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1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760046

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the epidemiological characteristics and spatiotemporal patterns of typhus group rickettsiosis (TGR) in mainland China. METHODS: A chi-squared test was used to compare the differences in the age and occupation distributions across the different years. Time-series analyses, spatial clustering analyses, and spatiotemporal scan statistics were used to detect the spatiotemporal patterns of the TGR incidence. RESULTS: A total of 29,211 TGR cases were collected. Of these cases, 63.1% occurred from May to October, and 88.4% occurred in individuals between 0 and 59 years old. There was a significant spatial TGR heterogeneity from 2005 to 2017. The hotspots were located mainly in the southwestern, southern, and circum-Bohai Sea regions of northern China. Eighteen spatiotemporal clusters were observed using Kulldorff's space-time scan statistic, and the primary cluster included three counties, Jinghong city, Menghai county, and Mengla county. CONCLUSIONS: TGR is widely distributed in China, and it's a serious threat to public health. The hotspots were located mainly in the southwestern, southern, and circum-Bohai Sea regions of northern China, and the primary spatiotemporal cluster showed a trend shifting from the circum-Bohai Sea regions to the southwestern regions. Targeted interventions should be executed in high-risk regions for precise prevention and control.

2.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 561, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue fever, was first reported in Yunnan in 2002. Now, this species is found in nine counties in border areas of south-west Yunnan. Related dengue fever outbreaks have been reported since 2013. The population genetics of Ae. aegypti in these areas were studied to explain the expansion history of this species. METHODS: Fifteen natural populations of Ae. aegypti were sampled from six counties of Yunnan, and two laboratory populations from Guangdong and Hainan were also included in this study. A total of 12 microsatellite loci and three mitochondrial genes were analysed. RESULTS: The results indicate that Ae. aegypti populations from Yunnan show similar genetic diversity. The 17 populations could be divided into three groups: the first group included populations from Longchuan, Ruili and Gengma, which are located in the southwest of Yunnan; the second group included populations from Jinghong and Menghai, in the south of Yunnan; and the third group included populations from Mengla and the two laboratory populations from Guangdong and Hainan. Both microsatellite and mtDNA data revealed that the genetic relationships of the populations corresponded to their geographic relationships. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that the expansion of Ae. aegypti from northern Myanmar and Laos to southern and southwestern Yunnan was a natural process. The effect of human activity on expansion was not obvious. Surveillance efforts should still be focused on border areas where Ae. aegypti does not occur, and a powerful control strategy should be applied to prevent outbreaks of dengue fever.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618821

RESUMO

Epidemiological characteristics of domestic imported dengue fever in mainland China, 2014-2018, including time-series, spatial mobility and crowd features, were analyzed. There existed seasonal characteristics from August to November. The 872 domestic imported cases from 8 provinces, located in the southeastern, southwestern and southern coastal or border areas, were imported to 267 counties in 20 provinces of mainland China, located in the outer areas along the southwest-northeast line. The 628 domestic imported cases were still imported to the adjacent counties in the provinces themselves, 234 domestic imported cases were imported to 12 other provinces except the 8 original exported provinces, 493 cases in 2014 reached the peak, and 816 domestic imported cases were from Guangdong (675) and Yunnan (141). Domestic imported cases from Guangdong were imported to 218 counties, and 475 cases from Guangdong were imported to the adjacent counties in Guangdong itself. There were more male cases than female cases except in 2016. Domestic imported cases were clustered from 21 to 50 years old. The top three cases were from farmer, worker and housework or unemployed. The findings are helpful to formulate targeted, strategic plans and implement effective public health prevention and control measures.

