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1.
Microbiology ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427093

RESUMO

Bacterial persisters form a subpopulation of cells that survive lethal concentrations of antibiotics without being genetically different from the susceptible population. They are generally considered to be phenotypic variants that spontaneously have entered a dormant state with low ATP levels or reduced membrane potential. In Staphylococcus aureus, a serious opportunistic human pathogen, persisters are believed to contribute to chronic infections that are a major global healthcare problem. While S. aureus persisters have mostly been studied in laboratory strains, we have here investigated the ability of clinical strains to form persisters. For 44 clinical strains belonging to the major clonal complexes CC5, CC8, CC30 or CC45, we examined persister cell formation in stationary phase when exposed to 100 times the MIC of ciprofloxacin, an antibiotic that targets DNA replication. We find that while all strains are able to form persisters, those belonging to CC30 displayed on average 100-fold higher persister cell frequencies when compared to strains of other CCs. Importantly, there was no correlation between persister formation and the cellular ATP content of the individual strains, but the group of CC30 strains displayed slightly lower membrane potential compared to the non-CC30 group. CC30 strains have previously been associated with chronic and reoccuring infections and we hypothesize that there could be a correlation between lineage-specific characteristics displayed via in vitro persister assays and the observed clinical spectrum of disease.

3.
Clin Chem ; 66(5): 706-717, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: S100A8/A9 is implicated in inflammation mechanisms related to atherosclerosis and plaque vulnerability, but it remains unclear whether S100A8/A9 is associated with the prognosis of ischemic stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate these associations in 2 independent multicenter cohorts. METHODS: Plasma S100A8/A9 concentrations at baseline were measured among 4785 patients with ischemic stroke from 2 independent cohorts: Infectious Factors, Inflammatory Markers, and Prognosis of Acute Ischemic Stroke (IIPAIS) and China Antihypertensive Trial in Acute Ischemic Stroke (CATIS). The primary outcome was a composite outcome of death or major disability at 3 months after ischemic stroke. Secondary outcomes were major disability, death, and a composite outcome of death or vascular events. RESULTS: Among the combined participants of IIPAIS and CATIS, the adjusted odds ratios associated with the highest quartile of plasma S100A8/A9 were 2.11 (95% CI, 1.66-2.68) for the primary outcome and 1.62 (95% CI, 1.27-2.07) for the secondary outcome of major disability; adjusted hazard ratios were 4.14 (95% CI, 2.10-8.15) for the secondary outcome of death and 2.08 (95% CI, 1.38-3.13) for the composite outcome of death or vascular events. Each SD increase of log-transformed S100A8/A9 was associated with 28% (95% CI, 18%-39%; P < 0.001) increased risk of the primary outcome. Multivariable-adjusted spline regression analyses showed a linear association between plasma S100A8/A9 concentrations and primary outcome (P < 0.001 for linearity). Subgroup analyses further confirmed these associations. CONCLUSIONS: High plasma S100A8/A9 concentrations at baseline were independently associated with increased risks of adverse clinical outcomes at 3 months after ischemic stroke, suggesting that S100A8/A9 might have a role as a prognostic marker of ischemic stroke.

4.
Life Sci ; 252: 117653, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Rehmanniae Radix (RR) and Cornus officinalis (CO) are a typical herbal pair used to treat diabetic nephropathy (DN) in clinical practice. DN can be effectively treated by catalpol (Cat) and loganin (Log), the main active components of RR and CO respectively, through combating apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation. Herein, a spontaneous DN and podocyte injury model induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs), i.e. KK-Ay mice, was used to explore the cooperative effects of Log and Cat on DN and the mechanism targeting the AGEs-RAGE (receptor for AGE) pathway. METHODS AND KEY FINDINGS: Log and Cat alone or in combination mitigated diabetic symptoms, decreased the level of fasting blood glucose, and increased that of serum insulin. The two drugs alone or in combination protected renal function from damage, prevented extracellular matrix hyperplasia and glycogen deposition, as well as alleviated the loss of podocytes detected by histological assay and immunohistochemistry. Flow cytometry revealed that Log and Cat alone or in combination relieved the apoptosis of AGEs-induced podocytes in vitro. Silencing RAGE by RNA interference played a protective role in podocyte apoptosis, whereas overexpression of it worked oppositely. Western blot exhibited that Log and Cat alone or in combination inhibited the activation of RAGE/p38 MAPK/p65 NF-κB and RAGE/Nox4/p65 NF-κB pathways in podocytes. The inhibitory effects of drug combination were more evident than those of individual treatments. SIGNIFICANCE: Log and Cat cooperatively resisted the apoptosis of podocytes upon DN by targeting AGEs-RAGE and its downstream pathways p38 MAPK and Nox4.

