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2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 720607, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722565

RESUMO

Background: Physical function gradually decreases with age in older adults, affecting their independence and quality of life and leaving them prone to adverse outcomes. Despite the importance of assessing function for older adults, most studies have focused on disability and paid less attention to functional impairment. Thus, given the lack of valid and practical methods for evaluating functional impairment for older adults, we developed the function impairment screening tool (FIST) using the Delphi method. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the FIST in Chinese older adults. Methods: A total of 489 participants aged 60 years or older, and who had completed the FIST were included. A subgroup of 50 participants completed the FIST a second time, 1 week after the first round, and the test-retest reliability was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Reliability was tested using Cronbach's alpha. Validity was examined using exploratory factor analysis. Criterion-related validity was assessed using correlations between the FIST and the Barthel Index activities of daily living (ADL), Lawton, and Brody instrumental activities of daily living (LB-IADL). Results: The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the FIST was 0.930 (P < 0.001). The test-retest reliability was good, with an ICC of 0.928 (95% confidence interval [0.874, 0.960]). Exploratory factor analyses revealed one factor accounting for 60.14% of the scale's variance and the load values of every item were >0.4 (0.489-0.872). The correlation coefficient was 0.572 (P < 0.001) between the FIST score and ADL, and was 0.793 (P < 0.001) between the FIST score and IADL. The FIST score was positively correlated with walking speed (r = 0.475, P < 0.001) and grip strength (r = 0.307, P < 0.001), and negatively correlated with age (r = -0.588, P < 0.001) and Fried frailty phenotype (r = -0.594, P < 0.001). Conclusion: The FIST is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing physical function impairment in older adults.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785051

RESUMO

Selenium sulfide as a new alternative cathode material can effectively address the inferior electronic conductivity of sulfur, which is the main cause for poor electrochemical reactivity of conventional lithium-sulfur batteries (Li-S batteries). Therefore, in this work, hollow carbon spheres loaded with NiSe2 nanoplates were prepared as SeS2 hosts for Li-SeS2 batteries. The unique micro-mesoporous hollow carbon spheres not only provide channels for the diffusion of SeS2, but also afford spaces for alleviating the volume expansion of the active substance. Besides, the external polar NiSe2 nanoplates increase active sites for capturing polysulfides or polyselenides during the charge/discharge process. Meanwhile, the excellent electronic conductivity of NiSe2 can accelerate the catalytic reaction on the surface, thus reducing the loss of soluble intermediate products and finally suppressing the "shuttle effect". These extraordinary features of the as-proposed cathode offer many superiorities in electrochemical performances in terms of a high initial discharge capacity of 1139 mA h g-1 at a current rate of 0.1C and an excellent cycling life of up to 1000 cycles at 1C.

4.
Virus Res ; 308: 198634, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793873

RESUMO

Avian polyomavirus (APV) is a non-enveloped virus with a circular double-stranded DNA genome approximately 5000 bp in length. APV was first reported in fledgling budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) as the causative agent of budgerigar fledgling disease, resulting in high parrot mortality rates in the 1980s. This disease has been observed worldwide, and APV has a wide host range including budgerigars, cockatoos, lorikeets, lovebirds, and macaws. Twenty APV isolates have been collected from healthy and symptomatic parrots in Taiwan from 2015 to 2019. These isolates were then amplified via polymerase chain reaction, after which the whole genomes of these isolates were sequenced. The overall APV-positive rate was 14.2%, and the full lengths of the APV Taiwan isolates varied from 4971 to 4982 bps. The APV genome contains an early region that encodes two regulatory proteins (the large tumor antigen (Large T-Ag) and the small tumor antigen (Small t-Ag)) and a late region which encodes the capsid proteins VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP4. The nucleotide identities of the VP1 and VP4 genes ranged from 98.7 to 100%, whereas the nucleotide sequence of the Large T-Ag gene had the highest identity (99.2-100%) relative to other APV isolates from the GenBank database. A phylogenetic tree based on the whole genome demonstrated that the APV Taiwan isolates were closely related to Japanese and Portuguese isolates. Recombination events were analyzed using the Recombination Detection Program version 4 and APV Taiwan isolate TW-3 was identified as a minor parent of the APV recombinants. In this study, we first reported the characterization of the whole genome sequences of APV Taiwan isolates and their phylogenetic relationships with all APV isolates available in the GenBank database.

