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1.
Appl Opt ; 58(27): 7298-7304, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674373

RESUMO

The conical diffraction Offner hyperspectral imaging spectrometer (CDO-HIS) is a hyperspectral calibrator for monitoring the radiation stability of an ocean color sensor. The spectrometer adopts the structure of the conical diffraction Offner configuration (CDO-CF), containing a convex blazed grating to produce a nearly nondistortion and high spectral fidelity image. The theory analysis of the conical diffraction Offner is discussed and introduced to the instrument design. The optimization procedure and design results of CDO-HIS and the conical diffraction grating are provided based on the design ideas, which show benefits of the employment of CDO-CF. The results of laboratory characterization are presented, including the grating diffraction efficiency and the instrument performance.

2.
Small ; : e1904248, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724823

RESUMO

Switchable structured adhesion on rough surfaces is highly desired for a wide range of applications. Combing the advantages of gecko seta and creeper root, a switchable fibrillar adhesive composed of polyurethane (PU) as the backing layer and graphene/shape memory polymer (GSMP) as the pillar array is developed. The photothermal effect of graphene (under UV irradiation) changes GSMP micropillars into the viscoelastic state, allowing easy and intimate contact on surfaces with a wide range of roughness. By controlling the phase state of GSMP via UV irradiation during detachment, the GSMP micropillar array can be switched between the robust-adhesion state (UV off) and low-adhesion state (UV on). The state of GSMP micropillars determines the adhesion force capacity and the stress distribution at the detaching interface, and therefore the adhesion performance. The PU-GSMP adhesive achieves large adhesion strength (278 kPa), high switching ratio (29), and fast switching (10 s) at the same time. The results suggest a design principle for bioinspired structured adhesives, especially for reversible adhesion on surfaces with a wide range of roughness.

3.
Parasite ; 26: 62, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670656

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an important pathogen commonly found in humans and animals. Farmed animals with close contact to humans are important hosts of E. bieneusi. The role of goats in the transmission of E. bieneusi, however, remains unclear. In this study, 341 fresh fecal samples of black goats were collected from five locations in Hainan Province, China. Enterocytozoon bieneusi was identified and genotyped by sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Phylogenetic analysis was performed by constructing a neighbor-joining tree of the ITS gene sequences. The average prevalence of E. bieneusi in black goats was 24.0% (82/341) with rates ranging from 6.3% (4/63) to 37.2% (32/86) across the locations (χ2 = 17.252, p < 0.01). Eight genotypes of E. bieneusi were identified, including six known genotypes: CHG5 (n = 47); CHG3 (n = 23); CHG2 (n = 4); CM21 (n = 3); D (n = 2); and AHG1 (n = 1), and two novel genotypes termed HNG-I (n = 1) and HNG-II (n = 1). In the phylogenetic tree, genotype D was clustered into Group 1 and the other identified genotypes were included in Group 2. This represents the first report identifying E. bieneusi in black goats from Hainan Province, with a high prevalence and wide occurrence demonstrated. The two new genotypes identified provide additional insights into the genotypic variations in E. bieneusi. Due to the small percentage of zoonotic genotypes in these animals, there is minimal risk of zoonotic transmission of E. bieneusi.

4.
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) ; 8(5): 385-390, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567265

RESUMO

The advent of "flapless" small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE), employing all-in-one technology, has resulted in a revolutionary breakthrough in refractive surgeries. SMILE has been gaining popularity due to fewer potential complications, such as postoperative dry eyes and greater biomechanical stability, etc. However, attention must be given to 1) the centration on the corneal vertex, 2) the proper alignment of the astigmatic axis, and 3) the relationship between pupil size and treatment diameter, to achieve good SMILE results. There is no pupil-tracking system to ascertain the accuracy of centration during the SMILE surgery. To improve the centration accuracy, our center uses two corneal topographers (Pentacam and Sirius) to measure and determine corneal vertex. Proper predicted optical zone diameter is not clearly defined yet in SMILE. Some scholars insist that mesopic pupil size should be taken into consideration when setting the predicted optical zone. Meanwhile, the issue of "functional optical zone" still has many unresolved issues and warrants further studies.