5.
Oncogene ; 39(22): 4375-4389, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32313226

RESUMO

Hippo signaling functions to limit cellular growth, but the aberrant nuclear accumulation of its downstream YAP1 leads to carcinogenesis. YAP1/TEAD complex activates the oncogenic downstream transcription, such as CTGF and c-Myc. How YAP1 is protected in the cytoplasm from ubiquitin-mediated degradation remains elusive. In this study, a member of Angiomotin (Motin) family, AMOTL1 (Angiomotin Like 1), was screened out as the only one to promote YAP1 nuclear accumulation by several clinical cohorts, which was further confirmed by the cellular functional assays. The interaction between YAP1 and AMOTL1 was suggested by co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescent staining. The clinical significance of the AMOTL1-YAP1-CTGF axis in gastric cancer (GC) was analyzed by multiple clinical cohorts. Moreover, the therapeutic effect of targeting the oncogenic axis was appraised by drug-sensitivity tests and xenograft-formation assays. The upregulation of AMOTL1 is associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes of GC, and knocking down AMOTL1 impairs its oncogenic properties. The cytoplasmic interaction between AMOTL1 and YAP1 protects each other from ubiquitin-mediated degradation. AMOTL1 promotes YAP1 translocation into the nuclei to activate the downstream expression, such as CTGF. Knocking down AMOTL1, YAP1, and CTGF enhances the therapeutic efficacies of the first-line anticancer drugs. Taken together, AMOTL1 plays an oncogenic role in gastric carcinogenesis through interacting with YAP1 and promoting its nuclear accumulation. A combination of AMOTL1, YAP1, and CTGF expression might serve as a surrogate of Hippo activation status. The co-activation of the AMOTL1/YAP1-CTGF axis is associated with poor clinical outcomes of GC patients, and targeting this oncogenic axis may enhance the chemotherapeutic effects.

6.
Surg Today ; 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239305

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A novel pharmacological mechanism of valproate was analyzed using a hamster model of adhesion. METHODS: Valproate or placebo was administered just after cecal injury and adhesion severity scores and histological were analyzed. RESULTS: The adhesion severity scores in the placebo- and valproate-treated groups were 2.67 ± 0.42 and 1.0 ± 0.37, respectively, with a significant difference between the groups. A significant increase in mast cell numbers was observed in the placebo-treated group vs. the sham-operated group; however, the mast cell number in the adhesive lesion was significantly lower in the valproate-treated group than in the placebo-treated group. The number of cells positive for chymase, an enzyme in mast cells, in the adhesive lesion was significantly higher in the placebo-treated group, but its increase was attenuated significantly by treatment with valproate. The myeloperoxidase gene expression level in the cecum was significantly higher in the placebo-treated group than in the sham-operated group, but there was no significant difference in the myeloperoxidase gene expression level between the sham-operated and valproate-treated groups in. In an in vitro experiment, valproate inhibited purified human and hamster chymases dose-dependently. CONCLUSION: The chymase inhibitory effect of valproate may contribute to prevent adhesion formation after abdominal injury.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279083

