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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460654

RESUMO

Herein, the synthetic mechanism of octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) modified corn starch (OSCS) and granule shells (OSCs) based on shells separation pretreatment (SSP) was investigated. High intensity peaks around 1720 and 1570 cm-1 were observed for OSCs in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra after SSP. OSCs showed higher degree of substitution (DS) values (ranging from 0.128 to 0.170) than OSCS (0.121) determined by 1H NMR. The average molecular weight (Mw) of OSA modified CS decreased, due to the introduction of OS groups. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that esterification mainly took place in the amorphous regions of starch granules. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that a new peak corresponding to 1s orbital electrons of Na was obtained due to the introduction of OSA molecules. Meanwhile, lower surface DS and higher fluorescence intensity were noticed for OSCs. Conclusively, SSP would significantly increase the reaction efficiency of OSA modification process of CS.

2.
J Med Genet ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a life-threatening birth defect that often co-occurs with non-hernia-related anomalies (CDH+). While copy number variant (CNV) analysis is often employed as a diagnostic test for CDH+, clinical exome sequencing (ES) has not been universally adopted. METHODS: We analysed a clinical database of ~12 000 test results to determine the diagnostic yields of ES in CDH+ and to identify new phenotypic expansions. RESULTS: Among the 76 cases with an indication of CDH+, a molecular diagnosis was made in 28 cases for a diagnostic yield of 37% (28/76). A provisional diagnosis was made in seven other cases (9%; 7/76). Four individuals had a diagnosis of Kabuki syndrome caused by frameshift variants in KMT2D. Putatively deleterious variants in ALG12 and EP300 were each found in two individuals, supporting their role in CDH development. We also identified individuals with de novo pathogenic variants in FOXP1 and SMARCA4, and compound heterozygous pathogenic variants in BRCA2. The role of these genes in CDH development is supported by the expression of their mouse homologs in the developing diaphragm, their high CDH-specific pathogenicity scores generated using a previously validated algorithm for genome-scale knowledge synthesis and previously published case reports. CONCLUSION: We conclude that ES should be ordered in cases of CDH+ when a specific diagnosis is not suspected and CNV analyses are negative. Our results also provide evidence in favour of phenotypic expansions involving CDH for genes associated with ALG12-congenital disorder of glycosylation, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, Fanconi anaemia, Coffin-Siris syndrome and FOXP1-related disorders.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434492

RESUMO

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) is associated with congenital absence of the uterus, cervix, and the upper part of the vagina; it is a sex-limited trait. Disrupted development of the Müllerian ducts (MD)/Wölffian ducts (WD) through multifactorial mechanisms has been proposed to underlie MRKHS. In this study, exome sequencing (ES) was performed on a Chinese discovery cohort (442 affected subjects and 941 female control subjects) and a replication MRKHS cohort (150 affected subjects of mixed ethnicity from North America, South America, and Europe). Phenotypic follow-up of the female reproductive system was performed on an additional cohort of PAX8-associated congenital hypothyroidism (CH) (n = 5, Chinese). By analyzing 19 candidate genes essential for MD/WD development, we identified 12 likely gene-disrupting (LGD) variants in 7 genes: PAX8 (n = 4), BMP4 (n = 2), BMP7 (n = 2), TBX6 (n = 1), HOXA10 (n = 1), EMX2 (n = 1), and WNT9B (n = 1), while LGD variants in these genes were not detected in control samples (p = 1.27E-06). Interestingly, a sex-limited penetrance with paternal inheritance was observed in multiple families. One additional PAX8 LGD variant from the replication cohort and two missense variants from both cohorts were revealed to cause loss-of-function of the protein. From the PAX8-associated CH cohort, we identified one individual presenting a syndromic condition characterized by CH and MRKHS (CH-MRKHS). Our study demonstrates the comprehensive utilization of knowledge from developmental biology toward elucidating genetic perturbations, i.e., rare pathogenic alleles involving the same loci, contributing to human birth defects.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446513