4.
Nat Microbiol ; 4(12): 2405-2415, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527795

RESUMO

A blood meal is the primary route through which mosquitoes acquire an arbovirus infection. Blood components or their metabolites may regulate the susceptibility of mosquitoes to arboviruses. Here we report that serum iron in human blood influences dengue virus acquisition by mosquitoes. Dengue virus acquisition by Aedes aegypti was inversely correlated with the iron concentration in serum from human donors. In a mouse-mosquito acquisition model, iron supplementation reduced dengue virus prevalence and viral load, whereas neutralization of serum iron facilitated dengue virus infection in A. aegypti mosquitoes. Of note, mosquitoes feeding on iron-deficient (sideropenic) mice exhibited a higher prevalence of dengue virus. Reversal of the sideropenic status of hosts largely reduced dengue virus acquisition and infection by mosquitoes. Serum iron, rather than haem-bound iron, was utilized by the mosquito iron metabolism pathway to boost the activity of reactive oxygen species in the gut epithelium, subsequently inhibiting infection by dengue virus. On the basis of these results, a status of iron deficiency in the human population might contribute to the vectorial permissiveness to dengue virus, thereby facilitating its spread by mosquitoes.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3376, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388009

RESUMO

The increase in surface air temperature in China has been faster than the global rate, and more high temperature spells are expected to occur in future. Here we assess the annual heat-related mortality in densely populated cities of China at 1.5 °C and 2.0 °C global warming. For this, the urban population is projected under five SSPs, and 31 GCM runs as well as temperature-mortality relation curves are applied. The annual heat-related mortality is projected to increase from 32.1 per million inhabitants annually in 1986-2005 to 48.8-67.1 per million for the 1.5 °C warming and to 59.2-81.3 per million for the 2.0 °C warming, taking improved adaptation capacity into account. Without improved adaptation capacity, heat-related mortality will increase even stronger. If all 831 million urban inhabitants in China are considered, the additional warming from 1.5 °C to 2 °C will lead to more than 27.9 thousand additional heat-related deaths, annually.

6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(7): e0007592, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356608

RESUMO

Dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV 4) has had a relatively low prevalence worldwide for decades; however, likely due to data paucity, no study has investigated the epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics of DENV 4 genotype I (DENV 4-I). This study aims to understand the diversity, epidemiology and dynamics of DENV 4-I. We collected 404 full length DENV4-1 envelope (E) gene sequences from 14 countries using two sources: Yunnan Province in China (15 strains during 2013-2016) and GenBank (489 strains up to 2018-01-11). Conducting phylogenetic and phylogeographical analyses, we estimated the virus spread, population dynamics, and selection pressures using different statistical analysis methods (substitution saturation, likelihood mapping, Bayesian coalescent inference, and maximum likelihood estimation). Our results show that during the last 60 years (1956-2016), DENV 4-I was present in mainland and maritime Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, the southern provinces of China, parts of Brazil and Australia. The recent spread of DENV 4-I likely originated in the Philippines and later spread to Thailand. From Thailand, it spread to adjacent countries and eventually the Indian subcontinent. Apparently diverging around years 1957, 1963, 1976 and 1990, the different Clades (Clade I-V) were defined. The mean overall evolution rate of DENV 4-I was 9.74 (95% HPD: 8.68-10.82) × 10-4 nucleotide substitutions/site/year. The most recent common ancestor for DENV 4-I traces back to 1956. While the demographic history of DENV 4-I fluctuated, peaks appeared around 1982 and 2006. While purifying selection dominated the majority of E-gene evolution of DENV 4-I, positive selection characterized Clade III (Vietnam). DENV 4-I evolved in situ in Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent. Thailand and Indian acted as the main and secondary virus distribution hubs globally and regionally. Our phylogenetic analysis highlights the need for strengthened regional cooperation on surveillance and sharing of sample sequences to improve global dengue control and cross-border transmission prevention efforts.

7.
Nature ; 572(7767): 56-61, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316207

RESUMO

The radiation-based sterile insect technique (SIT) has successfully suppressed field populations of several insect pest species, but its effect on mosquito vector control has been limited. The related incompatible insect technique (IIT)-which uses sterilization caused by the maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia-is a promising alternative, but can be undermined by accidental release of females infected with the same Wolbachia strain as the released males. Here we show that combining incompatible and sterile insect techniques (IIT-SIT) enables near elimination of field populations of the world's most invasive mosquito species, Aedes albopictus. Millions of factory-reared adult males with an artificial triple-Wolbachia infection were released, with prior pupal irradiation of the released mosquitoes to prevent unintentionally released triply infected females from successfully reproducing in the field. This successful field trial demonstrates the feasibility of area-wide application of combined IIT-SIT for mosquito vector control.