RESUMO

Endo-ß-1,3-glucanase is used to hydrolyze curdlan in a wide range of oligosaccharides production processes. Using pachymaran as the sole carbon source resulted in an endo-ß-1,3-glucanase activity of 86.1 U/mL and an Eendo/Etotal ratio of 0.43, which were 3.2 and 1.65 folds of the values from control (glucose as the sole carbon source), due to the inductive effect of pachymaran as a polysaccharide. However, the cell concentration decreased from 25 to 12 g/L during the late fermentation phase. Therefore, a novel multi-stage feeding strategy was developed wherein glucose was fed twice during the cell logarithmic growth phase (24 and 48 h) and pachymaran once during the early stage of the enzyme accumulation phase (72 h). Consequently, the cell concentration remained around 30 g/L during the late fermentation phase. Endo-ß-1,3-glucanase activity and Eendo/Etotal reached 160.0 U/mL and 0.76, respectively, which were 6.0 and 2.92 folds of the values from control. In addition, three typical polysaccharides with ß-1,3-linked glucose residues were successfully hydrolyzed by endo-ß-1,3-glucanase to produce multifunctional ß-1,3-oligoglucosides.

8.
Histol Histopathol ; : 18223, 2020 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339250

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak began in the city of Wuhan, whereupon it rapidly spread throughout China and subsequently across the world. Rapid transmission of COVID-19 has caused wide-spread panic. Many established medications have been used to treat the disease symptoms; however, no specific drugs or vaccines have been developed. Organoids derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may serve as suitable infection models for ex vivo mimicking of the viral life cycle and drug screening. Human iPSC-3D organoids, self-organised tissues with multiple cell environments, have a similar structure and function as real human organs; hence, these organoids allow greater viral infection efficiency, mimic the natural host-virus interactions, and are suitable for long-term experimentation. Here, we suggest the use of a functional human iPSC-organoid that could act as a reliable and feasible ex vivo infection model for investigation of the virus. This approach will provide much needed insight into the underlying molecular dynamics of COVID-19 for the development of novel treatment and prevention strategies.

9.
Mol Immunol ; 121: 186-194, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244067

RESUMO

NLRP3 (NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain- containing protein 3) inflammasome is involved in diverse inflammatory diseases, so the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome needs to be tightly regulated to prevent excessive inflammation. However, the endogenous regulatory mechanisms of NLRP3 inflammasome are still less defined. Here, we report that ß-catenin, which is the central mediator of the canonical Wnt/ß-catenin signaling, promotes NLRP3 inflammasome activation. When we suppressed the expression of ß-catenin by siRNA or pharmacological inhibitor, the NLRP3 inflammasome activation was impaired. Accordingly, ß-catenin inhibitor attenuated LPS-induced systemic inflammation in vivo. Mechanistically, we found ß-catenin interacted with NLRP3 and promoted the association between NLRP3 and ASC. Thus, our study revealed a novel role of ß-catenin in NLRP3 inflammasome activation and suggest an endogenous crosstalk between Wnt/ß-catenin signal and NLRP3 inflammasome.

10.
Sci Adv ; 6(15): eaay6825, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284997

RESUMO

Two-dimensional nanomaterial-based photothermal therapy (PTT) is currently under intensive investigation as a promising approach toward curative cancer treatment. However, high toxicity, moderate efficacy, and low uniformity in shape remain critical unresolved issues that hamper their clinical application. Thus, there is an urgent need for developing versatile nanomaterials to meet clinical expectations. To achieve this goal, we developed a stable, highly uniform in size, and nontoxic nanomaterials made of tellurium-selenium (TeSe)-based lateral heterojunction. Systemic delivery of TeSe nanoparticles in mice showed highly specific accumulation in tumors relative to other healthy tissues. Upon exposure to light, TeSe nanoparticles nearly completely eradicated lung cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma in preclinical models. Consistent with tumor suppression, PTT altered the tumor microenvironment and induced immense cancer cell apoptosis. Together, our findings demonstrate an exciting and promising PTT-based approach for cancer eradication.