5.
Int J Biol Sci ; 15(11): 2471-2483, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595164

RESUMO

Prolonged intermittent hypoxia (IH) has been shown to impair myocardial function (mainly via oxidative stress and inflammation) and modify gut microbiota in mice. Gut microbiota plays an important role in health and disease, including obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Probiotics refer to live microorganisms that confer health benefits on the host after administration in adequate amounts. Research on novel probiotics related therapies has evoked much attention. In our previous study, both Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and LGG cell-free supernatant (LGGs) were found to protect against alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis; however, the effects of LGG and LGGs on cardiac tissues of obese mice exposed to IH have not been determined. Here we exposed high-fat high-fructose diet (HFHFD)-induced obese mice to IH, to establish a model of obesity with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Mice were divided into four groups: (1) HFHFD for 15 weeks; (2) HFHFD for 15 weeks with IH in the last 12 weeks (HFHFD/IH); (3) and (4) HFHFD/IH plus oral administration of either LGG (109 CFU bacteria/day) or LGGs (dose equivalent to 109 CFU bacteria/day) over the 15 weeks, respectively. Compared to HFHFD mice, HFHFD/IH-mice showed heart dysfunction with significant cardiac remodeling and inflammation; all these pathological and functional alterations were prevented by treatment with both LGG and LGGs (no significant difference between LGG and LGGs in this respect). The cardioprotective effect of LGG and LGGs against IH/HFHFD was associated with up-regulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2(Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant pathways. Our findings suggest a cardioprotective effect of LGG and LGGs in obese mice with OSA.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593796

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Linezolid (LZD) has been listed as the group A medications for the treatment of multi-drug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensive drug resistance tuberculosis (XDR-TB) in longer regimen (18-20 month) by WHO recently. However, little is known about the safety of LZD in longer TB treatment regimen in children. METHODS: Here, we reported 31children who received LZD treatment for drug resistance tuberculosis (DR-TB) and extensive tuberculosis from September, 2016 to March 2019. The average course of LZD treatment was 8.56 months (range from 1 m to 24 m). RESULTS: 3/31patients (41.94%) had suspected or confirmed adverse events (AEs) related to LZD including digestive symptom, hematologic toxicity, neuropathy and lactic acidosis. Hematologic toxicity were the most frequent AEs presented as leukopenia (9/13) and anemia (5/13). No hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic were observed in all 31 patients. Two patients suffered from life-threaten lactic acidosis when LZD dose increased to 1.2 g daily, and they finally recovered through LZD retrieving. CONCLUSION: There was high rate of AEs of Linezolid treatment in children who received long time regimen, and the AEs might relate to treat course and dose. Hematologic toxicity was the most frequent AE in children. It is necessary to monitor the blood test and lactic concentration regularly during Linezolid treatment.

7.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol ; 9(11): 1263-1272, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment for lesions in the parapharyngeal space. However, gaining access to the parapharyngeal space is often challenging. In this study we aim to describe a minimally invasive technique of approaching the upper parapharyngeal space through an endoscopic transnasal retropterygoid approach, based on anatomic studies and surgeries. METHODS: Six fresh human cadaver heads were prepared for anatomic study at the Surgical Neuroanatomy Laboratory of the Center for Cranial Base Surgery within the Department of Neurological Surgery at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. Three clinical cases seen in the Department of Otolaryngology, Eye, Ear, Nose, and Throat Hospital, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, were used to illustrate the technique and feasibility of this approach and to assess its indications, advantages, and drawbacks. RESULTS: The medial pterygoid plate is the primary landmark of the endoscopic transnasal retropterygoid approach to the upper parapharyngeal space. Access to the upper parapharyngeal space could be obtained by removing the mucosa on the medial pterygoid plate and the mucosa below the pharyngeal orifice of the Eustachian tube. The 3 patients in our study tolerated the procedure well and had no serious complications after surgery. CONCLUSION: The anatomic data and clinical cases in this study confirm that an endoscopic transnasal retropterygoid approach is a feasible and effective surgical treatment for selected tumors in the upper parapharyngeal space.