Assuntos
Aedes/microbiologia , Aedes/fisiologia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/microbiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Wolbachia/patogenicidade , Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , China , Copulação , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/prevenção & controle , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/microbiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle de Qualidade , Reprodução
8.
Integr Zool ; 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305020

RESUMO

Plague, a devastating infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis, has killed millions of people in history and is still active in the natural foci of the world nowadays. Understanding the spatiotemporal patterns of plague outbreaks in history is critically important, as it may help to facilitate prevention and controls for the potential future outbreaks. In this study, we explored spatiotemporal clusters of human plague occurrences in China using a machine-learning clustering method, and reconstructed the potential transmission pattern during the Third Pandemic (1772-1964). We succeeded to identify 6 clusters in space domain (2-Dimension) and 13 clusters in spatiotemporal domain (3-Dimension). Our results suggest that plague in different spatial clusters experienced several temporal outbreaks and transmissions. Together with the spatiotemporal nearest neighbor approach (ST-NNA), this method could help us to have a clearer look at the spatiotemporal spread patterns of plague. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
Environ Res ; 176: 108577, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flood-related damage can be very severe and include health effects. Among those health impacts, infectious diseases still represent a significant public health problem in China. However, there have been few studies on the identification of the spectrum of infectious diseases associated with floods in one area. This study aimed to quantitatively identify sensitive infectious diseases associated with floods in Guangxi, China. METHODS: A time-trend ecological design was conducted. A descriptive analysis was first performed to exclude infectious diseases with low incidence from 2005 to 2012 in ten study sites of Guangxi. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was applied to examine the difference in the ten-day attack rate of infectious diseases between the exposure and control periods with different lagged effects. Negative binomial, zero-inflated Poisson and zero-inflated negative binomial models were used to examine the relationship and odd ratios (ORs) of the risk of floods on infectious diseases of preliminary screening. RESULTS: A total of 417,271 infectious diseases were notified. There were 11 infectious diseases associated with floods in the preliminary screening process for flood-sensitive infectious diseases. The strongest effect was shown with a 0-9 ten-day lag in different infectious diseases. Multivariate analysis showed that floods were significantly associated with an increased the risk of bacillary dysentery (odds ratio (OR) = 1.268, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.072-1.500), acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC, OR = 3.230, 95% CI: 1.976-5.280), influenza A (H1N1) (OR = 1.808, 95% CI: 1.721-1.901), tuberculosis (OR = 1.200, 95% CI: 1.036-1.391), influenza (OR = 2.614, 95% CI: 1.476-4.629), Japanese encephalitis (OR = 2.334, 95% CI: 1.119-4.865), and leptospirosis (OR = 1.138, 95% CI: 1.075-1.205), respectively. CONCLUSION: The spectrum of infectious diseases which are associated with floods are bacillary dysentery, AHC, influenza A (H1N1), tuberculosis, influenza, Japanese encephalitis and leptospirosis in Guangxi. Floods can result in differently increased risk of these diseases, and public health action should be taken to control a potential risk of these diseases after floods.

