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1.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(27): 3590-3606, 2019 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major risk factor for a variety of diseases such as diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and cardiovascular diseases. Restricting energy intake, or caloric restriction (CR), can reduce body weight and improve metabolic parameters in overweight or obese patients. We previously found that Lingguizhugan decoction (LZD) in combination with CR can effectively lower plasma lipid levels in patients with metabolic syndrome. However, the mechanism underlying CR and LZD treatment is still unclear. AIM: To investigate whether CR and LZD improve metabolic parameters by modulating gut microbiota. METHODS: We extracted the water-soluble components out of raw materials and dried as LZD extracts. Eight-week old male C57BL/6 mice were treated with a 3-d treatment regime that included 24 h-fasting followed by gavage of LZD extracts for 2 consecutive days, followed by a normal diet (ND) ad libitum for 16 wk. To test the effects of gut microbiota on diet-induced obesity, 8-wk old male C57BL/6 mice received fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from CR and LZD-treated mice every 3 d and were fed with high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum for 16 wk. Control mice received either saline gavage or FMT from ND-fed mice receiving saline gavage as mentioned above. Body weight was monitored bi-weekly. Food consumption of each cage hosting five mice was recorded weekly. To monitor blood glucose, total cholesterol, and total triglycerides, blood samples were collected via submandibular bleeding after 6 h fasting. Oxygen consumption rate was monitored with metabolic cages. Feces were collected, and fecal DNA was extracted. Profiles of gut microbiota were mapped by metagenomic sequencing. RESULTS: We found that CR and LZD treatment significantly reduced the body weight of mice fed with ND (28.71 ± 0.29 vs 28.05 ± 0.15, P < 0.05), but did not affect plasma total cholesterol or total triglyceride levels. We then transplanted the fecal microbiota collected from CR and LZD-treated mice under ND feeding to HFD-fed mice. Intriguingly, transplanting the mice with fecal microbiota from CR and LZD-treated mice potently reduced body weight (44.95 ± 1.02 vs 40.53 ± 0.97, P < 0.001). FMT also reduced HFD-induced hepatosteatosis, in addition to improved glycemic control. Mechanistic studies found that FMT increased OCR of the mice and suppressed the expression and protein abundance of lipogenic genes in the liver. Metagenomic analysis revealed that HFD drastically altered the profile of gut microbiota, and FMT modified the profile of the gut microbiota. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that CR and LZD improve metabolic parameters by modulating gut microbiota.

2.
Acta Trop ; 197: 105044, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173736

RESUMO

Neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan infecting many domestic and wild animals. In the present study, the brain tissues of wild birds collected in Hunan province of China were examined by N. caninum specific nested PCR, targeting the Nc-5 gene and the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. The prevalence of N. caninum was detected in 15.5% (37/239) of wild birds, including 20.5% (9/44) of the examined olive-backed pipit Anthus hodgsoni, 18.3% (24/131) of the examined tree sparrows Passer montanus, 7.9% (3/38) of the examined chestnut bunting Emberiza rutila and 3.8% (1/26) of the examined yellow-breasted bunting E. aureola. Phylogenetic analyses showed that N. caninum from different hosts and geographical origins are genetically diverse and can be further classified into two distinct groups. Our findings indicated that wild birds are potential source of N. caninum for other animals. To our knowledge, this is the first report of N. caninum infection in wild birds in China, which provides a foundation for the prevention and control of this parasite in China and elsewhere.

3.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 42(4): 617-622, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700647

RESUMO

Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in neurons may underlie the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Acrolein, a ubiquitous pollutant, has been reported to implicate in the etiology of AD. Our previous data showed that acrolein changed the levels of key AD-associated proteins, including advanced glycation end products (RAGE), A-disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM-10), and beta-site amyloid-beta peptide cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE-1). In this study, we investigated whether acrolein-induced alterations of AD-associated proteins are relevant to MAPKs activation, and strategies to inhibit MAPKs activation yield benefits to acrolein-induced neurotoxicity in HT22 mouse hippocampal cells. We found that acrolein activated MAPKs signaling pathways to mediate cells apoptosis, and then altered the levels of AD-associated proteins ADAM-10, BACE-1 and RAGE. Inhibitors of MAPKs signaling pathways attenuated the cells death and restored the proteins levels of ADAM-10, BACE-1 and RAGE in varying degrees induced by acrolein. Taken together, activated MAPKs signaling pathways should be underlying the pathology of acrolein-induced neuronal disorders. Inhibitors of MAPKs pathways might be promising agents for acrolein-related diseases, such as AD.