9.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 366, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular apicomplexan protozoan parasite, can infect almost all warm-blooded animals. The aim of the present study was to investigate T. gondii oocyst-driven infection in pigs, chickens and humans in Jilin province, northeastern China. RESULTS: The serum samples of pigs, chickens and humans were sampled and tested by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) using dense granule antigen GRA7, oocyst-specific protein OWP8, and sporozoite-specific protein CCp5A, respectively. Results showed a prevalence of 16.7% by GRA7-ELISA, and 12.2% by OWP8- and CCp5A-ELISA in pigs; 10.4% by GRA7-ELISA, 13.5% by OWP8-ELISA, and 9.4% by CCp5A-ELISA in chickens; and 14.2% by GRA7-ELISA, 3.6% by OWP8-ELISA, and 3.0% by CCp5A-ELISA in humans. No significant differences were observed between T. gondii seroprevalence in pigs and chickens among the three antigens-based ELISAs (P > 0.05). However, there were significant differences between T. gondii seroprevalence rates in humans (P < 0.05). These findings demonstrated a low prevalence of T. gondii oocyst-driven infection in humans, a medium prevalence in pigs, and a high prevalence in chickens. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that different oocyst-driven infection rates in different animal species, which would help to design effective strategies to prevent T. gondii transmission. To our knowledge, this is the first study to differentiate T. gondii infective forms in pigs, chickens and humans in China.

10.
Anal Chem ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621298

RESUMO

Film-based fluorescence sensing is recognized as one of the most optimized techniques for trace analysis of chemicals in the air after the invention of ion mobility spectrometry. The performance of the technique is highly dependent on the design of the film. This paper reports a new fluorescent film which shows unprecedented and discriminative sensing performance to the presence of phenol, o-cresol, m-cresol, and p-cresol in the air with an ultralow detection limit as low as 0.4, 0.3, 10, and 0.8 ppt, respectively. The film was designed via combination of the advantages of aggregation-induced emission (AIE) and those of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), where the former provides the opportunity to avoid the widely encountered aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) effect and the latter allows sensitive sensing of the microenvironment change of the film. The biggest challenge of the design is to find a fluorophore possessing both AIE and ICT effects. Fortunately, a newly synthesized biphenyl derivative of o-carborane capped with azetidine moiety (BZPCarb) shows the properties as expected. Importantly, the fluorophore is photochemically stable, a prerequirement for multiple uses of a film device. In addition, the nonplanar structure of the fluorophore is also favorable for film sensing as it could form porous films owing to screening of dense stacking of the molecules. It is the merits that make BZPCarb-based film show outstanding sensing and discriminative performances. Based on the fluorophore and the design, a conceptual high-performance fluorescent vapor sensor for phenolic compounds was developed.

11.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 320, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Getah virus (GETV) is a neglected mosquito-borne Alphavirus that causes pyrexia, body rash, and leg oedema in horses and foetal death and reproductive disorders in pigs. Infected animals may play a critical role in the amplification and circulation of the virus. The present study aimed to investigate GETV infection in clinically infected cattle and vector mosquito species in northeastern China. RESULTS: Serum samples were collected from beef cattle that presented sudden onset of fever in forest grazing areas, and metagenomic sequencing was conducted, revealing 29 contigs from ten serum samples matching the GETV genome. Quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed with GETV RNA from 48 beef cattle serum samples, showing that the overall prevalence of GETV in the beef cattle samples was 6.25% (3/48). Serological investigation indicated that GETV neutralizing antibodies were detected in 83.3% (40/48, 95% CI 67-100) of samples from the study region. The GETV JL1808 strain was isolated from clinically infected cattle showing fever. Sequence comparisons showed high identity with the HuN1 strain, a highly pathogenic swine epidemic isolate obtained in Hunan province in 2017, at the nucleotide level (99.5%) and at the deduced amino acid level (99.7-99.9%). The phylogenetic analysis of JL1808 clustered in Group III, and also revealed a close genetic relationship with the HuN1 strain. Additionally, about 12,000 mosquitoes were trapped in this region. The presence of GETV infection was detected in mosquitoes, suggesting that the minimum infection rate (MIR) was 1.50‰, with MIRs of 1.67‰ in Culex pseudovishnui, 1.60‰ in Culex tritaeniorhynchus, and 1.21‰ in Anopheles sinensis. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of GETV infection in cattle. These results demonstrated that a highly pathogenic, mosquito-borne swine GETV can infect and circulate in cattle, implying that it is necessary to conduct surveillance of GETV infection in animals in northeastern China.