5.
Molecules ; 26(21)2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771127

RESUMO

Qingzhuan tea (QZT) is a typical Chinese dark tea that has a long-time manufacturing process. In the present study, liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used to study the chemical changes of tea samples during QZT processing. Untargeted metabolomics analysis revealed that the pile-fermentation and turnover (post-fermentation, FT) was the crucial stage in transforming the main compounds of QZT, whose contents of flavan-3-ols and flavonoids glycosides were decreased significantly. The bioactivities, including the antioxidant capacities and inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase, were also reduced after the FT process. It was suggested that although the QZT sensory properties improved following pile-fermentation and aging, the bioactivities remained restrained. Correlation analysis indicated that the main galloylated catechins and flavonoid glycosides were highly related to their antioxidant capacity and inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase.

6.
Adv Mater ; : e2107353, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738266

RESUMO

The increasing demand for energy storage is calling for improvements in cathode performance. In traditional layered cathodes, the higher energy of metal 3d over O 2p orbital results in one band cationic redox, capacity solely from cation can not meet the needs for higher energy density. Emerging anionic redox chemistry is promising to access higher capacity. In recent studies, low-lying O non-bonding 2p orbital was designed to activate one-band oxygen redox, but still accompanied by reversibility problems like oxygen loss, irreversible cation migration and voltage decay. Herein, by regulating metal-ligand energy level, both extra capacities provided by anionic redox and highly reversible anionic redox process were realized in NaCr1-y Vy S2 system. The simultaneous cationic and anionic redox of Cr/V and S was observed by in-situ X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). Under high d-p hybridization, the strong covalent interaction stabilized the electron holes on anions, prevented irreversible dimerization and cation migration, restrained voltage hysteresis and voltage decay. Our work provides a fundamental understanding of highly reversible anionic redox in layered compounds, and demonstrated the feasibility of anionic redox chemistry based on hybridized bands with d-p covalence. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(41): e27535, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731149

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Enhancer RNAs (eRNAs), a subclass of lncRNAs, are derived from enhancer regions. The function of eRNAs has been reported by many previous studies. However, the role of eRNAs in gastric cancer, especially the prognosis-associated eRNAs, has not been studied yet.In this study, we have used a novel approach to screened key eRNAs in gastric cancer. Kaplan-Meier correlation analysis and Co-expression analysis were used to find the most significant survival-associated eRNAs. Enrichment analysis is applied to explore the key functions and pathways of screened eRNAs. The correlation and survival analysis are used to evaluate targeted genes in the pan-cancer analysisA total of 63 prognostic-associated eRNAs in gastric cancer were identified, the top 6 eRNAs were LINC01714, ZNF192P1, AC079760.2, LINC01645, EMX2OS, and AC114489.2. The correlation analysis demonstrated the top 10 screened eRNAs and their targeted genes. The results demonstrated that EMX2OS was ranked as the top eRNA according to the results of the Kaplan-Meier analysis. The correlation analysis demonstrated that eRNA EMX2OS is correlated with age, grade, stage, and cancer status. The pan-cancer analysis demonstrated that EMX2OS was associated with poor survival outcomes in adrenocortical carcinoma, cervical squamous cell carcinoma and endocervical adenocarcinoma, kidney renal clear cell carcinoma, stomach adenocarcinoma, and uveal melanoma.In this study, survival-related eRNAs were screened and the correlation between survival-related eRNAs and their targeted genes was demonstrated. EMX2OS plays a prognosis-associated eRNA role in gastric cancer, which might be a novel therapeutic target in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Prognóstico , RNA Antissenso/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 511, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The walnut shell, which is composed of a large number of sclereids originating from the lignified parenchyma of the endocarp, plays an important role in fruit development and during harvesting and storage. The physical and chemical properties of walnut shells are closely related to the lignin content. Laccase is the key enzyme responsible for lignin biosynthesis by the polymerization of monolignols and plays crucial roles in secondary cell wall formation in plants. In this study, we screened and identified laccase family genes from the walnut genome and investigated the expression of laccase during endocarp lignification in walnut. RESULTS: A total of 37 laccase genes were screened from the walnut genome and distributed on nine chromosomes and classified into 6 subfamilies, among which subfamily IV showed distinct expansion. We observed that endocarp lignification started 44 days after flowering (DAF), and at later periods, the lignin content increased rapidly, with growth peaks at 44-50 DAF and 100-115 DAF. The lignification of the endocarp proceeded from the outside to the inside, as demonstrated by section staining in combination with endocarp staining. Furthermore, the changes in the expression of laccase family genes in the endocarp at different developmental stages were studied, and JrLACs showed different expression trends. The expression of nine genes showed significant increase after 44 DAF, and among these, JrLAC12-1, JrLAC12-2 and JrLAC16 showed a significant change in expression at the lignification stage. A study of the expression of JrLACs in different tissues and at various endocarp developmental stages revealed, that most JrLACs were expressed at low levels in mature tissues and at high levels in young tissues, in particular, JrLAC12-1 showed high expression in the young stems. A significant positive correlation was found between the expression of JrLAC12-1 and the variation in the lignin content in the endocarp. CONCLUSION: Laccase genes play an important role in the lignification of the walnut endocarp, and JrLACs play different roles during fruit development. This study shows that JrLAC12-1 may play a key role in the lignification of endocarp.

