Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 12 de 12
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Nat Genet ; 51(12): 1670-1678, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740837

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder with approximately 1% lifetime risk globally. Large-scale schizophrenia genetic studies have reported primarily on European ancestry samples, potentially missing important biological insights. Here, we report the largest study to date of East Asian participants (22,778 schizophrenia cases and 35,362 controls), identifying 21 genome-wide-significant associations in 19 genetic loci. Common genetic variants that confer risk for schizophrenia have highly similar effects between East Asian and European ancestries (genetic correlation = 0.98 ± 0.03), indicating that the genetic basis of schizophrenia and its biology are broadly shared across populations. A fixed-effect meta-analysis including individuals from East Asian and European ancestries identified 208 significant associations in 176 genetic loci (53 novel). Trans-ancestry fine-mapping reduced the sets of candidate causal variants in 44 loci. Polygenic risk scores had reduced performance when transferred across ancestries, highlighting the importance of including sufficient samples of major ancestral groups to ensure their generalizability across populations.

2.
Front Genet ; 10: 661, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402929

RESUMO

Background: In western swine breeds, up to 30% of embryonic losses occur during early pregnancy, and the majority of embryonic losses happens during implantation. In this period, maternal recognition of pregnancy begins to occur and blastocysts undergo dramatic morphologic changes. As with other species, changes in the uterine environment plays an important role in the process of embryo implantation in pigs. Erhualian (ER) pigs, one of the Chinese Taihu swine breeds, are known to have the highest litter size in the world. Experiments demonstrated that the greater embryonic survival on gestation day (GD) 12 in Chinese Taihu pigs is one important factor that contributes to enhanced litter size. This is largely controlled by maternal genes. In this study, endometrial samples were collected from pregnant Landrace×Large Yorkshire (LL) sows (parity 3) and ER sows (parity 3) on GD12 and the expression profiles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the endometrium were compared between ER and LL using miRNA-seq technology. Results: A total of 288 miRNAs were identified in the pig endometrium, including 202 previously known and 86 novel miRNAs. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis revealed that highly abundant miRNAs might affect endometrial remodeling. Comparison between LL and ER sows revealed that 96 known miRNAs were differentially expressed between the two groups (including 78 up-regulated and 18 down-regulated miRNAs in ER compared to LL). Bioinformatics analysis showed that the target genes of some differentially expressed miRNAs were involved in pathways related to angiogenesis, proliferation, apoptosis, and tissue remodeling, which play critical roles in implantation by regulating endometrial structural changes and secretions of hormones, growth factors, and nutrients. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that insulin-like growth factor-1 protein expression was directly inhibited by miR-206. The lower expression of miR-206 in ER compared to LL might facilitate the angiogenesis of the endometrium during embryo implantation. Conclusions: The identified miRNAs that are differentially expressed in the endometrium of ER and LL pigs will contribute to the understanding of the role of miRNAs in embryonic implantation and the molecular mechanisms of the highest embryonic survival in Chinese ER pigs.

3.
Mamm Genome ; 30(1-2): 34-41, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30506450

RESUMO

Increasing evidence suggests that miRNA binding-site polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of a target gene could affect that gene's expression, and can be associated with a variety of complex traits. In this study, we find that miR-18a and cell division cycle 42 (CDC42) mRNA, whose expression was inversely correlated, are differentially expressed in porcine placentas during critical stages of placental development. rs55618224 (T>C), a SNP in the 3'UTR region of CDC42 that is perfectly complementary to the miR-18a seed could influence miR-18a-related regulation of CDC42 gene by altering their binding affinity. In addition, CDC42 mRNA was found to have higher expression level in the homozygous TT placentas as compared to those homozygous CC placentas in pigs. Furthermore, we identified a significant association between rs55618224 and total number born per litter. These results suggest the miR-18a binding-site polymorphism in CDC42 3'UTR may impact litter size by regulation of CDC42 gene in porcine placentas.