12.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 450, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alongshan virus (ALSV) is a novel discovered segmented flavivirus associated with human febrile illness in northeastern China. Ixodes persulcatus is considered as a candidate vector of ALSV in the endemic regions. However, the role of domesticated animals in the circulation and transmission of ALSV have not been investigated. To evaluate the prevalence of ALSV infections in domesticated animals, viral RNA and viral specific antibodies were detected in sheep and cattle in Hulunbuir of northeastern Inner Mongolia. The findings contribute to the understanding of the ecology and transmission of ALSV among different natural hosts. METHODS: A total of 480 animal serum samples were collected in Hulunbuir of northeastern China in May, 2017. Viral specific antibodies were tested by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a purified E. coli recombinant capsid protein (VP2) of ALSV (strain H3) and further detected by viral neutralization test (VNT). RNA in serum samples were extracted and detected for ALSV sequence by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. ALSV RNA positive samples were used for virus isolation. RESULTS: ALSV-specific antibodies were detected in 9.2% (22/240) of examined sheep and 4.6% (11/240) of examined cattle by ELISA, while lower serological positivity with 4.2% (10/240) for sheep and 1.7% (4/240) for cattle was confirmed by VNT. In contrast, the prevalence of ALSV RNA was much higher, ranging from 26.3% (63/240) in sheep to 27.5% (66/240) in cattle. The partial S1 (NS5-like) and S3 (NS3-like) segments of ALSVs in sheep and cattle shared high identities of more than 98% to the human and tick isolates in the studied regions. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the natural infection of ALSV can be found in sheep and cattle in the endemic regions.

13.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 42(9): 1471-1481, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474708

RESUMO

Sutaehwan (STH) has been used in Korean medicine for the treatment of abortus habitualis such as fetal restlessness in the uterus. Previously, we reported that a modified formulation of STH, Sutaehwan-Gami, has phytoestrogen-like properties in an ovariectomized menopausal rat model. However, the therapeutic effects of STH and the precise mechanisms by which STH affects various menopausal symptoms remain poorly understood. The current study was designed to explore the effects of a modified form of STH on menopausal anxiety, depression and heart hypertrophy and its mechanisms in 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD)-induced menopausal mouse models. VCD-induced menopausal model mice were fed a modified form of STH, which contained water extract of 3 herbs (called STH_KP17001) at a dose of 100 or 300 mg/kg/d or as a positive control, estradiol at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg/d with standard mouse pellets for 13 weeks. The results show that STH_KP17001 significantly restored the VCD-induced weight reduction of uterine and ovary through the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and protein kinase B (AKT) in the uterus and ovary. Moreover, STH_KP17001 showed slight proliferative effects and estrogen receptor α phosphorylation in MCF-7 cells. Treatment with STH_KP17001 reversed VCD-induced anxiety and depression through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the cerebral cortex, while improving heart hypertrophy through inactivation of inhibitor of kappaB α (IκBα) in the heart. The results indicate that STH_KP17001 improves menopause-induced anxiety, depression and heart hypertrophy, implying its protective role for the management of menopausal symptoms.