11.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; : 1-9, 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32290781

RESUMO

The current study aimed to study the effects of Bulleyaconitine A (BLA) on asthma. Asthmatic mice model was established by ovalbumin (OVA) stimulation, and the model mice were treated by BLA. After BLA treatment, the changes in lung and airway resistances, total and differential leukocytes in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were detected, and the changes in lung inflammation and airway remodeling were observed. Moreover, the secretion of IgE, Th1/Th2-type and IL-17A cytokines in BALF and serum of the asthmatic mice were determined. The resuts showed that BLA attenuated OVA-induced lung and airway resistances, inhibited the inflammatory cell recruitment in BALF and the inflammation and airway remodeling of the asthmatic mice. In addition, BLA suppressed the secretion of IgE, Th2-type cytokines, and IL-17A, but enhanced secretions of Th1-type cytokines in BALF and serum. The current study discovered that BLA inhibited the lung inflammation and airway remodeling via restoring the Th1/Th2 balance in asthmatic mice.

12.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2020 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307890

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) damages male reproduction at multiple levels, such as endocrine secretion, spermatogenesis and penile erection. We herein investigated the protective effects and mechanism of loganin targeting the advanced glycation end products (AGEs)/receptor for AGEs (RAGE)/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK)/NF-κB signalling pathway. Loganin relieved the general DM symptoms and decreased the blood glucose level of KK-Ay DM mice. Haematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated that loganin ameliorated testicular histology and function and enhanced the activities of testis-specific markers lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acid phosphatase (ACP) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT). Loganin also showed evident anti-oxidative stress, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects on DM-induced reproductive damage by restoring glutathione (GSH) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, as well as reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in vivo and in vitro. Western blotting exhibited that loganin significantly inhibited the AGEs/RAGE/p38MAPK/NF-κB signalling pathway. Acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining (AOEB) and Western blotting showed that loganin in combination with inhibitors of RAGE, p38MAPK and NF-κB exerted stronger anti-apoptotic effects on AGE-induced GC-2 cell damage compared with loganin alone. In conclusion, loganin can protect against DM-induced reproductive damage, probably by suppressing the AGEs/RAGE/p38MAPK/NF-κB pathway.

13.
Urol J ; 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32309863

RESUMO

Purpose To assess the diagnostic accuracy of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with the computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in the detection of recurrent or residual urinary bladder cancer with meta-analysis. Methods We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, CBM, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang databases through October 2019. Two reviewers independently screened the full articles. The imaging findings were confirmed by either histopathology or clinical follow-up. Sensitivity, specificity likelihood ratio and diagnostic odds ratio were pooled with 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Overall test performance was summarized by a summary receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The Meta-DiSc software (version 1.4) was used to perform the meta-analysis. Results The meta-analysis included 7 studies. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of PET/CT for the detection of recurrent or residual urinary bladder cancer was 94.0% (95% CI: 91.0%-96.0%) and 92.0% (95% CI: 88.0%-95.0%), respectively. Positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio and diagnostic odds ratio were 9.77 (95% CI: 4.91-19.41), 0.99(95% CI: 0.06-0.13) and 95.09 (95% CI: 47.96-188.53), respectively. When residual urinary bladder cancer was excluded, sensitivity changed slightly. Conclusion This meta-analysis suggested that the diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT was good in detecting recurrent or residual urinary bladder cancer.

14.
J Recept Signal Transduct Res ; : 1-7, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164488

RESUMO

Purpose: Hesperidin has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant stress effects, but its functions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains unknown. This study analyzed the role of hesperidin in COPD mice, aiming to provide a basis for the hesperidin application.Materials and methods: Mice were injected with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) to construct COPD models and then treated with budesonide or hesperidin. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and TUNEL assays were used to observe the pathological changes and cell death of lung tissue. The levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BLAF), as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) content in lung tissues were confirmed. The expression levels of SIRT1, PGC-1α, and p65 proteins were measured by western blotting (WB) analysis.Results: CSE induced inflammatory cell infiltration and cell death in the lung tissues of mice, whereas budesonide and hesperidin effectively alleviated these pathological changes. The levels of IL-6, IL-8, and MDA in BLAF and pulmonary MPO content in the COPD mice were effectively increased, while the levels of SOD and CAT in BLAF were decreased, which could be reversed by budesonide and hesperidin. Moreover, the addition of budesonide or hesperidin reliably accelerated the expression levels of PGC-1α and SIRT1 but suppressed the phosphorylation of p65 in COPD mice. In general, high-dose hesperidin had a stronger regulatory effect on COPD mice.Conclusions: Hesperidin alleviated inflammation and oxidative stress responses in CES-induced COPD mice, associated with SIRT1/PGC-1α/NF-κB signaling axis, which might become a new direction for COPD treatment.