9.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(9): 9859-9869, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) causes joint pain and dysfunction that severely affects the patient's ability to walk. Arthroscopy combined with intraarticular injection of sodium hyaluronate can slow the development of knee osteoarthritis, but there is a lack of rigorous evidence-based medicine evaluation, and it has not been recognized by some scholars at home and abroad. This paper analyzed the clinical efficacy of arthroscopy combined with intraarticular injection of sodium hyaluronate in slowing knee osteoarthritis based on Lysholm score. METHODS: Randomized control trials of arthroscopy combined with intra-articular injection of sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of KOA on Chinese and English databases were retrieved using the following search terms: "knee osteoarthritis", "arthroscopic debridement of the joint", "articular cavity", and "sodium hyaluronate". The quality of the literature was evaluated using the Rev Man 5.3 software. RESULTS: Twelve literatures were included in the meta-analysis. Regarding Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) score, of the 12 literatures, 7 literatures (58.33%) scored 6-9 points, 3 literatures (25%) scored 3-5 points, and 2 literatures (16.67%) scored 0-2 points. With a random effects model used for analysis, the Lysholm score after 1 month of combined treatment was significantly higher than that before treatment [mean difference (MD) =30.65, 95% confidence interval (CI): 19.44, 41.86, P<0.01]. Further, after 3 months of combination treatment, the Lysholm score was significantly higher than that before treatment (MD =24.04, 95% CI: 13.75, 34.32, P<0.01), and the same trend was also observed after 6 months (MD =20.41, 95% CI: 14.43, 26.40, P<0.01) and after 12 months (MD =20.86, 95% CI: 8.99, 32.72, P<0.01) of combination treatment. Overall, the combined treatment achieved significantly better clinical therapeutic effects than the single treatments in the control group [odds ratio (OR) =7.51, 95% CI: 4.84, 11.65, P<0.01]. DISCUSSION: This meta-analysis has confirmed that arthroscopy combined with intra-articular injection of sodium hyaluronate demonstrates significant clinical therapeutic effects in the treatment of KOA. This combination treatment can significantly improve knee joint function, relieve clinical symptoms, and improve patients' quality of life.


Assuntos
Ácido Hialurônico , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Artroscopia , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/uso terapêutico , Injeções Intra-Articulares , Osteoartrite do Joelho/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida
10.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(10): 3520-3534, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708608

RESUMO

Along with the increasingly serious environmental pollution, dealing with the "white pollution" issue, which is caused by the worldwide use of not readily-degradable or non-degradable synthetic plastics, has become a great challenge. It is an environmentally friendly strategy to degrade synthetic plastics using microorganisms that exist in nature or evolved under selection pressure. Based on the NSFC-EU International Cooperation and Exchanges Project "Bio Innovation of a Circular Economy for Plastics", this review summarized the screening of bacteria, fungi and microbial consortia capable of degrading synthetic plastics such as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyurethane (PUR), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). We also analyzed the role of various microorganisms played in the degradation of petroleum-based plastics. Moreover, we discussed the pros and cons of using microorganisms and enzymes for degradation of synthetic plastics.


