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1.
Tob Regul Sci ; 5(6): 491-501, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745494

RESUMO

Objectives: In 2018, approximately 4.9 million US middle and high school students reported past 30-day use of any tobacco product. This study describes how and where youth obtained tobacco products and whether refusal of sale occurred during 2016-2018. Methods: Data from 3 annual waves (2016-2018) of the National Youth Tobacco Survey, a school-based survey of US youth in grades 6-12, were analyzed among current (past 30-day) tobacco product users aged 9 to 17 years. Results: During 2016-2018, youth tobacco product users most commonly obtained tobacco products from social sources. Although the percentage of users who reported buying tobacco products significantly decreased from 2016 to 2018 (2016: 15.6%; 2018: 11.4%), no significant differences in the prevalence of being refused sale were observed (2016: 24.7%; 2018: 25.5%). Conclusions: Whereas the number of youth users who report buying tobacco products has declined, sales of tobacco products to youth remain a public health concern, as only one in 4 youth who attempted to buy were refused sale in 2018. Monitoring youth tobacco product purchases, retailer compliance check inspections, and retailer penalties for sales to minors remain important for reducing youth access at retail sources.

2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(39): 839-844, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581163

RESUMO

The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act prohibits the inclusion of characterizing flavors (e.g., candy or fruit) other than tobacco and menthol in cigarettes; however, characterizing flavors are not currently prohibited in other tobacco products at the federal level.* Flavored tobacco products can appeal to youths and young adults and influence initiation and establishment of tobacco-use patterns (1). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC analyzed data from the 2014-2018 National Youth Tobacco Surveys (NYTS) to determine prevalence of current (past 30-day) use of flavored tobacco products, including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), hookah tobacco, cigars, pipe tobacco, smokeless tobacco, bidis, and menthol cigarettes among U.S. middle school (grades 6-8) and high school (grades 9-12) students. In 2018, an estimated 3.15 million (64.1%) youth tobacco product users currently used one or more flavored tobacco products, compared with 3.26 million (70.0%) in 2014. Despite this overall decrease in use of flavored tobacco products, current use of flavored e-cigarettes increased among high school students during 2014-2018; among middle school students, current use of flavored e-cigarettes increased during 2015-2018, following a decrease during 2014-2015. During 2014-2018, current use of flavored hookah tobacco decreased among middle and high school students; current use of flavored smokeless tobacco, cigars, pipe tobacco, and menthol cigarettes decreased among high school students. Full implementation of comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies, coupled with regulation of tobacco products by FDA, can help prevent and reduce use of tobacco products, including flavored tobacco products, among U.S. youths (2,3).


Assuntos
Aromatizantes , Estudantes/psicologia , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Tabaco sem Fumaça/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Food and Drug Administration
3.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; : 1-7, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496321

RESUMO

Introduction: Poisoning exposure cases involving e-cigarettes have increased since 2010, coinciding with increasing rates of e-cigarette use in the United States (US). Given the increasing prevalence of e-cigarette use and ever-changing product designs, particularly the development of new products with high nicotine levels, it is important to conduct ongoing surveillance of poisoning exposure cases involving e-cigarettes. The objective of this study is to describe trends and characteristics of poisoning exposure cases involving e-cigarettes and e-liquids reported to poison control centers in the US. Methods: We analyzed e-cigarette exposure cases from the National Poison Data System (NPDS) during 2010-2018 by year and other characteristics. Results: The annual number of e-cigarette exposure cases increased greatly between 2010 and 2014, reaching a peak of 3742 in 2014, and then decreasing each year between 2015 and 2017. Between 2017 and 2018, the overall number of e-cigarette exposure cases increased by 25.0% (from 2320 to 2901). Approximately two-thirds (64.8%) of all cases were in children under age five, and 14.7% were in children aged 5-17 years or young adults aged 18-24 years. A small proportion of cases developed life-threatening symptoms (0.1%); and cases with more serious medical outcomes tended to be exposed to a higher e-liquid or nicotine quantity. Conclusions: Annual declines in e-cigarette exposure cases between 2015 and 2017 did not continue in 2018. The rapid changes in the occurrence of poisoning exposure cases involving e-cigarettes coupled with the development of new tobacco products and ever-evolving tobacco use landscape underscore the importance of continued surveillance of these poisoning exposure cases. Continuous monitoring of these poisoning exposure cases may inform efforts aimed at preventing e-cigarette poisoning exposures.