10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 86: 82-93, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228577

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the epidemiological dynamics of dengue fever. METHODS: Epidemiological dynamics of imported and indigenous dengue cases during 2014-2018, including demographic, time-series, spatial and spatio-temporal features, were analyzed. RESULTS: There were 5 458 imported dengue cases and 59 183 indigenous dengue cases during 2014-2018. Both imported and indigenous dengue cases show seasonal patterns from August to November. 12.9% (12.9/100) of dengue cases were from businessmen. 58.2% (58.2/100) of dengue cases were from individuals between 21-50 years old. Imported dengue cases, mainly from Southeastern Asia, had doubled, and were distributed in 734 counties, 29 provinces, with 50% (50/100) in Yunnan. Except in 2014, indigenous dengue cases were under 5 000 every year, but the number in counties increased dramatically from 51 to 127. The total cases were distributed in 314 districts, 13 provinces. They were clustered in Yunnan border and southern Guangdong. They emerged gradually from southwestern and southern provinces to southeastern coastal provinces, and then to central and northern provinces every year. They spread from the southern regions to the central and northern regions in 2014-2018. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of epidemiological dynamics of dengue fever are helpful to formulate targeted, strategic plans and implement effective public health prevention and control measures.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: China's capacity to control and prevent emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases is critical to the nation's population health. This study aimed to explore the capacity of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCs) in China to deal with infectious diseases now and in the future. METHODS: A survey was conducted in 2015 among 973 public health professionals at CDCs in Beijing and four provinces, to assess their capacity to deal with emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. RESULTS: Although most professionals were confident with the current capacity of CDCs to cope with outbreaks, nearly all indicated more funding was required to meet future challenges. Responses indicated that Yunnan Province faced more challenges than Anhui, Henan and Liaoning Provinces in being completely prepared and able to deal with outbreaks. Participants aged 20-39 years were more likely than those aged 40 and over to believe strategies such as interdisciplinary and international collaborations for disease surveillance and control, would assist capacity building. CONCLUSION: The capacity of China's CDCs to deal with infectious diseases was excellent. However, findings suggest it is imperative to increase the number of skilled CDC staff, financial support, and strengthen county level staff training and health education programs.

12.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 19(12): 7859-7865, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196300

RESUMO

Submicron Bi2Fe4O9 crystals were successfully synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal synthesis method and employed effectively as a visible-light-driven photocatalyst for the degradation of methylene blue dye. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that the as-prepared sample consisted mainly of submicron plates and a small quantity of submicron particles. The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum of the submicron Bi2Fe4O9 crystals shows two broad absorption edges in the visible region with band gaps of 1.57 and 2.15 eV, respectively. The photodegradation rate of Bi2Fe4O9 is more than twice that of TiO2 for the degradation of methylene blue under visible-light irradiation, demonstrating the excellent photocatalytic activity of these submicron Bi2Fe4O9 crystals. The acquired photocurrent densities are 43.3 and 46.6 µA/cm² for visible-light and ultraviolet-visible irradiation, respectively. These results demonstrate that the submicron Bi2Fe4O9 crystals are potential visible-light photocatalysts for use in environmental purification and solar energy utilization.