Assuntos
Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , MicroRNAs/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Proteína cdc42 de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Sequência de Bases , Sítios de Ligação , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Suínos
4.
Nature ; 559(7715): E13, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29899441

RESUMO

In this Letter, analysis of steady-state regulatory T (Treg) cell percentages from Il2ra enhancer deletion (EDEL) and wild-type (WT) mice revealed no differences between them (Extended Data Fig. 9d). This analysis included two mice whose genotypes were incorrectly assigned. Even after correction of the genotypes, no significant differences in Treg cell percentages were seen when data across experimental cohorts were averaged (as was done in Extended Data Fig. 9d). However, if we normalize the corrected data to account for variation among experimental cohorts, a subtle decrease in EDEL Treg cell percentages is revealed and, using the corrected and normalized data, we have redrawn Extended Data Fig. 9d in Supplementary Fig. 1. The Supplementary Information to this Amendment contains the corrected and reanalysed Extended Data Fig. 9d. The sentence "This enhancer deletion (EDEL) strain also had no obvious T cell phenotypes at steady state (Extended Data Fig. 9)." should read: "This enhancer deletion (EDEL) strain had a small decrease in the percentage of Treg cells (Extended Data Fig. 9).". This error does not affect any of the main figures in the Letter or the data from mice with the human autoimmune-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) knocked in or with a 12-base-pair deletion at the site (12DEL). In addition, we stated in the Methods that we observed consistent immunophenotypes of EDEL mice across three founders, but in fact, we observed consistent phenotypes in mice from two founders. This does not change any of our conclusions and the original Letter has not been corrected.

5.
Reproduction ; 154(6): 765-775, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28912304

RESUMO

It is one of the important events that trophoblast cells within the placental folds differentiate into two types that differ in cell shape during placental development in pigs. This study showed that all the trophoblast cells were of similar shape between Yorkshire and Chinese Meishan pigs on day 26 of gestation; thereafter, the trophoblast cells located at the top of the placental folds became high columnar, while those cells at the base of the placental folds were cuboidal on day 50 of gestation. Additionally, on day 95 of gestation, all the trophoblast cells in Meishan pigs became cuboidal, but the trophoblast cells located at the top of the placental folds in Yorkshire pigs still remained columnar. The membranous E-cadherin and ß-catenin were strongly co-expressed by the high columnar trophoblast cells but very weakly expressed by those cuboidal cells. Consistently, the expression pattern of ZEB2, the E-cadherin repressor, was inversely correlated with that of E-cadherin in the two types of trophoblast cells in the two breeds. Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated the binding of ZEB2 to the E-cadherin promoter in nuclear extracts from porcine placental tissue. These findings suggest a ZEB2-dependent mechanism of trophoblast cell differentiation during placental development in pigs.


Assuntos
Caderinas/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Placentação , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Homeobox 2 de Ligação a E-box com Dedos de Zinco/metabolismo , Animais , Caderinas/genética , Forma Celular , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Idade Gestacional , Gravidez , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica , Transdução de Sinais , Especificidade da Espécie , Sus scrofa , Homeobox 2 de Ligação a E-box com Dedos de Zinco/genética
6.
Nature ; 549(7670): 111-115, 2017 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28854172

RESUMO

The majority of genetic variants associated with common human diseases map to enhancers, non-coding elements that shape cell-type-specific transcriptional programs and responses to extracellular cues. Systematic mapping of functional enhancers and their biological contexts is required to understand the mechanisms by which variation in non-coding genetic sequences contributes to disease. Functional enhancers can be mapped by genomic sequence disruption, but this approach is limited to the subset of enhancers that are necessary in the particular cellular context being studied. We hypothesized that recruitment of a strong transcriptional activator to an enhancer would be sufficient to drive target gene expression, even if that enhancer was not currently active in the assayed cells. Here we describe a discovery platform that can identify stimulus-responsive enhancers for a target gene independent of stimulus exposure. We used tiled CRISPR activation (CRISPRa) to synthetically recruit a transcriptional activator to sites across large genomic regions (more than 100 kilobases) surrounding two key autoimmunity risk loci, CD69 and IL2RA. We identified several CRISPRa-responsive elements with chromatin features of stimulus-responsive enhancers, including an IL2RA enhancer that harbours an autoimmunity risk variant. Using engineered mouse models, we found that sequence perturbation of the disease-associated Il2ra enhancer did not entirely block Il2ra expression, but rather delayed the timing of gene activation in response to specific extracellular signals. Enhancer deletion skewed polarization of naive T cells towards a pro-inflammatory T helper (TH17) cell state and away from a regulatory T cell state. This integrated approach identifies functional enhancers and reveals how non-coding variation associated with human immune dysfunction alters context-specific gene programs.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Animais , Antígenos CD/biossíntese , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/biossíntese , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Cromatina/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/biossíntese , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/genética , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/imunologia , Lectinas Tipo C/biossíntese , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Lectinas Tipo C/imunologia , Camundongos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Células Th17/citologia , Células Th17/imunologia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 17(12)2016 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27941613