Assuntos
Acroleína/toxicidade , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína ADAM10/metabolismo , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Camundongos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo
4.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 19(5): 378-383, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30540544

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous apicomplexan parasite of warm-blooded animals and humans. However, limited information is available about T. gondii infection in wild birds. In this study, 239 wild birds were collected from Hunan province of China, including 38 chestnut bunting, 44 olive-backed pipit, 26 yellow-breasted bunting, and 131 tree sparrows. Genomic DNA of brain tissues were extracted and assayed by B1 gene, and the positive samples were genotyped at 10 genetic markers [SAG1, SAG2 (5'+3' SAG2, alter. SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico] using multilocus nested-PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism technology. The results showed that 13 (5.51%) of the 239 wild birds were positive for T. gondii. Among them, three samples have completely genotyped at all loci, and were identified as ToxoDB #10. Our results have indicated that wild birds can carry and potentially disseminate the T. gondii. This is the first report of the molecular prevalence and genetic characterization of T. gondii in wild birds in Hunan province, China. Further research should be investigated to understand weather T. gondii can be transmitted from wild birds to other animals or humans.

5.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 2018 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30394808

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most important sources of foodborne diseases. In this study, the molecular prevalence and genotypes of T. gondii were investigated in pigs in Hunan province, China. A total of 339 brain tissue samples of pigs were collected from April 2015 to December 2017 in Hunan province and were used to detect the T. gondii B1 gene. Of these, 34 (10%; 95% confidence interval: 8.7-12.6) samples were tested positive for the T. gondii B1 gene. Positive samples were genotyped at 10 genetic markers (SAG1, SAG2 [5' + 3' SAG2, alter. SAG2], SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico) using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technology. Moreover, one sample was identified as genotype ToxoDB#10 (Type I), and another sample was suspected to be unusual genotype ToxoDB#61 that has never been reported in China. This study showed that T. gondii is prevalent in pigs in Hunan province, posing a food safety threat to the public health in the investigated areas. Our result has implications for better understanding the genetic diversity of T. gondii infections in animals in China.

6.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 525: 216-224, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29704781

RESUMO

Pt-based bimetallic nanocrystals are feasible to dramatically improve the catalytic performances in fuel cells via morphology- and composition-engineering. Herein, bimetallic platinum69-cobalt31 nanosheet nanoassemblies (Pt69Co31 NSNSs) were facilely synthesized through a one-pot co-reduction solvothermal strategy in oleylamine (OAm), using cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) and allantoin as the directing agents. The current synthesis highly depended on the critical concentrations of Pt and Co precursors, the combined use of allantoin to OAm as the co-reductant, and the use of proper allantoin concentration. The obtained nanocatalyst exhibited largely enhanced electrocatalytic activity and durable ability towards ethylene glycol oxidation reaction (EGOR) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) relative to home-made Pt85Co15 nanoparticles (NPs), Pt19Co81 NPs and Pt black catalysts due to its much larger electrochemically active surface area than the contrasts.

7.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 508: 551-558, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28866463

RESUMO

In this work, AuPd@Pd core-shell nanocrystals (AuPd@Pd NCs) were fabricated by a one-pot co-reduction approach, where theophylline-7-acetic acid (TAA) acted asa new structure-directing agent. The crystal structure and composition were mainly characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), together with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The growth mechanism of AuPd@Pd NCs was investigated in detail. The obtained AuPd@Pd NCs exhibited superior catalytic characters for formic acid oxidation reaction (FAOR) and glycerol oxidation reaction (GOR) in contrast with commercial Pd black in alkaline media.

8.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 498: 22-30, 2017 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28315582

RESUMO

A facile one-pot coreduction strategy was developed to synthesize composition-tunable cross-linked AgPt aerogels, where ionic liquid (1-aminopropyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, [APMIm]Br) played a significant role in controlling the morphology and structure. During the synthesis progress, Br- easily reacted with Ag+ to form AgBr precipitate and consequently slowed down the reducing rate of Ag+, as well as acting as a capping agent to promote the anisotropic growth of AgPt aerogels, as mainly demonstrated by the electronic microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The architectures showed superior catalytic activity and enhanced durability toward ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) and ethylene glycol oxidation reaction (EGOR) in contrast with commercial Pt black, owing to the tailored composition, morphology and electronic structure of the prepared AgPt aerogels.