13.
Int J Biometeorol ; 63(10): 1319-1329, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240387

RESUMO

Few studies have examined the attributable fraction (AF) of temperature to mortality and Years of Life Lost (YLL), especially in developing countries. This study aims to explore the short-term effect of the cold and hot temperatures on the cause-specific YLL and mortality, discover the attributable contributions from the temperature variations, and identify the vulnerable populations in Weifang, China. Daily registered death information and meteorological data over the period 2010-2016 were obtained in Weifang, a northern Chinese city. Generalized additive Poisson and Gaussian regression models were used to assess the impacts of temperatures on both mortality and YLL, explore the AF of the temperature variations on mortality, after adjusting for other covariates. Both hot and cold temperatures have had significant negative impacts on cause-specific mortality counts and YLL, with heat presented an acute and short effect and the cold temperatures had delayed effects and lasted for several days. In terms of the attributable fraction calculations, the contributions from cold effects was higher than that of hot effects on non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory deaths (YLL 10.88 vs. 1.23%, 19.58 vs. 1.71%, and 14.47 vs. 3.05%; mortality 13.97 vs. 1.65%, 19.20 vs. 1.59%, and 14.89 vs. 3.09%), respectively. The elderly and women and people with low education level were the most vulnerable. The findings will provide important scientific evidences and policy implications for developing adaptation strategies to reduce the adverse effect of cold and hot exposure in Weifang, in terms of resource allocation, healthcare workforce capacity building, and community health education, especially for the vulnerable groups.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Temperatura Alta , Idoso , China , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Mortalidade , Temperatura Ambiente
14.
Environ Int ; 128: 271-278, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the context of global warming, most researches have been conducted on health influences of heat waves, with limited understanding of health impacts of cold spells, especially for developing countries. METHODS: We collected daily mortality and meteorological data for 31 capital cities across China during the maximum period of 2007-2013. A quasi-Poisson regression model combined with a distributed lag non-linear model was used to estimate the short-term effects of cold spells on mortality in cold seasons (November to March). 19 definitions of cold spell were clearly compared, including three definitions from the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) and 16 definitions by combining two temperature indicators (daily minimum and mean temperature), two temperature thresholds (3rd and 5th percentile) and four durations of at least 2-5 days. Then, a random effect meta-analysis was applied to pool the effect estimates at national level. Furthermore, a stratified analysis was constructed to identify the vulnerable subpopulations to cold spells. RESULTS: The definition, in which daily mean temperature falls below 5th percentile for at least two consecutive days, produced the optimum model fit performance. Generally, the mortality risk increased to the maximum after 3-6 days' exposure to cold spell and then leveled off in the next 3 weeks. The pooled relative risks (RR) of non-accidental mortality for cold spells were 1.03 (95% CI: 1.01-1.05), 1.27 (1.19-1.35) and 1.55 (1.40-1.70) at lag 0, lag 0-14 and lag 0-27 days, respectively. The greatest effect estimates of cold spells were found among total respiratory diseases and COPD, with RR of 1.88 (1.65-2.11) and 1.88 (1.58-2.19), respectively. The elderly, less-educated individuals and residents in southern China were more vulnerable to cold spells. CONCLUSION: There are remarkable mortality effects of cold spells, with effect estimates varying with the definition of cold spell and subpopulations. Using the official definition of cold spells may fail to capture the mortality risk associated with cold spells. These findings may facilitate the development of cold alert warning system and preventive actions to the vulnerable populations.


Assuntos
Mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Temperatura Baixa , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
Environ Res ; 175: 178-185, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129527

RESUMO

Rapid and wide-ranging reductions in greenhouse gas emissions are required to meet the climate targets agreed upon at the 2015 Paris climate conference. There will be significant transition risks for health, livelihoods, and ecosystems associated with large-scale mitigation, but also opportunities. The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts, positive and negative, of climate policies on population health in China. We review the Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) that China took to the Paris meeting, link commitments in the INDC to national planning documents relevant to environment and health, and search the literature for Chinese publications on health trade-offs and synergies. Synergies are evident in the measures taken to reduce local air pollution in China: controls on coal burning have materially improved local air quality and benefited health. But there may be risks to health also, depending on how policies are implemented and what safeguards are provided. To date most assessments of the health impacts of climate policies in China have been modelling studies. We recommend work of this kind is complemented by observational research to identify unexpected impacts and vulnerabilities. It will become even more important to undertake this work as emission reductions accelerate to meet the Paris climate targets.

16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(24): 11833-11838, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138696

RESUMO

Quantitative knowledge about which natural and anthropogenic factors influence the global spread of plague remains sparse. We estimated the worldwide spreading velocity of plague during the Third Pandemic, using more than 200 years of extensive human plague case records and genomic data, and analyzed the association of spatiotemporal environmental factors with spreading velocity. Here, we show that two lineages, 2.MED and 1.ORI3, spread significantly faster than others, possibly reflecting differences among strains in transmission mechanisms and virulence. Plague spread fastest in regions with low population density and high proportion of pasture- or forestland, findings that should be taken into account for effective plague monitoring and control. Temperature exhibited a nonlinear, U-shaped association with spread speed, with a minimum around 20 °C, while precipitation showed a positive association. Our results suggest that global warming may accelerate plague spread in warm, tropical regions and that the projected increased precipitation in the Northern Hemisphere may increase plague spread in relevant regions.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003560