RESUMO

Telomere biology disorders (TBDs), largely characterized by telomere lengths below the first centile for age, are caused by variants in genes associated with telomere replication, structure, or function. One of these genes, ACD, which encodes the shelterin protein TPP1, is associated with both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive TBDs. TPP1 is responsible for recruitment of telomerase to telomeres and stimulates telomerase processivity. Several studies probing the effect of various synthetic or patient-derived variants have mapped specific residues and regions of TPP1 that are important for interaction with TERT, the catalytic component of telomerase. However, these studies have come to differing conclusions regarding ACD haploinsufficiency. Here, we report a proband with compound heterozygous novel variants in ACD (NM_001082486.1): c.505_507delGAG, p.E169del; and c.619delG, p.D207Tfs*22; as well as a second proband with a heterozygous chromosomal deletion encompassing ACD: arr[hg19] 16q22.1(67,628,846-67,813,408)x1. Clinical data, including symptoms and telomere length within the pedigrees, suggested that loss of one ACD allele was insufficient to induce telomere shortening. Further analysis of lymphoblastoid cell lines revealed decreased nascent ACD RNA and steady-state mRNA, but normal TPP1 protein levels, in cells containing heterozygous ACD c.619delG, p.D207Tfs*22, or the ACD-encompassing chromosomal deletion compared to controls. Based on our results, we conclude that cells are able to compensate for loss of one ACD allele by activating a mechanism to maintain TPP1 protein levels, thus maintaining normal telomere length.

5.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-11, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401939

RESUMO

With increasing awareness of environmental protection, petroleum-based raw materials are continuously decreasing, which in turn necessitated the development of eco-friendly sustainable biomaterials, as alternative strategy. Starch could be an ideal substitute. Corn starch has been used as a renewable material for development of biodegradable packaging, owing to great varieties, low cost, large-scale industrial production, and good films forming properties. Unfortunately, its poor mechanical and barrier properties have limited the application of starch-based films. Thence, plasticizers were added to overcome the aforementioned pitfalls and improve the films elongation, distribution, flexibility, elasticity, and rigidity. Addition of plasticizers can change the continuity and therefore would enhance the properties of corn starch-based films. While plasticization can improve the tensile strength and percent elongation, it can reduce the water resistance in prepared films. Herein, we focused on changes of starch granules during gelatinization process, types of biodegradable films, as well as the types of modified starch with plasticizers. Furthermore, the influence of plasticizers on corn starch-based films and the physicochemical properties of various types of corn starch-based films were also addressed.

6.
FEBS Open Bio ; 2021 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455075

RESUMO

Multiple clinical trials have shown that monoclonal antibodies against Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) can benefit patients with lung cancer by increasing their progression-free survival and overall survival. However, a significant proportion of patients do not respond to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies. In the present study, we investigated whether galectin-3 inhibitors can enhance the antitumor effect of PD-L1 blockade. Using the NSCLC-derived cell line A549, we examined the expression of galectin-3 in lung cancer cells under hypoxic conditions and investigated the regulatory effect of galectin-3 on PD-L1 expression, which is mediated by the STAT3 pathway. We also explored whether galectin-3 inhibition can facilitate the cytotoxic effect of T cells induced by PD-L1 blockade. The effects of combined use of a galectin-3 inhibitor and PD-L1 blockade on tumor growth and T cell function were also investigated, and we found that hypoxia increased the expression and secretion of galectin-3 by lung cancer cells. Galectin-3 increased PD-L1 expression via the upregulation of STAT3 phosphorylation, and administration of a galectin-3 inhibitor enhanced the effect of PD-L1 blockade on the cytotoxic activity of T cells against cancer cells in vitro. In a mouse xenograft model, the combination of a galectin-3 inhibitor and PD-L1 blockade synergistically suppressed tumor growth. Furthermore, the administration of a galectin-3 inhibitor enhanced T cell infiltration and granzyme B release in tumors. Collectively, our results show that galectin-3 increases PD-L1 expression in lung cancer cells and that the administration of a galectin-3 inhibitor as an adjuvant enhanced the antitumor activity of PD-L1 blockade.

7.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 176: 112954, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412428

RESUMO

CRISPR/Cas system have drawn increasing attention in accurate and sensitive nucleic acids detection. Herein, we reported a novel Cas12a-based electrochemiluminescence biosensor for target amplification-free human papilloma virus subtype (HPV-16) DNA detection. During this detection process, Cas12a employed its two-part recognition mechanism to improve the specificity and trans-cleavage capability to achieve signal amplification, while L-Methionine stabilized gold nanoclusters (Met-AuNCs) were served as high-efficiency ECL emitters to achieve ECL signal transition. Given the unique combination of Cas12a with ECL technique, the detection limit was determined as 0.48 pM and the whole detection could be completed within 70 min. We also validated the practical application of the proposed biosensor by using undiluted human blood samples, which gives impetus to the design of new generations of CRISPR/Cas detection system beyond the traditional ones with ultimate applications in sensing analysis and diagnostic technologies.