Assuntos
Petróleo , Plásticos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Consórcios Microbianos , Poliuretanos
11.
Br J Haematol ; 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618912

RESUMO

Patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) who do not achieve complete remission (CR) after second-line chemotherapy have poor clinical outcomes. Besides, conventional salvage chemotherapy regimens have an unsatisfactory CR rate. The present retrospective study reports the efficacy and toxicity of the GVD (gemcitabine, vinorelbine, liposomal doxorubicin) regimen with or without programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) inhibitor for patients with cHL who failed first-line treatment. A total of 103 patients with cHL (GVD+PD-1 group, n = 27; GVD group, n = 76) with response assessment based on positron emission tomography were included. The GVD+PD-1 group tended to have a higher CR rate than GVD group (85·2% vs. 65·8%, P = 0·057) and had a better event-free survival (EFS) (P = 0·034). Subgroup analysis showed that patients with low-risk second-line International Prognostic Score might benefit from the addition of PD-1 inhibitor (GVD+PD-1 vs. GVD, 100·0% vs. 64·7%, P = 0·028) and had better EFS than GVD alone (P = 0·016). Further analysis demonstrated that PD-1 consolidation therapy might provide an EFS benefit (P = 0·007). The toxicity of the GVD+PD-1 regimen was comparable to the GVD regimen, except for higher rates of hypothyroidism and autoimmune pneumonitis, which were manageable. In conclusion, combining a PD-1 inhibitor with a GVD regimen could be a potentially effective second-line therapy for patients with cHL.

12.
Accid Anal Prev ; 163: 106461, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34700250

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of geometric design on crash risk on freeway segments with closely spaced entrance and exit ramps. Traffic flow, geometric design features and crash data from 80 segments on 14 freeways in the state of California, United States were applied. A multilevel logistic regression model with cross-level interactions was developed, where traffic variables were put on the case level, and their estimated coefficients were defined as a function of geometric design variables on the segment level. A basic logistic model and a multilevel logistic model without cross-level interactions were developed for comparison. The result shows that the one with cross-level interactions provides the best goodness of fit. The results indicate that six categories of geometric design variables are significantly associated with crash risk, i.e. lane configuration, basic number of lanes, ramp spacing, theoretical gore, inner shoulder width and speed limit. All but one (inner should width) geometric design variables have significant interaction terms with traffic flow variables. The effects of geometric design variables on crash risk are not fixed but vary with traffic conditions. The findings of this study can provide design guidance to improve road safety of freeway segments with closely spaced entrance and exit ramps.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Acidentes de Trânsito , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Análise Multinível , Estados Unidos
13.
Accid Anal Prev ; 163: 106429, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638010