14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(18)2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527505

RESUMO

Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) is an emerging biomedical imaging technology capable of quantitative measurement of the microvascular blood flow by correlation analysis. However, the computational cost is high, limiting its applications. Here, we report a parallel computation design based on graphics processing unit (GPU) for high-speed quantification of blood flow in PAM. Two strategies were utilized to improve the computational efficiency. First, the correlation method in the algorithm was optimized to avoid redundant computation and a parallel computing structure was designed. Second, the parallel design was realized on GPU and optimized by maximizing the utilization of computing resource in GPU. The detailed timings and speedup for each calculation step were given and the MATLAB and C/C++ code versions based on CPU were presented as a comparison. Full performance test shows that a stable speedup of ~80-fold could be achieved with the same calculation accuracy and the computation time could be reduced from minutes to just several seconds with the imaging size ranging from 1 × 1 mm2 to 2 × 2 mm2. Our design accelerates PAM-based blood flow measurement and paves the way for real-time PAM imaging and processing by significantly improving the computational efficiency.

15.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 18: 1533033819876918, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551008

RESUMO

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes with excellent electrical properties and high aspect ratios can reduce the high field strength required to kill cancer cells in vitro with nanosecond pulsed electric fields. For the first time, this article systematically and comprehensively evaluates the effects of various parameters of nanosecond pulsed electric fields combined with multi-walled carbon nanotubes on cell viability. The effects of field strength, E (2-10 kV/cm); pulse width, τ (100-500 ns); and pulse number, N (5-260) on the viability of A375 human skin cancer cells in the presence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes are studied using the Cell Counting Kit 8 assay. Based on a logistic model, the relationship between cell viability and various parameters is obtained using 1-dimensional nonlinear fitting. The results show a sigmoid-type variation in cell viability with field strength, pulse width, or pulse number. Multivariate scaling analysis shows that the relationship between cell viability and the pulse energy density σE2τN can be described as a sigmoid type. The introduction of multi-walled carbon nanotubes does not affect the above rules but significantly enhances the killing effect of nanosecond pulsed electric fields, which could effectively improve the electrical safety of nanosecond pulsed electric fields for the treatment of tumors.

16.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222338, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527891

RESUMO

Rhesus macaque is an important animal model in biomedical research, especially human disease, developmental, translational, and pre-clinical research. Blood physiological and biochemical parameters are important markers for physiology, pathology, and toxicology research. However, these parameters have not been systematically reported for Chinese rhesus macaques. To characterize the reference for these parameters, this study collected 1805 Chinese rhesus macaques living in Southwestern China. A total of 24 blood physiological indexes and 27 biochemical parameters were determined. Sex and age were found to affect these parameters. In conclusion, a comprehensive and systematic reference of hematological and biochemical parameters for Chinese rhesus macaque was established in this work on the basis of a large cohort. Such reference will benefit biomedical research employing rhesus macaques as animal models.

17.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 21(11): 2553-2563, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364797

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate a novel tetrahydroisoquinoline derivative YR4-42 as a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) modulator (SPPARM) and explore its anti-diabetic effects in vitro and in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using two standard full PPARγ agonists rosiglitazone and pioglitazone as controls, the PPARγ binding affinity and transactivation action of YR4-42 were evaluated using biochemical and cell-based reporter gene assays. The capacity of YR4-42 to recruit coactivators of PPARγ was also assessed. The effects of YR4-42 on adipogenesis and glucose consumption and PPARγ Ser273 phosphorylation were investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The effects of YR4-42 and pioglitazone, serving as positive control, on glucose and lipids metabolism were investigated in high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J mice. The expression of PPARγ target genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism was also assessed in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: In vitro biochemical and cell-based functional assays showed that YR4-42 has much weaker binding affinity, transactivation, and recruitment to PPARγ of the coactivators thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein complex 220 kDa component (TRAP220) and PPARγ coactivator 1-α (PGC1α) compared to full agonists. In 3 T3-L1 adipocytes, YR4-42 significantly improved glucose consumption without a lipogenesis effect, while blocking tumour necrosis factor α-mediated phosphorylation of PPARγ at Ser273, thereby upregulating the expression of the PPARγ Ser273 phosphorylation-dependent genes. Furthermore, in DIO mice, oral administration of YR4-42 ameliorated the hyperglycaemia, with a similar insulin sensitization effect to that of pioglitazone. Importantly, YR4-42 also improved hyperlipidaemia-associated hepatic steatosis without weight gain, which avoids a major side effect of pioglitazone. Thus, YR4-42 appeared to selectively modulate PPARγ responses. This finding was supported by the gene expression analysis, which showed that YR4-42 selectively targets PPARγ-regulated genes mapped to glucose and lipid metabolism in DIO mice. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that YR4-42 is a novel anti-diabetic drug candidate with significant advantages compared to standard PPARγ agonists. YR4-42 should be further investigated in preclinical and clinical studies.