8.
Redox Biol ; 38: 101766, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126057

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and irreversible disease characterized by an increase in differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts and excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix in lung tissue. Pharmacological activation of NRF2 has proved to be a valuable antifibrotic approach, however the detailed mechanisms of how NRF2 mediates antifibrotic function remain unclear. In this study, we found that the antifibrotic function of sulforaphane (SFN), an NRF2 activator, was largely dependent on LOC344887, a long noncoding RNA. Two functional AREs were identified in both the promoter and intron 1 of LOC344887, which defines LOC344887 as a novel anti-fibrotic NRF2 target gene. RNA-seq analysis revealed that LOC344887 controls genes and signaling pathways associated with fibrogenesis. Deletion or downregulation of LOC344887 enhanced expression of CDH2/N-cadherin, as well as a number of other fibrotic genes and blunted the antifibrotic effects of SFN. Furthermore, LOC344887-mediated downregulation of fibrotic genes may involve the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway, as pharmacologic inhibition of PI3K activity blocked the effects of LOC344887 knockdown. Our findings demonstrate that NRF2-mediated LOC344887 upregulation contributes to the antifibrotic potential of SFN by repressing the expression of CDH2 and other fibrotic genes, providing novel insight into how NRF2 controls the regulatory networks of IPF. This study provides a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of NRF2 activators against pulmonary fibrosis and presents a novel therapeutic axis for prevention and intervention of fibrosis-related diseases.

9.
J Clin Invest ; 131(1)2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001864

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDTranscriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) improves diagnostic rates in individuals with suspected Mendelian conditions to varying degrees, primarily by directing the prioritization of candidate DNA variants identified on exome or genome sequencing (ES/GS). Here we implemented an RNA-seq-guided method to diagnose individuals across a wide range of ages and clinical phenotypes.METHODSOne hundred fifteen undiagnosed adult and pediatric patients with diverse phenotypes and 67 family members (182 total individuals) underwent RNA-seq from whole blood and skin fibroblasts at the Baylor College of Medicine (BCM) Undiagnosed Diseases Network clinical site from 2014 to 2020. We implemented a workflow to detect outliers in gene expression and splicing for cases that remained undiagnosed despite standard genomic and transcriptomic analysis.RESULTSThe transcriptome-directed approach resulted in a diagnostic rate of 12% across the entire cohort, or 17% after excluding cases solved on ES/GS alone. Newly diagnosed conditions included Koolen-de Vries syndrome (KANSL1), Renpenning syndrome (PQBP1), TBCK-associated encephalopathy, NSD2- and CLTC-related intellectual disability, and others, all with negative conventional genomic testing, including ES and chromosomal microarray (CMA). Skin fibroblasts exhibited higher and more consistent expression of clinically relevant genes than whole blood. In solved cases with RNA-seq from both tissues, the causative defect was missed in blood in half the cases but none from fibroblasts.CONCLUSIONSFor our cohort of undiagnosed individuals with suspected Mendelian conditions, transcriptome-directed genomic analysis facilitated diagnoses, primarily through the identification of variants missed on ES and CMA.TRIAL REGISTRATIONNot applicable.FUNDINGNIH Common Fund, BCM Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Research Center, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development.

10.
Neurosci Lett ; 740: 135461, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elderly patients receive propofol at regular intervals for sedation during gastrointestinal endoscopy. However, the link between cognition and intermittent propofol exposure remains unclear. Thus, we used aged rats to investigate the effect of propofol on cognition. METHODS: The study included two parts. In the first part, aged (18-20 months old) male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent intermittent intraperitoneal injection of propofol (200 mg/kg) or intralipid, every 9 days or once a day. In the second part, some aged rats received intraperitoneal injection of Bay 11-7082 (1 mg/kg), a specific inhibitor of NF-κB, 30 min before propofol injection. Memory tests were performed to evaluate cognition 24 h after the entire treatment. The hippocampal neuronal damage was assessed by TUNEL staining. The hippocampal levels of p-NF-κB p65, NLRP3, caspase-1 p20, and cleaved caspase-3 were detected by western blotting. The hippocampal and serum levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α were evaluated using ELISA. RESULTS: There were no differences in the behavioral tests, hippocampal neuronal damage, and neuroinflammation between groups given intralipid and propofol treatment every 9 days. However, repeated propofol treatment once a day promoted activation of NF-κB and the NLRP3 inflammasome, inducing cognitive impairment and neuroinflammation. Interestingly, pretreatment with Bay-11-7082 not only inhibited NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome activation, but also attenuated neuronal damage and cognitive dysfunction in aged rats exposed to daily propofol treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent propofol treatment every 9 days may be safe for aged rats. However, propofol treatment once a day could impair the cognition of aged rats, partly through the activation of the NF-κB pathway and NLRP3 inflammasome, which may be a potential targets for the treatment of cognitive impairment in elderly patients.