RESUMO

Freeway jam waves create many problems, including capacity reduction, travel delays, and safety risks. The development of cooperative vehicle infrastructure system (CVIS) has prompted numerous new strategies, which can resolve jam waves by implementing microscopic car-following control actions to individual vehicles. However, most of those strategies aimed at eliminating freeway jam waves without considering the safety risks induced by the car-following control. This paper proposes an optimal control-based vehicle speed guidance strategy to improve both traffic efficiency and safety against jam waves. The optimal controller is developed based on a discrete first-order traffic flow model formulated in Lagrangian coordinates. The optimization of vehicles' driving speed is formulated as a linear programming problem, where the constraints concerning threshold safety measures are imposed. The proposed vehicle speed guidance strategy is tested using a modified Intelligent Driving Model (IDM+), which represents real traffic dynamics in CVIS environment. The proposed speed guidance strategy is compared with a state-of-the-art jam-absorption driving strategy, which also aimed to eliminate freeway jam waves. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy outperforms that strategy in terms of both total time spent saving and surrogate safety measures' reduction. The time exposed time-to-collision (TET) is reduced by 31%, and the time integrated time-to-collision (TIT) is reduced by 9.5% on average. Furthermore, the computation time of the linear optimization is only a few seconds, which is fast enough for the online application of the proposed strategy.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Condução de Veículo , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Segurança
14.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(11): 1652-1664, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Poly-IgA immune complex formation and glomerular deposition play a key role in IgA nephropathy. Our study sought to develop a new methodology for one-step serologic detection of poly-IgA levels. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: A novel ELISA method using recombinant CD89 as a "capturing" probe was established for detecting poly-IgA immune complex in plasma. We applied semiquantitative measurements of these poly-IgA indices in patients recruited at Peking University First Hospital who had IgA nephropathy or other kidney disease types, as compared with healthy controls. The longitudinal trend of the poly-IgA index and the association with pathologic parameters and treatment responses were evaluated. Finally, we analyzed the molecular composition of poly-IgA complexes in patients by mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Recombinant CD89-mounted ELISA plates specifically captured plasma poly-IgA. The levels of poly-IgA immune complex (26.7 [interquartile range (IQR) 17.1-42.6] U/ml) in IgA nephropathy were significantly higher than those in healthy controls (15.5 [IQR 10.7-20.0] U/ml; P<0.001) or in controls with non-IgA nephropathy disease (14.8 [IQR 10.5-21.9] U/ml; P<0.001). Higher levels of poly-IgA immune complex were associated with lower eGFR and worse kidney outcome. Accuracy parameters and concordant statistics showed good discrimination between IgA nephropathy and healthy controls based on poly-IgA index levels (area under the curve [AUC], 0.78; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.72 to 0.83; P<0.001), significantly outperforming galactose-deficient IgA1 levels (AUC, 0.70; P=0.05). Corticosteroid and immunosuppressant treatments lowered poly-IgA indices. After a recombinant CD89-directed workflow in conjunction with mass spectrometry, we also analyzed the molecular composition of IgA immune complex in patients with IgA nephropathy. CONCLUSIONS: Higher level of recombinant CD89-bound poly-IgA immune complex was associated with the severity of the disease and with treatment response to steroids and immunosuppressants.

15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6072, 2021 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663817

RESUMO

Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) is a severe disease characterized by developmental defects in the trabecular meshwork (TM) and Schlemm's canal (SC), comprising the conventional aqueous humor outflow pathway of the eye. Recently, heterozygous loss of function variants in TEK and ANGPT1 or compound variants in TEK/SVEP1 were identified in children with PCG. Moreover, common variants in ANGPT1and SVEP1 have been identified as risk alleles for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in GWAS studies. Here, we show tissue-specific deletion of Angpt1 or Svep1 from the TM causes PCG in mice with severe defects in the adjacent SC. Single-cell transcriptomic analysis of normal and glaucomatous Angpt1 deficient eyes allowed us to identify distinct TM and SC cell populations and discover additional TM-SC signaling pathways. Furthermore, confirming the importance of angiopoietin signaling in SC, delivery of a recombinant ANGPT1-mimetic promotes developmental SC expansion in healthy and Angpt1 deficient eyes, blunts intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation and RGC loss in a mouse model of PCG and lowers IOP in healthy adult mice. Our data highlight the central role of ANGPT1-TEK signaling and TM-SC crosstalk in IOP homeostasis and provide new candidates for SC-targeted glaucoma therapy.


Assuntos
Humor Aquoso/metabolismo , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/patologia , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/terapia , Angiopoietina-1/administração & dosagem , Angiopoietina-1/genética , Angiopoietina-1/metabolismo , Animais , Câmara Anterior/irrigação sanguínea , Câmara Anterior/citologia , Câmara Anterior/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Comunicação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/genética , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/metabolismo , Pressão Intraocular/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Intraocular/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Crista Neural/citologia , Crista Neural/metabolismo , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Célula Única , Malha Trabecular/citologia , Malha Trabecular/metabolismo
16.
Adv Mater ; : e2106400, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676927

RESUMO

Single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SCSC) transformations have received considerable interest in crystal engineering, owing to providing a key platform for creating new materials. However, because of the limited tolerance of chemical bonds against the lattice strains, it is challenging to maintain the crystallinity when the structure changes dramatically. Here, a peculiar SCSC transformation from organic crystals to inorganic crystals, simultaneously achieving a drastic change in structure, connectivity, and dimension, is reported. As a demonstration, after reacting with liquid gallium, zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) can easily transform to 2D hydroxide single crystals. Interestingly, long-range ordered metallic atoms of hydroxide inherited from the ordered atomic arrangement of ZIF-8, but the connectivity is distinct. With good universality and extensibility, this transformation vastly expands the research scope of the SCSC transformations and provides a novel pathway for the synthesis of crystalline materials.