9.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 493: 94-102, 2017 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28088571

RESUMO

Theophylline as a naturally alkaloid is commonly employed to treat asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder. Herein, a facile theophylline-assisted green approach was firstly developed for synthesis of PtAu nanospheres/reduced graphene oxide (PtAu NSs/rGO), without any surfactant, polymer, or seed involved. The obtained nanocomposites were applied for the catalytic reduction and removal of highly toxic chromium (VI) using formic acid as a model reductant at 50°C, showing the significantly enhanced catalytic activity and improved recyclability when compared with commercial Pt/C (50%) and home-made Au nanocrystals supported rGO (Au NCs/rGO). It demonstrates great potential applications of the catalyst in wastewater treatment and environmental protection. The eco-friendly route provides a new platform to fabricate other catalysts with enhanced catalytic activity.


Assuntos
Cromo/química , Grafite/química , Nanosferas/química , Óxidos/química , Teofilina/química , Catálise , Química Verde , Oxirredução , Temperatura Ambiente
10.
J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci ; 36(2): 237-242, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27072969

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of total saponins of Dioscorea (TSD), an extract of the Chinese herbal Bi Xie, on hyperuricemia and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. The rat hyperuricemia model was established by administration of adenine. Thirty-two rats were randomly allocated into 4 groups: model group, low/high-dose TSD-treated groups, and allopurinol-treated group. Meanwhile, 8 rats were used as normal controls. Serum uric acid (UA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr), and organic anion transporting polypeptide 1A1 (OATP1A1) levels were measured. Comparison between the model group and treatment (allopurinol and TSD) groups showed the serum UA levels were significantly decreased in treatment groups. TSD had similar effects to allopurinol. It was found that the OATP1A1 protein expression levels in treatment groups were higher than in model group and normal controls. And different from the allopurinol-treated groups, TSD-treated group had elevated OATP1A1 expression levels in the stomach, liver, small intestine and large intestine tissues. It was suggested that TSD may facilitate the excretion of UA and lower UA levels by up-regulating OATP1A1 expression.


Assuntos
Dioscorea/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Hiperuricemia/tratamento farmacológico , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Sódio-Independentes/metabolismo , Saponinas/farmacologia , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Animais , Creatinina/sangue , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Sódio-Independentes/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Saponinas/uso terapêutico , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima
11.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 29(7): 599-605, 2016 Jul 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29232776

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical effects of unilateral lamina osteotomy replantation versus fenestration in the treatment of unilateral lumbar disc herniation. METHODS: The clinical date of 119 patients with unilateral lumbar disc herniation underwent surgical treatment from May 2012 to August 2014 were retrospective analyzed. There were 64 males and 54 females, aged from 40 to 59 years old with an average of 49.6 years. Among them, 58 patients were treated with lamina fenestration and decompression and nucleus pulposus resection(fenestration group);61 patients were treated with unilateral lamina osteotomy and replantation after nucleus pulposus resection (replantation group). The incidence rate of nerve and dural injury during operation, lamina healing rate, the recurrent rates of postoperative low back and leg pain were observed. According to the standard of JOA score, the clinical effects was compared between two groups. RESULTS: A hundred and seventeen patients were followed up more than 1 year, each group 1 case was lost to follow up. The injury rate of nerve and dural was 3.33%, 5.00% respectively in replantation group, while 7.02%, 8.77% respectively in fenestration group, there was no significant differences between two groups(P>0.05). One year after operation, there was significant difference in the recurrent rate of low back pain and JOA, VAS scores between two groups, replantation group was better than that of fenestration group(P<0.05). CT showed the osteotomy of 2 cases had not obtained bone healing in replantation group with lamina healing rate of 96.7%, no loosening or breakage of titanium plates and screws were found. CONCLUSIONS: The design of unilateral lamina osteotomy replantation is more reasonable. Widen surgical vision not only guarantee the spinal stability, but also prevent epidural adhesion, which reduce the lower back and leg pain recurrence. It is a safe and effective new approach to treat lumbar disc herniation.