15.
Int J Stroke ; : 1747493020909545, 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on stroke epidemiology and availability of hospital-based stroke services around the world are important for guiding policy decisions and healthcare planning. AIMS: To provide the most current incidence, mortality and case-fatality data on stroke and describe current availability of stroke units around the world by country. METHODS: We searched multiple databases (based on our existing search strategy) to identify new original manuscripts and review articles published between 1 June 2016 and 31 October 2018 that met the ideal criteria for data on stroke incidence and case-fatality. For data on the availability of hospital-based stroke services, we searched PubMed for all literature published up until 31 June 2018. We further screened reference lists, citation history of manuscripts and gray literature for this information. Mortality codes for International Classification of Diseases-9 and International Classification of Diseases-10 were extracted from the World Health Organization mortality database for each country providing these data. Population denominators were obtained from the World Health Organization, and when these were unavailable within a two-year period of mortality data, population denominators within a two-year period were obtained from the United Nations. Using country-specific population denominators and the most recent years of mortality data available for each country, we calculated both the crude mortality from stroke and mortality adjusted to the World Health Organization world population. RESULTS: Since our last report in 2017, there were two countries with new incidence studies, China (n = 1) and India (n = 2) that met the ideal criteria. New data on case-fatality were found for Estonia and India. The most current mortality data were available for the year 2015 (39 countries), 2016 (43 countries), and 2017 (7 countries). No new data on mortality were available for six countries. Availability of stroke units was noted for 63 countries, and the proportion of patients treated in stroke units was reported for 35/63 countries. CONCLUSION: Up-to-date data on stroke incidence, case-fatality, and mortality statistics provide evidence of variation among countries and changing magnitudes of burden among high and low-middle income countries. Reporting of hospital-based stroke units remains limited and should be encouraged.

16.
J Recept Signal Transduct Res ; : 1-12, 2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202184

RESUMO

GILZ expression is induced by glucocorticoids (GCs) and is involved in the mechanism of airway epithelial cell repair in patients with asthma. The present study aimed to investigate the role of miR-222-3p/GILZ pathway in treatment of airway epithelial cell repair by GCs. 9HTE cells were treated by 10 µmol/L dexamethasone (Dex) for 6, 12, and 24 hours (h). MiR-222-3p mimic and GILZ were used for cell transfection. Cell vitality, migration, and invasion were detected by methyl-thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT), wound healing, and Transwell. The targeting relationship between miR-222-3p and GILZ was predicted by TargetScan and further confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assay. The expressions of relative mRNAs or proteins were detected by Western blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results showed that Dex treatment up-regulated the GILZ expression level but inhibited the levels of p-Raf1, p-MEK1/2, p-ERK1/2, and miR-222-3p of the cells, moreover, it also inhibited cell activity, migration, and invasion in a time-dependent manner. MiR-222-3p specifically targeted GILZ. MiR-222-3p mimic ameliorated the cell viability, migration, and invasion reduced by Dex treatment, increased the expression levels of p-Raf1 and p-MEK1/2, p-ERK1/2, and partially reversed the effects of GILZ overexpression on the above indexes. Moreover, GILZ showed the opposite effects to miR-222-3p. MiR-222-3p activated MAPK signaling pathway through inhibiting the GILZ expression, thus promoting the cell viability, migration, and invasion previously reduced by Dex.