RESUMO

The placenta expressed transcript 1 (PLET1) gene, which is expressed in placentas of pigs and mice, has been found to have a potential role in trophoblast cell fate decision in mice. Results of this study showed that the porcine PLET1 mRNA and protein were expressed exclusively in trophoblast cells on Days 15, 26, 50, and 95 of gestation (gestation length in the pig is 114 days), indicating that the PLET1 could be a useful marker for porcine trophoblast cells. Additionally, PLET1 protein was found to be redistributed from cytoplasm to the apical side of trophoblast cells as gestation progresses, which suggests a role of PLET1 in the establishment of a stable trophoblast and endometrial epithelial layers. In addition, two transcripts that differ in the 3' UTR length but encode identical protein were identified to be generated by the alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA), and the expression of PLET1-L transcript was significantly upregulated in porcine placentas as gestation progresses. Furthermore, we demonstrated the interaction between the miR-365-3p and PLET1 gene using luciferase assay system. Our findings imply an important role of PLET1 in the placental development in pigs.


Assuntos
Placenta/citologia , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Animais , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Feminino , Hibridização In Situ , MicroRNAs/genética , Placenta/metabolismo , Poliadenilação/genética , Gravidez , Suínos , Trofoblastos/citologia , Trofoblastos/metabolismo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 16(9): 22692-710, 2015 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26393584

RESUMO

The expression patterns in Meishan- and Yorkshire-derived endometrium during early (gestational day 15) and mid-gestation (gestational days 26 and 50) were investigated, respectively. Totally, 689 and 1649 annotated genes were identified to be differentially expressed in Meishan and Yorkshire endometrium during the three gestational stages, respectively. Hierarchical clustering analysis identified that, of the annotated differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 73 DEGs were unique to Meishan endometrium, 536 DEGs were unique to Yorkshire endometrium, and 228 DEGs were common in Meishan and Yorkshire endometriums. Subsequently, DEGs in each of the three types of expression patterns were grouped into four distinct categories according to the similarities in their temporal expression patterns. The expression patterns identified from the microarray analysis were validated by quantitative RT-PCR. The functional enrichment analysis revealed that the common DEGs were enriched in pathways of steroid metabolic process and regulation of retinoic acid receptor signaling. These unique DEGs in Meishan endometrium were involved in cell cycle and adherens junction. The DEGs unique to Yorkshire endometrium were associated with regulation of Rho protein signal transduction, maternal placenta development and cell proliferation. This study revealed the different gene expression patterns or pathways related to the endometrium remodeling in Meishan and Yorkshire pigs, respectively. These unique DEGs in either Meishan or Yorkshire endometriums may contribute to the divergence of the endometrium environment in the two pig breeds.


Assuntos
Implantação do Embrião , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Suínos/embriologia , Suínos/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Endométrio/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Gravidez
9.
Biol Reprod ; 93(3): 62, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26157073

RESUMO

The development of the microscopically folded structure of the diffuse epitheliochorial placenta in pigs is important because it expands the surface area for maternal-fetal exchange, resulting in an increase in placental efficiency. To better understand the regulatory mechanisms involved in this process, we characterized miRNA expression profiles in porcine placentas during the initiation and establishment of placental fold development. A total of 42 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed, and their putative target genes were predicted using four target prediction programs. Following a comparative analysis with published gene expression pattern data obtained from porcine placentas in the corresponding stages of placental fold development, only those genes that were negatively correlated with miRNA expression were retained for further function and pathway enrichment analysis. The results showed that the up-regulated miRNAs were associated mainly with extracellular matrix remodeling and tissue morphogenesis, while the down-regulated miRNAs were related to cell proliferation and signal transduction. Furthermore, we provide evidence that miR-130b may facilitate the expression of HPSE, which has been reported to be a regulator of the folding of the pig placenta, by suppressing the expression of PPARG. In addition, we also reveal that the miRNA-target pairs expressed in the pig placenta may trigger the degradation of the stromal matrix and basement membrane (miR-29a-COL1A2, COL3A1, and LAMC1) and regulate trophoblast epithelial cell adherens junctions (the miR-200 family and miR-205-ZEB2-CDH1) and proliferation (miR-17-92 cluster-HBP1 and ULK1). Taken together, these results indicate that miRNAs and related pathways may have potential roles in porcine placental fold development.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Placenta/metabolismo , Animais , Membrana Basal/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Marcação de Genes , Glucuronidase/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Gravidez , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Células Estromais , Suínos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 16(5): 9152-66, 2015 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25915029