17.
Front Nutr ; 8: 731356, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552957

RESUMO

Frailty is an age-related clinical syndrome that may increase the risk of falls, disability, hospitalization, and death in older adults. Delaying the progression of frailty helps improve the quality of life in older adults. Caloric restriction (CR) may extend lifespan and reduce the risk of age-related diseases. However, few studies have explored the relationship between CR and frailty. In this review, we focused on the impact of CR on frailty and aimed to identify potential associated mechanisms. Although CR may help prevent frailty, further studies are required to determine the underlying mechanisms and specific CR regimens suitable for use in humans.

18.
Ear Nose Throat J ; : 1455613211045563, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590888

RESUMO

To explore the correlation between the width of the bony cochlear nerve canal (CNC) and long-term auditory rehabilitation after unilateral cochlear implantation (CI) in pediatric patients with congenital deafness and bilateral cochlear nerve canal stenosis (CNCS). A retrospective review was performed on 10 patients with bilateral CNCS and bilateral congenital profound hearing loss who each underwent unilateral cochlear implantation. The width of the CNC was determined on computed tomography (CT) imaging and following CI, auditory and speech performance following CI were graded using categories of auditory performance (CAP), speech intelligibility rating (SIR), and the meaningful auditory integration scale (MAIS) at 24 months following implantation. No correlation was noted between CAP score and CNCS at 24 months post CI (P > .05). A positive correlation was noted between SIR score and CNC width (ρ = .81, P < .05). Similarly, a positive correlation was noted between MAIS and CNC width (ρ = .71, P < .05). The width of the CNC in patients with CNCS is positively correlated with some long-term auditory and speech outcomes after CI.

19.
Dev Psychopathol ; : 1-11, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521484

RESUMO

Cognitive theories of depression contend that biased cognitive information processing plays a causal role in the development of depression. Extensive research shows that deeper processing of negative and/or shallower processing of positive self-descriptors (i.e., negative and positive self-schemas) predicts current and future depression in adults and children. However, the neural correlates of the development of self-referent encoding are poorly understood. We examined children's self-referential processing using the self-referent encoding task (SRET) collected from 74 children at ages 6, 9, and 12; around age 10, these children also contributed structural magnetic resonance imaging data. From age 6 to age 12, both positive and negative self-referential processing showed mean-level growth, with positive self-schemas increasing relatively faster than negative ones. Further, voxel-based morphometry showed that slower growth in positive self-schemas was associated with lower regional gray matter volume (GMV) in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC). Our results suggest that smaller regional GMV within vlPFC, a critical region for regulatory control in affective processing and emotion development, may have implications for the development of depressogenic self-referential processing in mid-to-late childhood.

20.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(49): 25981-25987, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569134

RESUMO

Selective molecular recognition in water is the foundation of numerous biological functions but is a challenge for most synthetic hosts. We employ the concept of endo-functionalized cavity and the strategy of simultaneous construction to address this issue. The concept and the strategy were demonstrated in the construction of a biomimetic host for selectively recognizing quinones in water. The host was synthesized by joining two pieces of bent anthracene dimer through amide bond formation, affording a deep hydrophobic cavity and inward-directing hydrogen bonding sites. The host can recognize quinones over their close analogues in water, and its association affinity to p-benzoquinone is the highest among all the known hosts and is even comparable to that of the bioreceptor. The binding with an anthraquinone reaches nanomolar affinity. Shielded hydrogen bonding, C-H⋅⋅⋅π, and charge transfer interactions, and the hydrophobic effect are responsible for the high binding affinity and selectivity.

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