11.
Carbohydr Polym ; 251: 117039, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142597

RESUMO

Recently, starch-based packaging materials have become one of research hot points. In the present study, glycerol-plasticized composite films based on high amylose corn starch (HCS) and konjac glucomannan (KGM) were developed. The influence of KGM on the film-forming properties of HCS and the physicochemical properties of the resulting films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and water vapor permeability (WVP). The crystallinity and the proportion of short-range order structure of the films increased first and then declined with the addition of KGM. The micromorphology of the films exhibited the more even texture after KGM was incorporated in. The tensile strength, elongation at break and water resistance of HCS film were also improved significantly. The synergistic effect between HCS and KGM improved the film-forming ability of HCS. The optimal addition amount of KGM was 0.3 %.

12.
Pediatr Neurol ; 114: 16-20, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic variants in the IGHMBP2 gene cause recessive spinal motor neuropathies of variable phenotype, including a predominantly distal motor impairment of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2S and the more severe condition of spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 in which infantile respiratory failure predominates. METHODS: We describe the first reported case of spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 caused by a novel deep intronic variant in IGHMBP2 (NM_002180c.712-610A>G). RESULTS: The variant was detected by whole genome sequencing. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and complimentary DNA sequencing were used to characterize the impact of the novel variant. CONCLUSIONS: This report illustrates the utility in clinical practice of genome sequencing and RNA analysis, compared with exome sequencing alone.

13.
Entropy (Basel) ; 22(11)2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33286959

RESUMO

Crashes that involved large trucks often result in immense human, economic, and social losses. To prevent and mitigate severe large truck crashes, factors contributing to the severity of these crashes need to be identified before appropriate countermeasures can be explored. In this research, we applied three tree-based machine learning (ML) techniques, i.e., random forest (RF), gradient boost decision tree (GBDT), and adaptive boosting (AdaBoost), to analyze the factors contributing to the severity of large truck crashes. Besides, a mixed logit model was developed as a baseline model to compare with the factors identified by the ML models. The analysis was performed based on the crash data collected from the Texas Crash Records Information System (CRIS) from 2011 to 2015. The results of this research demonstrated that the GBDT model outperforms other ML methods in terms of its prediction accuracy and its capability in identifying more contributing factors that were also identified by the mixed logit model as significant factors. Besides, the GBDT method can effectively identify both categorical and numerical factors, and the directions and magnitudes of the impacts of the factors identified by the GBDT model are all reasonable and explainable. Among the identified factors, driving under the influence of drugs, alcohol, and fatigue are the most important factors contributing to the severity of large truck crashes. In addition, the exists of curbs and medians and lanes and shoulders with sufficient width can prevent severe large truck crashes.