18.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt A): 113021, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415976

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a ubiquitous toxic heavy metal derived mainly from industrial processes. In industrialized societies, individuals are exposed to a plethora of sources of Cd pollution. Cd can trigger serious diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by the over-activating immune system. As an effector mechanism in innate immunity, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) not only play an important role in defending against infection but also lead to tissue damage. However, the role of NETs in Cd-induced lung damage process has not been previously studied. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential effects of Cd-induced NETs on lung injury in vivo and further to clarify the molecular mechanisms of Cd-induced NETs formation. In vivo, Cd treatment destroyed the structural integrity of lung tissue and significantly increased the levels of NETs in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The known NETs inhibitor DNase I ameliorated pathologic changes and significantly decreased levels of NETs in BALF, which suggesting the curial role of NETs in Cd-induced lung injury. Further investigation showed that Cd could significantly trigger NETs formation, which is composed of DNA backbone decorated with histones (H3) and neutrophils elastase (NE). The inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK-signaling pathways significantly reduced the formation of NETs, and western blotting analysis also showed that Cd significantly increased the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Above results confirmed that NADPH oxidase, ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK-signaling pathways were related to Cd-induced NETs formation. In conclusion, NETs was involved in Cd-induced lung injury, and the mechanisms of Cd-induced NETs formation was via activating NADPH oxidase, ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK-signaling pathways, which might provide a new perspective in Cd-induced lung injury.

19.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 142: 111547, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387025

RESUMO

Glucose sensing is of vital importance due to the growing number of diabetes. In this study, we developed a visual detecting approach for glucose sensing based on a smart hydrogel system, by assembling of a photo-crosslinkable hydrogel and a pH-responsive nanogel, respectively. The hydrogel system showed fast response and high sensitivity to glucose in the physiological ranges, and enabled a visual detection of glucose both in vitro in glucose solutions and in vivo in diabetic mouse models. In normoglycemic state, the hydrogels showed large swelling, resulting in a large shape but with weak color or fluorescence intensity of the hydrogels. In hyperglycemic state, the hydrogels exhibited less swelling, resulting in a small shape but with strong color or fluorescence intensity of the hydrogels. Based on the observation of the size change and intensity change of the hydrogels, we can visual the glucose levels by either colorimetry or fluorescence imaging. This hydrogel system provides a novel means for visual detection of glucose. Our study broadens the current applications of hydrogels, extending their potentials in clinical diagnosis of diabetes or glucose-related analysis.

20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(19): 11112-11121, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423774

RESUMO

The size-resolved properties of atmospheric black carbon (BC) importantly determine its absorption capacity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) ability. This study reports comprehensive vertical profiles of BC size-related properties over the Beijing area (BJ) and Continental Europe (CE). BC mass loadings over CE were in the range of clean background over BJ. For both planetary boundary layer (PBL) and lower free troposphere, the BC mass median core diameter over BJ during the cold season was 0.21 ± 0.02 µm, larger than the warm season over BJ and CE (0.18 ± 0.01 µm), which may reflect seasonal differences in emissions. The BC coatings were positively correlated with the pollution level, with background BC having a smaller coated count median diameter (0.19 ± 0.01 µm). The modeled absorption enhancement (Eabs) due to coatings was 1.23 ± 0.14 for the background but in the PBL following a linear expression (Eabs = 0.13 × MassBC,surface + 1.26). The CCN ability of BC was significantly enhanced in the polluted PBL, due to both enlarged size and increased hygroscopicity. In polluted BJ at predicted supersaturations, ∼0.08% half of the BC number could be activated, whereas the cleaner environment needs ∼0.14%. The results here suggest that the highly coated and absorbing BC can be efficiently incorporated into clouds and can exert important indirect radiative impacts over the polluted East Asia region.

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