatic tumor tissue compared with primary tumors. In addition to breast cancer, a few other cancer types, such as adrenocortical carcinoma and kidney chromophobe cell carcinoma, also display increased SHMT2 expression during disease progression. Together, these results suggest that mitochondrial serine and 1C unit metabolism plays an important role in promoting cancer progression, particularly in late-stage cancer. IMPLICATIONS: This study identifies mitochondrial serine and 1C unit metabolism as an important pathway during the progression of a subset of human breast cancers.

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