4.
Health Promot Pract ; : 1524839919850757, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155948

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite increasing interest in structural (policy, systems, and environmental) changes to improve health, little attention has focused on the adoption, implementation, sustainability, and potential for dissemination of these changes among local community-based organizations. METHOD: A mixed methods approach was used for this process evaluation. Representatives of nine community-based organizations were surveyed using closed-ended questions and in-depth qualitative interviews to describe 32 policy changes. Diffusion of Innovation theory was used to inform the development of survey questions and the interview guide. RESULTS: Policies adopted by local community-based organizations concerned types of food/beverages provided to staff/clients, methods to encourage physical activity, breastfeeding support, and tobacco control. The majority of the policies were either fully (66%) or partially (31%) implemented 1 year after their initial adoption. In general, participants somewhat/strongly agreed that policies had characteristics that predict sustainability/diffusion (relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, observability). In-depth interview responses described a generally smooth process for policy adoption and high levels of optimism for continued sustainability but revealed few efforts to disseminate the policies beyond the original organization. CONCLUSIONS: Structural changes in community-based organizations are a valuable tool for encouraging healthy changes in communities and have great potential to be adopted, sustained, and diffused.

5.
J Adolesc Health ; 64(6): 800-803, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852103

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Waterpipe or hookah use is associated with carbon monoxide poisoning and effects such as nausea and vomiting. We examined the public health burden of poisoning events involving hookah tobacco in the U.S., especially among adolescents and young adults. METHODS: We analyzed events involving hookah tobacco that were reported to U.S. poison control centers between 2001 and 2017 by age and over time as well as by medical outcome, health care level, and clinical effects. RESULTS: A total of 276 relevant poisoning events involving hookah were reported. Among the 248 individuals with a specific age reported, 35 (14.1%) were aged between 10 and 17 years and 136 (54.8%) were aged between 18 and 24 years. Common clinical effects included dizziness/vertigo, nausea, headache, and vomiting. CONCLUSIONS: Hookah tobacco use is associated with poisoning events consistent with exposure to high levels of carbon monoxide.

6.
Front Vet Sci ; 5: 288, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30525048

RESUMO

Galectins are potent regulators of cell adhesion, growth and apoptosis in diverse cell types, including chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts. Elevations in synovial fluid galectin-3 have been observed in rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and experimental inflammatory arthritis in animal models, whereas galectin-1 is thought to be protective. Less is known about galectins-1 and-3 in osteoarthritis (OA). Therefore, the purpose of this study was: (1) to determine whether galectin-1 and-3 synovial fluid concentrations and synovial membrane and cartilage histochemical staining were altered following osteochondral injury in an experimental equine osteoarthritis (OA) model and (2) to measure galectin-1 and-3 mRNA expression and synovial fluid concentrations in naturally occurring equine carpal OA. Synovial fluid galectin-1 and-3 concentrations were quantified using custom ELISAs in two research horse cohorts undergoing experimental OA induction (n = 5 and 4) and in a cohort of horses with naturally occurring carpal OA (n = 57). Galectin mRNA expression in synovial membrane and cartilage tissue obtained from carpal joints of horses with naturally occurring OA was measured using RT-qPCR, and galectin immunostaining was assessed in synovial membrane and osteochondral tissues in the experimental model (n = 5). Synovial fluid galectin-1 and-3 concentrations increased following experimental carpal osteochondral fragmentation. Cartilage galectin-1 mRNA expression increased with OA severity in naturally occurring disease. The superficial zone of healthy articular cartilage stained intensely for galectin-3 in sham-operated joints, whereas galectin-1 staining was nearly absent. Chondrocyte galectin-1 and-3 immunoreactivity increased following cartilage injury, particularly in galectin-1 positive chondrones. Galectins-1 and-3 are present in healthy equine synovial fluid and increase following post-traumatic OA. Healthy superficial zone chondrocytes express galectin-3, whereas galectin-1 chondrocyte staining is limited predominantly to chondrones and injured cartilage. Further work is needed to clarify the functions of galectins-1 and-3 in healthy and OA joints.

7.
J Adolesc Health ; 62(6): 750-753, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29501281

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to describe U.S. youth harm perceptions of intermittent tobacco use. METHODS: Using data from the 2016 National Youth Tobacco Survey of U.S. students (grades 6-12; N = 20,675), we examined prevalence and correlates of all respondents' perceived harm of using four different tobacco products on "some days but not every day." Associations between current (past 30-day) use and harm perceptions were assessed using multivariable regression. RESULTS: Perceiving that intermittent use causes "no" or "little" harm was 9.7% for cigarettes, 12.0% for smokeless tobacco, 18.7% for hookah, and 37.5% for e-cigarettes. Compared with those who reported "a lot" of harm, youth with lower harm perceptions were more likely to report current use. CONCLUSIONS: One in ten youth perceived intermittent cigarette smoking as causing "little" or "no" harm; this perception was higher among current users. Efforts to educate youth about the risks of even intermittent tobacco product use could reduce misperceptions of harm.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos
8.
Sci Rep ; 6: 25463, 2016 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27157803

RESUMO

Lubricin is a mucinous, synovial fluid glycoprotein that enables near frictionless joint motion via adsorption to the surface of articular cartilage and its lubricating properties in solution. Extensive O-linked glycosylation within lubricin's mucin-rich domain is critical for its boundary lubricating function; however, it is unknown exactly how glycosylation facilitates cartilage lubrication. Here, we find that the lubricin glycome is enriched with terminal ß-galactosides, known binding partners for a family of multivalent lectins called galectins. Of the galectin family members present in synovial fluid, we find that galectin-3 is a specific, high-affinity binding partner for lubricin. Considering the known ability of galectin-3 to crosslink glycoproteins, we hypothesized that galectins could augment lubrication via biomechanical stabilization of the lubricin boundary layer. We find that competitive inhibition of galectin binding results in lubricin loss from the cartilage surface, and addition of multimeric galectin-3 enhances cartilage lubrication. We also find that galectin-3 has low affinity for the surface layer of osteoarthritic cartilage and has reduced affinity for sialylated O-glycans, a glycophenotype associated with inflammatory conditions. Together, our results suggest that galectin-3 reinforces the lubricin boundary layer; which, in turn, enhances cartilage lubrication and may delay the onset and progression of arthritis.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo , Galectina 3/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Lubrificação , Animais , Bovinos , Glicômica , Cavalos , Humanos , Cinética , Fenótipo , Ligação Proteica
9.
Matern Child Health J ; 20(9): 1933-9, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27112556

RESUMO

Objectives The United States Department of Agriculture's Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) provides meals and snacks to low-income children in child care. This study compared nutrition and physical activity practices and policies as well as the overall nutrition and physical activity environments in a sample of CACFP and non-CACFP child care settings. Methods A random stratified sample of 350 child care settings in a large Midwestern city and its suburbs, was mailed a survey on obesity prevention practices and policies concerning menu offerings, feeding practices, nutrition and physical activity education, activity levels, training, and screen time. Completed surveys were obtained from 229 of 309 eligible child care settings (74.1 % response rate). Chi square tests were used to compare practices and policies in CACFP and non-CACFP sites. Poisson and negative binomial regression were used to examine associations between CACFP and total number of practices and policies. Results Sixty-nine percent of child care settings reported CACFP participation. A significantly higher proportion of CACFP sites reported offering whole grain foods daily and that providers always eat the same foods that are offered to the children. CACFP sites had 1.1 times as many supportive nutrition practices as non-CACFP sites. CACFP participation was not associated with written policies or physical activity practices. Conclusions for Practice There is room for improvement across nutrition and physical activity practices and policies. In addition to food reimbursement, CACFP participation may help promote child care environments that support healthy nutrition; however, additional training and education outreach activities may be needed.


Assuntos
Creches/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício , Assistência Alimentar , Refeições , Política Nutricional , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Estados Unidos
10.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci ; 1012-1013: 23-36, 2016 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26803416

RESUMO

Two liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) methods have been developed and validated for the quantitative determination of polymyxin B1, polymyxin B2 and polymyxin B1-1 concentrations in human plasma and treated urine. During method development, technical challenges such as the separation of structural isomers polymyxin B1and polymyxin B1-1 and nonspecific binding in urine samples were encountered and overcome. Two automated solid phase extraction methods were used to extract plasma samples (100µL) and urine samples (200µL) and the resulting extracts were analyzed using reversed phase LC-MS/MS with an electrospray (ESI) interface and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) in the positive ionization mode. Both methods were validated over a calibration curve range of 5.00-2000ng/mL with a linear regression and 1/x(2) weighting. The between-run relative standard deviation (%RSD) ranged from 4.5 to 9.5% for the plasma assay and from 1.1 to 7.1% for the urine assay. For the plasma assay, the between-run accuracy ranged from 100.5 to 115.2% of nominal at all QC concentrations including the LLOQ. For the urine assay, the between-run accuracy ranged from 92.0 to 106% of nominal at all QC concentrations including the LLOQ. The extraction recoveries for all polymyxins in both assays were between 54.0 and 64.2%. Long term matrix storage stability for all polymyxins was established at both -20°C and -70°C for up to 85 days in human plasma and for up to 55 days in treated human urine. Both assays were used for the measurement of polymyxin B1, polymyxin B2 and polymyxin B1-1 concentrations in human plasma and treated urine for the determination of bioequivalence and toxicokinetic parameters in clinical studies.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Polimixinas , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Polimixinas/análogos & derivados , Polimixinas/sangue , Polimixinas/isolamento & purificação , Polimixinas/urina , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
Ther Innov Regul Sci ; 50(6): 710-717, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30231747

RESUMO

Adaptive designs have generated great interest in the clinical trial community as a result of their versatility and efficiency. Recently, the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) surveyed all adaptive design applications submitted between 2007 and May 2013 for regulatory review. In this paper, we discuss the overall results and findings that emerged from an in-depth examination of the submissions. We summarize the current status of adaptive designs used in medical device studies. We also identify some of the lessons learned and common pitfalls that we encountered in our review of the designs.

12.
J Health Commun ; 20(5): 599-606, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25832126

RESUMO

The recent growth in smokeless tobacco (ST) consumption has raised questions about consumer risk perceptions of ST products, especially in high-risk vulnerable populations. This qualitative study examined risk perceptions of ST among adolescent and adult users and nonusers in Ohio Appalachia. Focus groups and interviews were held with adolescents (n = 53; M age = 17 years) and adults (n = 63; M age = 34 years) from four Ohio Appalachian counties. Participants were asked about their perceptions of ST-related health risks, ST safety, and the relative safety of ST compared with cigarettes. Transcriptions were coded independently by two individuals. Overall, participants were knowledgeable about health problems from ST use (e.g., oral cancers, periodontal disease). Nearly all participants stated that ST use is not safe; however, there was disagreement about its relative safety. Some perceived all tobacco products as equally harmful; others believed that ST is safer than cigarettes for either the user or those around the user. Disagreements about ST relative safety may reflect mixed public health messages concerning the safety of ST. Comprehensive consumer messages about the relative safety of ST compared with cigarettes are needed. Messages should address the effect of ST on the health of the user as well as those exposed to the user.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Tabaco sem Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ohio , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Medição de Risco , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Psychopharmacol ; 29(5): 565-74, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25257148

RESUMO

Identification of predictors of treatment response in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) may facilitate improved disease management. Data were pooled from two 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of extended-release quetiapine (quetiapine XR; 150 or 300 mg/day) as adjunct to ongoing antidepressant therapy. Effects of psychiatric history and baseline demographic and disease characteristics on efficacy outcomes (Week 6 Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS] total score reduction) were evaluated in population subgroups (quetiapine XR both doses pooled, n = 616; placebo, n = 303). Baseline Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) score and previous depressive episodes on Week 6 MADRS total score change, and baseline MADRS individual item scores on Week 6 change in CGI-Improvement score, were also evaluated. No major differences between responders and non-responders to quetiapine XR were observed for patient characteristics or demographic and disease characteristics. No suggestion of a predictive association was found between baseline CGI-S score, number of depressive episodes, and baseline MADRS item scores and efficacy outcomes. These analyses showed no major differences between responders and non-responders, and no predictive association between the parameters assessed and efficacy outcomes for adjunct quetiapine XR in patients with MDD and an inadequate response to prior antidepressant therapy.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Fumarato de Quetiapina/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antidepressivos/administração & dosagem , Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Fumarato de Quetiapina/administração & dosagem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Mol Cell Biol ; 34(21): 3968-80, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25154414

RESUMO

Cell growth is attuned to nutrient availability to sustain homeostatic biosynthetic processes. In unfavorable environments, cells enter a nonproliferative state termed quiescence but rapidly return to the cell cycle once conditions support energetic needs. Changing cellular metabolite pools are proposed to directly alter the epigenome via histone acetylation. Here we studied the relationship between histone modification dynamics and the dramatic transcriptional changes that occur during nutrient-induced cell cycle reentry from quiescence in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. SILAC (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture)-based mass spectrometry showed that histone methylation-in contrast to histone acetylation-is surprisingly static during quiescence exit. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq) revealed genome-wide shifts in histone acetylation at growth and stress genes as cells exit quiescence and transcription dramatically changes. Strikingly, however, the patterns of histone methylation remain intact. We conclude that the functions of histone methylation and acetylation are remarkably distinct during quiescence exit: acetylation rapidly responds to metabolic state, while methylation is independent. Thus, the initial burst of growth gene reactivation emerging from quiescence involves dramatic increases of histone acetylation but not of histone methylation.


Assuntos
Ciclo Celular , Histonas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Acetilação , Aminoácidos/química , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Epigênese Genética , Genoma Fúngico , Marcação por Isótopo , Metilação , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Estresse Fisiológico
15.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 24(6): 325-35, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24956042

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic with demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of adolescent schizophrenia and pediatric bipolar mania. Large, placebo-controlled studies of interventions in pediatric bipolar depression are lacking. The current study investigated the efficacy and safety of quetiapine extended-release (XR) in patients 10-17 years of age, with acute bipolar depression. METHODS: This multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study investigated quetiapine XR (dose range, 150-300 mg/day) in pediatric outpatients with an American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnosis of bipolar I or bipolar II disorder (current or most recent episode depressed) treated for up to 8 weeks (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00811473). The primary study outcome was mean change in Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) total score. Secondary efficacy outcomes included CDRS-R-based response and remission rates. RESULTS: Of 193 patients randomized to treatment, 144 patients completed the study (75.3% of quetiapine XR group [n=70]; 74.0% of placebo group [n=74]). Least squares mean changes in CDRS-R total score at week 8 were: -29.6 (SE, 1.65) with quetiapine XR and -27.3 (SE, 1.60) with placebo, a between-treatment group difference of -2.29 (SE, 1.99; 95% CI, -6.22, 1.65; p=0.25; mixed-model for repeated measures analysis). Rates of response and remission did not differ significantly between treatment groups. The safety profile of quetiapine XR was broadly consistent with the profile reported previously in adult studies of quetiapine XR and pediatric studies of quetiapine immediate-release (IR). Potentially clinically significant elevations in clinical chemistry values included triglycerides (9.3%, quetiapine XR; 1.4%, placebo group) and thyroid stimulating hormone (4.7%, quetiapine XR; 0%, placebo group). An adverse event potentially related to diabetes mellitus occurred in 3.3% of the quetiapine XR versus no adverse events in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Quetiapine XR did not demonstrate efficacy relative to placebo in this 8 week study of pediatric bipolar depression. Quetiapine XR was generally safe and well tolerated.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Dibenzotiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Dibenzotiazepinas/administração & dosagem , Dibenzotiazepinas/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Fumarato de Quetiapina , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Tob Control ; 23(3): 209-14, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23047885

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: As smokeless tobacco (ST) marketing increases and new products emerge on the market, very little is known about consumer perceptions of ST products. To inform development of future ST counter-marketing approaches, this qualitative study examined consumer perceptions of traditional and novel ST products and packaging. METHODS: Focus groups and qualitative interviews were held with adolescent (n=23; mean age of 17 years) and adult (n=38; mean age of 29 years) male ST users from rural Ohio counties. Participants were shown a variety of traditional (eg, Copenhagen, Timber Wolf) and novel (eg, Camel Snus, Orbs) ST products and asked about perceptions of these products and their packaging. Transcriptions were coded independently for common themes by two individuals. FINDINGS: Adolescents and adults generally had similar beliefs and reactions about ST products. While participants were familiar with a variety of traditional ST products, Copenhagen was the most frequently used product. Perceptions of quality and price of traditional products were closely tied to product taste and packaging material. Colours, design and size of ST packaging appealed to participants and influenced decisions to purchase. Adults believed novel ST products had a weak taste and were targeted at untraditional ST users. While the vast majority was unfamiliar with dissolvable tobacco, adolescents noted that they would be more convenient to use during school than traditional ST. CONCLUSIONS: Packaging has a significant role in shaping perceptions of ST and consumer behaviour. Regulation of product packaging such as shape, size and images should be part of comprehensive tobacco control.


Assuntos
Atitude , Comportamento do Consumidor , Marketing , Embalagem de Produtos , Uso de Tabaco , Tabaco sem Fumaça , Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Comércio , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Ohio , Percepção , Pesquisa Qualitativa , População Rural , Paladar , Indústria do Tabaco , Adulto Jovem
17.
Matern Child Health J ; 18(1): 146-152, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23467844

RESUMO

Lower income women are at higher risk for preconception and prenatal smoking, are less likely to spontaneously quit smoking during pregnancy, and have higher prenatal relapse rates than women in higher income groups. Policies prohibiting tobacco smoking in public places are intended to reduce exposure to secondhand smoke; additionally, since these policies promote a smoke-free norm, there have been associations between smoke-free policies and reduced smoking prevalence. Given the public health burden of smoking, particularly among women who become pregnant, our objective was to assess the impact of smoke-free policies on the odds of preconception smoking among low-income women. We estimated the odds of preconception smoking among low-income women in Ohio between 2002 and 2009 using data from repeated cross-sectional samples of women participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). A logistic spline regression was applied fitting a knot at the point of enforcement of the Ohio Smoke-free Workplace Act to evaluate whether this policy was associated with changes in the odds of smoking. After adjusting for individual- and environmental-level factors, the Ohio Smoke-free Workplace Act was associated with a small, but statistically significant reduction in the odds of preconception smoking in WIC participants. Comprehensive smoke-free policies prohibiting smoking in public places and workplaces may also be associated with reductions in smoking among low-income women. This type of policy or environmental change strategy may promote a tobacco-free norm and improve preconception health among a population at risk for smoking.


Assuntos
Cuidado Pré-Concepcional , Política Antifumo/legislação & jurisprudência , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Local de Trabalho/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Razão de Chances , Ohio/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Fumar/economia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/economia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 23(7): 490-501, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24024534

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of quetiapine monotherapy continued for up to 26-weeks in youth with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder. METHODS: Medically healthy boys and girls with a baseline Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV-TR) diagnosis of schizophrenia (ages 13-17 years) or a manic episode of bipolar I disorder (ages 10-17 years) who participated in one of two acute, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of immediate-release quetiapine were potentially eligible to enroll in a 26-week, open-label study. During the open-label study, quetiapine was flexibly dosed at 400-800 mg/day, with options to reduce dosing to 200 mg/day based on tolerability. Safety and tolerability outcomes assessed from open-label baseline to week 26 included adverse events (AEs), metabolic/laboratory parameters, extrapyramidal symptoms, suicidality, and vital signs. RESULTS: Of 381 patients enrolled in the open-label study (n=176, schizophrenia; n=205, bipolar disorder diagnosis), 237 patients (62.2%) completed the 26-week study period (71.0%, schizophrenia; 54.6%, bipolar disorder). The most common AEs reported during the study included somnolence, headache, sedation, weight increase, and vomiting. A total of 14.9% of patients experienced a shift to potentially clinically significant low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and 10.2% of patients experienced a shift to potentially clinically significant high triglyceride levels. Weight gain ≥ 7% was reported in 35.6% of patients between open-label baseline and final visit. After adjustment for normal growth, 18.3% of study participants experienced clinically significant weight gain (i.e., increase in body mass index ≥ 0.5 standard deviations from baseline). CONCLUSIONS: In this 26-week study, quetiapine flexibly dosed at 400-800 mg/day, with options to reduce dosing based on tolerability, was generally safe and well tolerated in youth. Clinicians should monitor lipid profiles and weight gain in youth with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder during treatment with quetiapine.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Dibenzotiazepinas/efeitos adversos , Dibenzotiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumarato de Quetiapina
19.
Epigenetics Chromatin ; 6(1): 20, 2013 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23826629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An integral component of cancer biology is the understanding of molecular properties uniquely distinguishing one cancer type from another. One class of such properties is histone post-translational modifications (PTMs). Many histone PTMs are linked to the same diverse nuclear functions implicated in cancer development, including transcriptional activation and epigenetic regulation, which are often indirectly assayed with standard genomic technologies. Thus, there is a need for a comprehensive and quantitative profiling of cancer lines focused on their chromatin modification states. RESULTS: To complement genomic expression profiles of cancer lines, we report the proteomic classification of 24 different lines, the majority of which are cancer cells, by quantifying the abundances of a large panel of single and combinatorial histone H3 and H4 PTMs, and histone variants. Concurrent to the proteomic analysis, we performed transcriptomic analysis on histone modifying enzyme abundances as a proxy for quantifying their activity levels. While the transcriptomic and proteomic results were generally consistent in terms of predicting histone PTM abundance from enzyme abundances, several PTMs were regulated independently of the modifying enzyme expression. In addition, combinatorial PTMs containing H3K27 methylation were especially enriched in breast cell lines. Knockdown of the predominant H3K27 methyltransferase, enhancer of zeste 2 (EZH2), in a mouse mammary xenograft model significantly reduced tumor burden in these animals and demonstrated the predictive utility of proteomic techniques. CONCLUSIONS: Our proteomic and genomic characterizations of the histone modification states provide a resource for future investigations of the epigenetic and non-epigenetic determinants for classifying and analyzing cancer cells.

20.
J Lipid Res ; 54(2): 467-72, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23172660

RESUMO

Estimation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) using the Friedewald (FR) formula is often inaccurate when triglycerides are elevated or VLDL particle composition is altered. We hypothesized that LDL-C estimation by the FR formula and other measurement methods might also be inaccurate in individuals treated with a cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor. An assay comparison study was conducted using pre and posttreatment serum samples from 280 of the 811 patients treated with the CETP inhibitor anacetrapib in the DEFINE study (determining the efficacy and tolerability of CETP inhibition with anacetrapib). After 24 weeks of treatment with anacetrapib, mean LDL-C values by FR formula, Roche direct method (RDM) and Genzyme direct method (GDM) deviated from that measured by the ß-quantification (BQ) reference method by -12.2 ± 7.5, -10.2 ± 6.6, -10.8 ± 8.8 mg/dl, respectively. After treatment with anacetrapib, the FR formula and detergent-based direct methods provided lower LDL-C values than those obtained by the BQ reference method. The bias by the FR formula appeared to be due to an overestimation of VLDL-C by the TG/5 component of the formula. Evaluation of the clinical significance of these findings awaits comprehensive lipid and cardiovascular outcome data from ongoing Phase III clinical studies of anacetrapib.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue/métodos , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/antagonistas & inibidores , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Oxazolidinonas/farmacologia , Idoso , Análise Química do Sangue/normas , Precipitação Química , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/isolamento & purificação , LDL-Colesterol/isolamento & purificação , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Sulfato de Dextrana/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrões de Referência , Fatores de Tempo , Ultracentrifugação
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