17.
Exp Neurol ; 327: 113219, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014438

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons. Astrocytes from diverse ALS models induce motor neuron death in co-culture. Enhancing NAD+ availability, or increasing the expression of the NAD+-dependent deacylases SIRT3 and SIRT6, abrogates their neurotoxicity in cell culture models. To determine the effect of increasing NAD+ availability in ALS mouse models we used two strategies, ablation of a NAD+-consuming enzyme (CD38) and supplementation with a bioavailable NAD+ precursor (nicotinamide riboside, NR). Deletion of CD38 had no effect in the survival of two hSOD1-linked ALS mouse models. On the other hand, NR-supplementation delayed motor neuron degeneration, decreased markers of neuroinflammation in the spinal cord, appeared to modify muscle metabolism and modestly increased the survival of hSOD1G93A mice. In addition, we found altered expression of enzymes involved in NAD+ synthesis (NAMPT and NMNAT2) and decreased SIRT6 expression in the spinal cord of ALS patients, suggesting deficits of this neuroprotective pathway in the human pathology. Our data denotes the therapeutic potential of increasing NAD+ levels in ALS. Moreover, the results indicate that the approach used to enhance NAD+ levels critically defines the biological outcome in ALS models, suggesting that boosting NAD+ levels with the use of bioavailable precursors would be the preferred therapeutic strategy for ALS.

18.
19.
World J Stem Cells ; 12(1): 25-34, 2020 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32110273

RESUMO

Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are invaluable resources for producing high-quality differentiated cells in unlimited quantities for both basic research and clinical use. They are particularly useful for studying human disease mechanisms in vitro by making it possible to circumvent the ethical issues of human embryonic stem cell research. However, significant limitations exist when using conventional flat culturing methods especially concerning cell expansion, differentiation efficiency, stability maintenance and multicellular 3D structure establishment, differentiation prediction. Embryoid bodies (EBs), the multicellular aggregates spontaneously generated from iPSCs in the suspension system, might help to address these issues. Due to the unique microenvironment and cell communication in EB structure that a 2D culture system cannot achieve, EBs have been widely applied in hiPSC-derived differentiation and show significant advantages especially in scaling up culturing, differentiation efficiency enhancement, ex vivo simulation, and organoid establishment. EBs can potentially also be used in early prediction of iPSC differentiation capability. To improve the stability and feasibility of EB-mediated differentiation and generate high quality EBs, critical factors including iPSC pluripotency maintenance, generation of uniform morphology using micro-pattern 3D culture systems, proper cellular density inoculation, and EB size control are discussed on the basis of both published data and our own laboratory experiences. Collectively, the production of a large quantity of homogeneous EBs with high quality is important for the stability and feasibility of many PSCs related studies.

20.
J Neural Eng ; 17(2): 026006, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050174

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Neurovascular coupling enables rapid adaptation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) to support neuronal activity. Modern techniques enable the simultaneous recording of neuronal activities and hemodynamic parameters. However, the causal relationship between electrical brain activity and CBF is still unclarified. In this study, we investigated the causal relationship between surface electroencephalogram (EEG) and cerebral blood flow velocity (FV) from transcranial Doppler using Granger causality (GC) analysis. APPROACH: Twenty simultaneous recordings of EEG and FV from 17 acute ischemic stroke patients were studied. Each patient had simultaneous, continuous monitoring of EEG and bilateral FVs in either the middle cerebral arteries or posterior cerebral arteries. The causal interactions between FV (0.006-0.4 Hz) and EEG (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands) were investigated through GC index (GCI). In order to make the GCIs comparable, the proportion of GCI (PGCI) values where G-causality is statistically significant were calculated. Scores on the NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) for neurologic disability were recorded respectively at discharge. Patients were divided into a deceased (mRS = 6) and a survival group (mRS = 1 to 5), and a favorable (mRS: 1 to 2) and unfavorable outcome group (mRS: 3 ~ 6). MAIN RESULTS: This study identified a causal relationship from EEG→FV, indicating EEG contained information that can be used for FV prediction. PGCI was negatively related with mRS (p < 0.05), indicating that stronger causalities between EEG and FV exist in patients with better outcome. The NIHSS was negatively related with the asymmetry of the two-side PGCI, calculated as the difference between the lesional side and non-lesional side PGCI. SIGNIFICANCE: A causal relationship from EEG→FV may exist in patients with ischemic stroke. The strength of G-causality may be related to stroke severity at discharge.

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