14.
Environ Res ; 193: 110560, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279493

RESUMO

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is widely used to purify air pollutants in environmental engineering, but it is only activated by ultraviolet (UV) light. The metal or nonmetal single doping of TiO2 cannot observably improve the purification efficiency of TiO2 under visible light. To further increase the photocatalytic activity and purification efficiency of TiO2 on vehicle exhaust under visible light, nitrogen (N)-vanadium (V) co-doped TiO2 was first prepared. The influences of N-V co-doping on phase structures, morphology, microstructures, electronic structures, and photo-absorption performances were then observed and examined using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-visible light diffuse reflectance spectra. Purification efficiency and reaction rates of N-V co-doped TiO2 on NOx, HC, CO and CO2 in vehicle exhaust were studied using a purification test system under UV and visible light irradiations, respectively. Results indicate that N and V are synchronously doped into the crystal structures of TiO2 to replace O and Ti, respectively. N and V show the synergistic co-doping effect to suppress the grain growth of TiO2 and improve the dispersity and specific surface area of TiO2. Also, the N-V co-doping introduces more lattice distortions and defects in the crystal lattices of TiO2. Further, N presents in the form of Ti-O-N and O-Ti-N bonds, and V exists in the form of V5+ and V4+. These form the impurity energy level in the band gap to narrow the energy band of TiO2. Additionally, the N-V co-doping broadens the photoabsorption threshold of TiO2 from 387 nm to 611 nm. These results show that N-V co-doping increases the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. Finally, the N-V co-doped TiO2 shows higher catalytic purification efficiency on NOx and HC under UV and visible light. The N-V co-doping obviously increases the purification efficiency of TiO2 on CO and CO2 when exposed to visible light, and their reversible reactions are not found. The N-V co-doping of TiO2 is a feasible approach to purify vehicle exhaust under visible light irradiations.

15.
Neural Plast ; 2020: 8842110, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299396

RESUMO

Musculoskeletal pain (MSP) is one of the most severe complaints in women undergoing menopause. The prevalence of MSP varied when taking the menopausal state and age factor into consideration. This study investigated the prevalence of MSP in perimenopausal women and its association with menopausal state. The MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and PubMed databases were searched from inception to July 2020, and 16 studies were retrieved for the current meta-analysis. The primary outcome measure was the MSP Odds Ratio (OR). The estimated overall prevalence of MSP among perimenopausal women was 71% (4144 out of 5836, 95% confidence interval (CI): 64%-78%). Perimenopausal women demonstrated a higher risk for MSP than premenopausal ones (OR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.35-1.96, P = 0.008, I 2 = 59.7%), but similar to that in postmenopausal ones (OR: 1.07, 95% CI: 0.95-1.20, P = 0.316, I 2 = 13.4%). The postmenopausal women were at a higher risk of moderate/severe MSP than the premenopausal ones (OR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.21-1.75, P = 0.302, I 2 = 16.5%) or the perimenopausal ones (OR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.09-1.79, P = 0.106, I 2 = 55.4%). In conclusion, the perimenopause is a state during which women are particularly predisposed to develop MSP. As to moderate to severe degrees of MSP, the odds increase linearly with age, from premenopause to peri- and then to postmenopause.

16.
Food Res Int ; 138(Pt A): 109666, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292956

RESUMO

The physicochemical properties of κ-carrageenan (KC) can be improved by incorporation with small-molecule cosolvents. The texture and rheological properties, micromorphology, and crystallinity of KC incorporating indigestible dextrin (IDD) and beta-limit dextrin (BLD) were investigated. The rheological properties and sol-gel transition temperatures of the gels were slightly improved and the hardness of KC gels was significantly increased after the two dextrins were mixed in. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results indicated hydrogen-bonding interactions were strengthened in the presence of the dextrins. Confocal laser scanning microscope images revealed that a more homogenous structure was formed of the KC gel after the addition of dextrins. Moreover, X-ray diffraction patterns indicated the crystallinity of KC gel decreased upon dextrin addition. At the same dextrin content, IDD exerted a greater influence than BLD. IDD contents exceeding 3% (w/w) led to undesirable effects, whereas up to 5% (w/w) of BLD could be added. The two dextrins affected the rearrangement of the KC random coils in the sol state, and facilitated aggregation of the KC chains during cooling to form gel network structures after gelation. Therefore, the appropriate addition of these two dextrins can improve the texture and stability of KC gels and expand their application in functional foods.

17.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2020 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369125

RESUMO

ALX4 is a homeobox gene expressed in the mesenchyme of developing bone and is known to play an important role in the regulation of osteogenesis. Enlarged parietal foramina (EPF) is a phenotype of delayed intramembranous ossification of calvarial bones due to variants of ALX4. The contrasting phenotype of premature ossification of sutures is observed with heterozygous loss-of-function variants of TWIST1, which is an important regulator of osteoblast differentiation. Here, we describe an individual with a large cranium defect, with dominant transmission from the mother, both carrying disease causing heterozygous variants in ALX4 and TWIST1. The distinct phenotype of absent superior and posterior calvarium in the child and his mother was in sharp contrast to the other affected maternal relatives with a recognizable ALX4-related EPF phenotype. This report demonstrates comorbid disorders of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome and EPF in a mother and her child, resulting in severe skull defects reminiscent of calvarial abnormalities observed with bilallelic ALX4 variants. To our knowledge this is the first instance of ALX4 and TWIST1 variants acting synergistically to cause a unique phenotype influencing skull ossification.