Assuntos
Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/cirurgia , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Núcleo Pulposo/cirurgia , Osteotomia/métodos , Reimplante/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 128(4): 483-8, 2015 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25673450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subcapital femoral neck fracture in young adults has many complications, and the incidence is increasing year-by-year. The selection of the proper operation method to avoid them is an ambiguous matter. This study aimed to evaluate the treatment effect of subcapital femoral neck fracture by the capsulotomy and internal fixation with iliac bone grafting or closed reduction and internal fixation in young adults. METHODS: From March 2003 to February 2010, 65 young patients with subcapital femoral neck fractures were treated, including 39 males and 26 females with average age of 34.5 years (range, 19-50 years); 29 cases of the left side and 36 cases of the right side. They were randomly divided into Group A with 34 cases treated by closed reduction and internal fixation and Group B with 31 cases treated by the capsulotomy and internal fixation with iliac bone grafting. The two groups had no significant differences in sex, age, body mass index and preoperative Harris Hip Score. The observation criteria involved the length of the incision, blood loss, operation time, nonunion rate, avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) rate and Harris Hip Score. RESULTS: Four of 65 patients were lost follow-up, and the follow-up rate was 93.8%, the average follow-up time was 38.7 months (range, 33-47 months). In Group A, the incision length was 5.1 ± 2.2 cm, blood loss was 84.0 ± 13.2 ml, and operation time was 52.9 ± 10.2 min. In Group B, the incision length was 15.4 ± 4.6 cm, blood loss was 396.0 ± 21.3 ml, and operation time was 116.5 ± 15.3 min. Nonunion occurred in 8 patients (25.2%) in Group A and 1 patient (3.3%) in Group B. ANFH occurred in 9 patients (29.1%) in Group A and 2 patients (6.7%) in Group B. Postoperative Harris Hip Score was 89.0 ± 5.6 in Group A and 95.0 ± 4.5 in Group B. The above index of two groups was considered statistically significant (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Capsulotomy and internal fixation with iliac bone grafting can improve fracture healing, reduce ANFH in young adults. It is a safe and effective operation for subcapital femoral neck fracture.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Colo Femoral/cirurgia , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Cancer ; 14: 505, 2014 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25011933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies consider both the survival and financial benefits of detection of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) at earlier stages. This study estimated the savings in life-years and costs from early diagnosis of cervical cancer using an ex post approach. METHODS: A total of 28,797 patients diagnosed with cervical cancer in the period 2002-2009 were identified from the National Cancer Registry of Taiwan, and linked to the National Mortality Registry until the end of 2011. Life expectancies (LE) for cancer at different stages were estimated using a semi-parametric extrapolation method. The expected years of life lost (EYLL) for cancer were calculated by subtracting the LE of the cancer cohort from that of the age-and sex-matched general population. The mean lifetime costs after diagnosis paid by the single-payer National Health Insurance during (NHI) 2002-2010 were estimated by multiplying average monthly expenditures by the survival probabilities and summing up over lifetime. RESULTS: ICC at stages 1 to 4 had an average EYLL of 6.33 years, 11.64 years, 12.65 years, and 18.61 years, respectively, while the related lifetime costs paid by the NHI were $7,020, $10,133, $11,120, and $10,015 US dollars, respectively; the younger the diagnosis age, the higher the savings with regard to EYLL. The mean lifetime costs of managing cervical cancer were generally lower for the earlier stages compared with stages 3 and 4. CONCLUSIONS: Early detection of ICC saves lives and reduces healthcare costs. These health benefits and monetary savings can be used for cost-effectiveness assessments and the promotion of regular proactive screening, especially among older women.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Idoso , Análise Custo-Benefício , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Análise de Sobrevida , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
14.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2011: 5036-9, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22255470

RESUMO

Directed influence between multiple channel signal measurements is important for the understanding of large dynamic systems. This research investigates a method to analyze large, complex multi-variable systems using directional flow measure to extract relevant information related to the functional connectivity between different units in the system. The directional flow measure was completed through nonlinear Granger Causality (GC) which is based on the nonlinear predictive models using radial basis functions (RBF). In order to extract relevant information from the causality map, we propose a threshold method that can be set up through a spatial statistical process where only the top 20% of causality pathways is shown. We applied this approach to a brain computer interface (BCI) application to decode the different intended arm reaching movement (left, right and forward) using 128 surface electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes. We also evaluated the importance of selecting the appropriate radius in the region of interest and found that the directions of causal influence of active brain regions were unique with respect to the intended direction.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Potencial Evocado Motor/fisiologia , Imaginação/fisiologia , Intenção , Movimento/fisiologia , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Limiar Diferencial/fisiologia , Humanos , Dinâmica não Linear , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Interface Usuário-Computador
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