RESUMO

Characterizing the breeding sites of Culex pipiens complex is of major importance for the control of West Nile disease and other related diseases. However, little information is available about the characteristics and associated factors of the breeding sites of the Cx. pipiens complex in Lhasa, a representative high-altitude region in Southwestern China. In this study, a cross-sectional study concerning the breeding site characteristics and associated factors of the Cx. pipiens complex was carried out in Lhasa, Tibet from 2013-2016. Chi-square analysis and binary logistic regression analysis were applied to identify the key factors associated with the presence of Cx. pipiens complex larvae. Using a standard dipping method, 184 water bodies were examined and Cx. pipiens complex larvae were observed in 36 (19.57%) of them. There were significant differences in the composition of Cx. pipiens complex larvae among the breeding site stability (χ2 = 19.08, p = 0.00) and presence or absence of predators (χ2 = 6.986, p = 0.008). Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that breeding site stability and presence or absence of predators were significantly associated with the presence of Cx. pipiens complex larvae in Chengguan District, Lhasa. Relatively permanent water bodies such as water bodies along river fringes, ponds and puddles, and water bodies with no predators should be paid more attention for future Cx. pipiens complex larvae abatement campaigns in Lhasa, China.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Culex/fisiologia , Animais , China , Estudos Transversais , Culex/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Rios , Tibet
18.
Environ Res ; 173: 255-261, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Climate change may lead to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases and pose public health challenges to human health and the already overloaded healthcare system. It is therefore important to review current knowledge and identify further directions in China, the largest developing country in the world. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was conducted to examine the relationship between climate variability and infectious disease transmission in China in the new millennium. Literature was identified using the following MeSH terms and keywords: climatic variables [temperature, precipitation, rainfall, humidity, etc.] and infectious disease [viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases]. RESULTS: Fifty-eight articles published from January 1, 2000 to May 30, 2018 were included in the final analysis, including bacterial diarrhea, dengue, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, HFRS, HFMD, Schistosomiasis. Each 1 °C rise may lead to 3.6%-14.8% increase in the incidence of bacillary dysentery disease in south China. A 1 °C rise was corresponded to an increase of 1.8%-5.9% in the weekly notified HFMD cases in west China. Each 1 °C rise of temperature, 1% rise in relative humidity and one hour rise in sunshine led to an increase of 0.90%, 3.99% and 0.68% in the monthly malaria cases, respectively. Climate change with the increased temperature and irregular patterns of rainfall may affect the pathogen reproduction rate, their spread and geographical distribution, change human behavior and influence the ecology of vectors, and increase the rate of disease transmission in different regions of China. CONCLUSION: Exploring relevant adaptation strategies and the health burden of climate change will assist public health authorities to develop an early warning system and protect China's population health, especially in the new 1.5 °C scenario of the newly released IPCC special report.

20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1324, 2019 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902991

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that predominantly circulates between humans and Aedes mosquitoes. Clinical studies have shown that Zika viruria in patients persists for an extended period, and results in infectious virions being excreted. Here, we demonstrate that Aedes mosquitoes are permissive to ZIKV infection when breeding in urine or sewage containing low concentrations of ZIKV. Mosquito larvae and pupae, including from field Aedes aegypti can acquire ZIKV from contaminated aquatic systems, resulting in ZIKV infection of adult females. Adult mosquitoes can transmit infectious virions to susceptible type I/II interferon receptor-deficient (ifnagr-/-) C57BL/6 (AG6) mice. Furthermore, ZIKV viruria from infected AG6 mice can causes mosquito infection during the aquatic life stages. Our studies suggest that infectious urine could be a natural ZIKV source, which is potentially transmissible to mosquitoes when breeding in an aquatic environment.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Cruzamento , Poluição da Água , Infecção por Zika virus/parasitologia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Zika virus/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Esgotos/virologia , Vírion/metabolismo , Infecção por Zika virus/urina
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