18.
J Fish Dis ; 2020 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314157

RESUMO

Takifugu rubripes and Dicentrarchus labrax are important commercial fish in China that are under serious threat from Cryptocaryon irritans. C. irritans is a ciliated obligate parasite that causes marine white spot disease and leads to heavy economic losses. We analysed the transcriptome in the gills of T. rubripes and D. labrax to compare differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and pathways during infection with C. irritans. In total, we identified 6,901 and 35,736 DEGs from T. rubripes and D. labrax, respectively. All DEGs were annotated into GO terms; 6,901 DEGs from T. rubripes were assigned into 991 sub-categories, and 35,736 DEGs from D. labrax were assigned into 8,517 sub-categories. We mapped DEGs to the KEGG database and obtained 153 and 350 KEGG signalling pathways from T. rubripes and D. labrax, respectively. Immune-related categories included Toll-like receptors, MAPK, lysosome, C-type lectin receptor and NOD-like receptor signalling pathways were significantly enriched pathways. In immune-related signalling pathways, we found that AP-1, P38, IL-1ß, HSP90 and PLA were significantly up-regulated DEGs in T. rubripes, but P38 and PLA were significantly down-regulated in D. labrax. In this study, transcriptome was used to analyse the difference between scaly and non-scaly fish infection by C. irritans, which not only provided a theoretical basis for the infection mechanism of C. irritans, but also laid a foundation for effectively inhibiting the occurrence of this disease. Our work provides further insight into the immune response of host resistance to C. irritans.

19.
Foods ; 9(11)2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143312

RESUMO

Salmon is a highly perishable food due to temperature, pH, odor, and texture changes during cold storage. Intelligent monitoring and spoilage rapid detection are effective approaches to improve freshness. The aim of this work was an evaluation of IoT-enabled monitoring system (IoTMS) and electronic nose spoilage detection for quality parameters changes and freshness under cold storage conditions. The salmon samples were analyzed and divided into three groups in an incubator set at 0 °C, 4 °C, and 6 °C. The quality parameters, i.e., texture, color, sensory, and pH changes, were measured and evaluated at different temperatures after 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 14 days of cold storage. The principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm can be used to cluster electronic nose information. Furthermore, a Convolutional Neural Networks and Support Vector Machine (CNN-SVM) based algorithm is used to cluster the freshness level of salmon samples stored in a specific storage condition. In the tested samples, the results show that the training dataset of freshness is about 95.6%, and the accuracy rate of the test dataset is 93.8%. For the training dataset of corruption, the accuracy rate is about 91.4%, and the accuracy rate of the test dataset is 90.5%. The overall accuracy rate is more than 90%. This work could help to reduce quality loss during salmon cold storage.

20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(46): e23164, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, many studies have been conducted to investigate the relationship between the A46G polymorphism in the ß2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene and essential hypertension risk in the Chinese population. However, the results of previous studies were conflicting. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to investigate the association between the ADRB2 A46G polymorphism and the risk of essential hypertension in the Chinese population. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of possible relevant studies on PubMed, Embase, Ovid, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and China Biology Medicine disc databases up to January 3, 2020. Two authors independently extracted information from included articles and assessed the quality of each study by the use of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. According to the extent of interstudy heterogeneity, either a random-effect model or a fixed-effect model was used to calculate the combined odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Finally, 16 studies containing 3390 cases and 2528 controls were included in our meta-analysis. Significant associations were found between the ADRB2 A46G polymorphism and essential hypertension risk in the Chinese population under four genetic models: allele genetic model (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.06-1.23, P = .001, Pheterogeneity = .09), homozygote genetic model (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.11-1.51, P = .001, Pheterogeneity = .25), dominant genetic model (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.05-1.32, P = .005, Pheterogeneity = .04), and recessive genetic model (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.05-1.38, P = .007, Pheterogeneity = .72). CONCLUSION: The ADRB2 A46G polymorphism may increase the risk of essential hypertension in the Chinese population.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Essencial , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Hipertensão Essencial/etnologia , Hipertensão Essencial/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
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