RESUMO

Wool is an important material in textile manufacturing. In order to investigate the intrinsic factors that regulate wool follicle cycling and wool fiber properties, Illumina sequencing was performed on wool follicle bulb samples from the middle anagen, catagen and late telogen/early anagen phases. In total, 13,898 genes were identified. KRTs and KRTAPs are the most highly expressed gene families in wool follicle bulb. In addition, 438 and 203 genes were identified to be differentially expressed in wool follicle bulb samples from the middle anagen phase compared to the catagen phase and the samples from the catagen phase compared to the late telogen/early anagen phase, respectively. Finally, our data revealed that two groups of genes presenting distinct expression patterns during the phase transformation may have important roles for wool follicle bulb regression and regeneration. In conclusion, our results demonstrated the gene expression patterns in the wool follicle bulb and add new data towards an understanding of the mechanisms involved in wool fiber growth in sheep.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Expressão Gênica , Folículo Piloso/fisiologia , Regeneração , , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ovinos
11.
PLoS One ; 9(2): e87867, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24505325

RESUMO

Implantation and placentation are critical steps for successful pregnancy. The pig has a non-invasive placenta and the uterine luminal epithelium is intact throughout pregnancy. To better understand the regulation mechanisms in functions of endometrium at three certain gestational stages that are critical for embryo/fetal loss in pigs, we characterized microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in the endometrium on days 15 (implantation period), 26 (placentation period) and 50 (mid-gestation period) of gestation. The differentially expressed miRNAs across gestational days were detected and of which, 65 miRNAs were grouped into 4 distinct categories according to the similarities in their temporal expression patterns: (1) categories A and B contain majority of miRNAs (51 miRNAs, such as the miR-181 family) that were down- or up-regulated between gestational days 15 and 26, respectively; (2) categories C and D (14 miRNAs) consist miRNAs that were down- or up-regulated between gestational days 26 and 50, respectively. The expression patterns represented by eleven miRNAs were validated by qPCR. The majority of miRNAs were in categories A and B, suggesting that these miRNAs were involved in regulation of embryo implantation and placentation. The pathway analysis revealed that the predicted targets were involved in several pathways, such as focal adhesion, cell proliferation and tissue remolding. Furthermore, we identified that genes well-known to affect embryo implantation in pigs, namely SPP1, ITGB3 and ESR1, contain the miR-181a or miR-181c binding sites using the luciferase reporter system. The present study revealed distinctive miRNA expression patterns in the porcine endometrium during the implantation, placentation or mid-gestation periods. Additionally, our results suggested that miR-181a and miR-181c likely play important roles in the regulation of genes and pathways that are known to be involved in embryo implantation and placentation in pigs.


Assuntos
Implantação do Embrião/fisiologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/embriologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Placentação/fisiologia , Gravidez/fisiologia , Animais , Embrião de Mamíferos/citologia , Feminino , Suínos
12.
PLoS One ; 8(10): e77801, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24204975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wool quality is one of the most important economic traits in sheep. The wool fiber is derived from specialized skin cells that are referred to as wool follicles. To understand the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in wool fiber growth, we detected the expression patterns of miRNAs in wool follicles at the anagen, catagen, and telogen stages from Tibetan sheep through Solexa sequencing. RESULTS: A total of 244 mature miRNAs were identified. Of these, only five miRNAs are listed in the database of sheep miRNAs (miRBase Database V19), and the other 239 miRNAs have not been previously described in this species. Further analyses indicated that 204 miRNAs are evolutionarily conserved among mammal species, whereas 35 of the identified miRNAs were first found specifically in sheep. The expression pattern analyses showed that the expression levels of 39, 34, and 20 of the miRNAs significantly change between anagen and catagen, between anagen and telogen, and between catagen and telogen, respectively. The results of the bioinformatics analysis show that these differentially expressed miRNAs might regulate wool follicle development by targeting genes in many different pathways, such as the MAPK and Wnt pathways, as well as the pathways that regulate the actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, and tight junctions. Furthermore, we identified six differentially expressed miRNAs (oar-miR-103-3P, oar-miR-148b-3P, oar-miR-320-3P, oar-miR-31-5P, oar-novel-1-5P, and oar-novel-2-3P) that might target the key genes of the Wnt pathway. It has been reported that the Wnt pathway is critical for wool follicle development. Therefore, these miRNAs may regulate wool development through the Wnt pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide new information on the identification and expression pattern of miRNAs in wool follicles. Our data might therefore aid in the understanding of the mechanisms of wool follicle development in sheep.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Folículo Piloso/citologia , Folículo Piloso/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Pele/citologia , Pele/metabolismo , Lã/química , Animais , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Ovinos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA