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1.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 9: e39459, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36630180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: General obesity and abdominal obesity, typically measured by BMI and waist circumference (WC), respectively, are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the magnitude of the association of these two obesity indicators and their joint association with the onset of T2DM remain controversial. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between these two obesity indicators and T2DM among the Chinese population to contribute scientific evidence for appropriate T2DM interventions. METHODS: A cohort of 3001 eligible participants was selected from the Ningbo Adult Chronic Disease Surveillance Project running since 2015. Based on BMI, individuals were categorized into groups of underweight or normal, overweight, and obesity. Based on WC, individuals were categorized in groups of normal, precentral obesity, and central obesity. Follow-up was performed by linking data of the baseline data set with the diabetes registry data set and the vital registry data set (both from the Ningbo Municipal Integrated Noncommunicable Disease Collaborative Management System), mainly using the participants' identity numbers. Follow-up was completed when a participant was diagnosed with T2DM. The associations were estimated with multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression. RESULTS: In the cohort, 90 of 3001 participants developed T2DM (incidence density: 6.483/1000 person-years) with a median 4.72 years of follow-up. After controlling for age, sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking status, and family history of diabetes, the multivariate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) across underweight/normal, overweight, and obesity BMI categories were 1.000, 1.653 (95% CI 1.030-2.654), and 2.375 (95% CI 1.261-4.473), respectively. The multivariate adjusted HRs across the normal, precentral obesity, and central obesity WC categories were 1.000, 1.215 (95% CI 0.689-2.142), and 1.663 (95% CI 1.016-2.723), respectively. Compared with the reference group (normal WC with an underweight/normal BMI), the multivariate adjusted HR for participants with both central obesity according to WC and obesity according to BMI was 2.489 (95% CI 1.284-4.825). CONCLUSIONS: Both elevated BMI and WC at baseline increased the risk of T2DM. Compared with WC, BMI as an obesity indicator was more strongly associated with the onset of T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Circunferência da Cintura , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Magreza/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia
2.
China CDC Wkly ; 4(44): 977-981, 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36483990

RESUMO

What is already known about this topic?: The rate of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among female junior high students in 2013-2014 in China was 69.9%. What is added by this report?: The rate of SHS among adolescent girls in 2019 in China was 62.8%, with 60.8% in junior high and 65.3% in senior high school, meanwhile, higher SHS exposure was correlated to higher grade levels, senior high school over junior high school, urban areas, those with more pocket money, those who've attempted smoking, exposure to tobacco advertisements, those with parents who smoke, those with close friends who smoke, use of e-cigarettes, and belief that SHS exposure is detrimental to health. What are the implications for public health practice?: The rate of SHS exposure among adolescent girls in China still remains extraordinarily high. Targeted public health initiatives to curb SHS exposure among adolescent girls are urgently needed in China.

3.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 1049618, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36506504

RESUMO

Background: Antibody-mediated humoral immune response is involved in the damage process in Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). Although the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula bupleurum inula flower soup (BIFS) is often used in HT treatment, it has not been evaluated through high-quality clinical research. Rigorously designed randomized, double-blind, prospective clinical studies are urgently needed to evaluate BIFS for intervening in the HT immune damage process, and to improve clinical prognosis and patient quality of life. Methods: A prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was used to evaluate the efficacy of BIFS. Fifty participants diagnosed with HT with hypothyroidism were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to the BIFS (levothyroxine with BIFS) or control (levothyroxine with placebo) group. Participants received 8 weeks of treatment and were followed for 24 weeks. They were monitored for: levels of thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH); scores for depression, anxiety, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL); thyroid volume; safety indicators including routine blood tests, liver and kidney functions, and electrocardiogram; and levothyroxine dose. Results: Forty-eight participants completed the study and were included in the final analysis. At baseline, there were no significant between-group differences in the observed indicators (p > 0.05). Post-treatment, compared with the control group, the BIFS group had significantly lower levels of TPOAb (275.77 ± 132.98 vs. 441.78 ± 195.50, p = 0.001), TgAb (385.92 ± 281.91 vs. 596.17 ± 282.26, p = 0.013), and TSH (6.57 ± 3.73 vs. 9.63 ± 5.34, p = 0.001). Compared with the control group, the BIFS group's scores improved significantly for depression (47.00 ± 5.12 vs. 51.04 ± 3.22, p = 0.002), anxiety (43.21 ± 4.22 vs. 48.08 ± 2.81, p = 0.005), and HRQoL physical (62.08 ± 5.97 vs. 57.96 ± 4.71, p = 0.011) and psychological (60.17 ± 5.94 vs. 55.75 ± 7.09, p = 0.024) subscores. At 24-week follow-up, levothyroxine combined with TCM allowed a significantly reduced levothyroxine dose (0.58 ± 0.43 vs. 1.02 ± 0.45, p = 0.001). The post-treatment clinical efficacy rates differed significantly (p = 0.03), with 75% (18/24) for the BIFS group and 46% (11/24) for the control group. There were no significant between-group differences in thyroid volume or safety indicators after eight treatment weeks or at the 24-week follow-up (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The TCM BIFS can effectively reduce thyroid titer, relieve clinical and emotional symptoms, and improve HRQoL in patients with HT. Clinical Trial Registration: https://www.chictr.org.cn/, identifier ChiCTR1900020987.

4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2022 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36515187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies found that mixed cropping combined with duck co-culture (MCDC) system could improve the efficiency of grain production and positively affect soil nutrient contents. However, the effects on grain quality, and profitable income have not been evaluated yet. In this study, a field experiment with four combinations of different rice varieties and ducks was conducted during both the early and late rice growing seasons. RESULTS: The field survey demonstrated that MCDC system significantly decreased the grain appearance of chalky rice rate and the chalkiness degree with an average of 56.82%, and 54.28%, respectively. Leaf SPAD value, photosynthetic rate, and aboveground dry weight were all improved in the MCDC and mixed-cropping systems, relative to the mono-cropping system. The net income obtained from the mono-cropping, mixed cropping (no ducks), and MCDC (with ducks) systems (from grain and ducks' meat) was 581.2 USD ha-1 yr-1 , 1001.8 USD ha-1 yr-1 , and 5242.1 USD ha-1 yr-1 in both growing seasons, respectively. CONCLUSION: Planting genetically diverse rice varieties and co-culture with ducks increased rice growth rates, productivity and grain quality. The MCDC system would provide more ecological and economic benefits compared with the conventional mono-cropping system. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36404503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2015, the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) has measured progress in achieving health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) annually worldwide. Little is known about the status and attainment of indicators of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) by 65 countries from the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) proposed by China in 2013. METHODS: Data from GBDs were used to estimate 24 NCD-related SDG indicators in BRI countries from 1990 to 2017. Each indicator was scored from 0 to 100 to compare multiple indicators over the study period. The natural log of the annual change in each location and year and weighted annual rates of change were used to generate projections for 2030. National-level estimates were determined by socio-demographic index (SDI) quintiles in BRI countries with more than 1 million inhabitants. RESULTS: In 2017, the median overall score of NCD-related SDG index for the 66 BRI countries was 60 points, ranging from 29 points in Afghanistan to 84 points in Israel. More than 80% of countries achieved the SDG 2030 maternal mortality (MM) rate target in 2017, and the national skilled birth attendance rate was above 99% in more than 59% countries. However, none of the BRI countries achieved the goal for children's overweight, modern methods of contraception, and universal health coverage. It was predicted that 80.4% of NCD-related SDG targets would be achieved in these countries by 2030. The overall score of NCD-related SDG index were positively associated with SDI quintiles. CONCLUSION: For many indicators, the achieved progress in many countries is less than the annual rate necessary to meet SDG targets, indicating that substantial efforts need to be made in the coming years. Progress should be accelerated through collaborations between countries, implementation of NCD prevention and control strategies, and monitoring of inequalities in NCD-related SDGs within populations.

6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(46): e31873, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36401466

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are currently approved for a variety of cancers and their use is expanding from advanced disease to first-line metastatic and adjuvant therapies. With the wide application of immunotherapy, its adverse reactions are also the object we need to pay attention to. Among its adverse events, immune myocarditis has low morbidity, but a high fatality rate. Simultaneously, the unique biological properties of thymic epithelial tumors (TETs) increase the risk of immune-mediated toxicity. PATIENT CONCERNS: Patient 1 underwent chest computed tomography (CT) in April 2019 due to physical examination, which showed pleural metastasis of thymoma. Tissue puncture under CT guidance revealed type B2 thymoma. First-line chemotherapy with docetaxel combined with nedaplatin was administered, and apatinib was administered as a maintenance therapy after chemotherapy. After a regular review, progression of the disease was observed in April 12, 2021.Patient 2 underwent anterior mediastinal tumor resection on August 2, 2019, due to the completion of the CT examination during myasthenia gravis to suggest a thymic tumor. Postoperative pathology revealed type B3 thymoma. The patient underwent local radiotherapy from October 2019 to November 2019. After irregular reexamination, the patient's condition was stable. Disease progression has been observed in June 2021. DIAGNOSIS: Both patients were diagnosed with thymoma. INTERVENTIONS: Patient 1 was administered one cycle of gemcitabine, carboplatin, and sintilimab after disease progression. Patient 2 was treated with docetaxel and cisplatin for 2 cycles, and tislelizumab was added in the second cycle. OUTCOMES: Both patient 1 and patient 2 developed immune myocarditis after one cycle of immunotherapy. The difference was that patient 1 died within a few days. After a few days of active treatment for patient 2, the immune myocarditis did not improve significantly, and the patient chose to give up the treatment and go home. The shocking outcome is that the patient remains alive and stable. LESSONS: Oncologists should be wary of ICI-related myocarditis owing to its early onset, nonspecific symptoms, and fulminant progression, especially when ICIs are used in combination. The patient's cardiac condition should be assessed before administering ICIs.


Assuntos
Miocardite , Timoma , Neoplasias do Timo , Humanos , Timoma/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Cardiotoxicidade/tratamento farmacológico , Docetaxel/uso terapêutico , Miocardite/induzido quimicamente , Miocardite/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Timo/tratamento farmacológico , Progressão da Doença
7.
Tob Induc Dis ; 20: 89, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36330276

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preventing youth from tobacco use is a priority for tobacco control in China, and the government has taken many measures such as introducing tobacco control in the health education curriculum, banning smoking in school, promoting smoke-free household, and advocacy campaigns. The objective of this study was to understand the availability and affordability of cigarettes for middle school (MS) and high school (HS) students in China. METHODS: The data were extracted from the 2019 China National Youth Tobacco Survey, which was a school-based cross-sectional survey with a nationally representative sample of 288192 MS and HS students. The survey employed a randomized multistage stratified cluster sampling design with probability proportional to size sampling method and used an anonymous self-administrated questionnaire to collect data. The availability and affordability of cigarettes were analyzed, and all parameter estimates were weighted to account for the complex sampling design. RESULTS: In 2019, an estimated 80.5% of current smokers who were aged <18 years bought cigarettes in the past 30 days. Among them, 83.3% (83.0% of males and 85.2% of females; and 76.5% in MS and 87.6% in HS) had not been refused purchase of cigarettes because they were underage, with 84.1% in urban and 82.9% in rural areas, and 87.3% in central, 83.4% in eastern, and 80.5% in western regions of China. Among current smokers who bought cigarettes in the past 30 days, 77.3% had bought a pack of cigarettes (20 cigarettes) costing >10 RMB and at least 61.4% had more pocket money per week than the cost of a pack of cigarettes. Although 84.2% of current smokers bought cigarettes by the pack, 9.2% of current smokers reported that they bought cigarettes as sticks. CONCLUSIONS: Although the youth smoking rate dropped down from 2014 to 2019, the proportion of youth smokers that bought cigarettes was still high in China. Due to the high amount of pocket money, the current cigarette price was not an effective price barrier to prevent youth smoking. Selling cigarettes by the stick worsens the situation. Strengthening the enforcement of the 2021 Law on the Protection of Minors, increasing tobacco taxes and prices, and forbidding the selling of cigarette sticks, might assist the progress in youth tobacco control.

8.
Metabolism ; : 155351, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36427672

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: As the only E2 conjugating enzyme for the SUMO system, Ubc9-mediated SUMOylation has been recognized to regulate diverse biological processes, but its impact on adipocytes relevant to obesity and insulin resistance is yet to be elucidated. METHODS: We established adipocyte-specific Ubc9 deficient mice to explore the effects of Ubc9 on obesity and metabolic disorders induced by high-fat diet (HFD) in adult mice. The molecular targets of SUMOylation were explored by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the regulatory mechanism of SUMOylation in T2D was analyzed. RESULTS: Adipocyte-specific depletion of Ubc9 (AdipoQ-Cre-Ubc9fl/fl, Ubc9AKO) protected mice from HFD-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatosteatosis. The Ubc9AKO mice were featured by the reduced HFD-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammatory response. Mechanically, over nutrition rendered adipocytes to undergo a SUMOylation turnover characterized by the change of SUMOylation levels and substrates. ERp44 displayed the highest change in terms of SUMOylation levels of substrates involved in ER-related functions. The lack of ERp44 SUMOylation at lysine 76 (K76) located within the thioredoxin (TRX)-like domain by Ubc9 deficiency enhanced its degradation and suppressed its covalent binding to Ero1α, an oxidase that exists in the ER but lacks ER retention motif, thereby alleviating endoplasmic reticulum stress by promoting Ero1α secretion. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that modulation of ERp44 SUMOylation in adipocytes could be a feasible strategy against obesity and insulin resistance in clinical settings.

9.
Appl Opt ; 61(19): 5575-5584, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36255784

RESUMO

Higher requirements for monocrystalline silicon x-ray mirrors have been put forward with the development of synchrotron radiation optics. The existing processing technologies limit their efficiency while achieving high-precision manufacturing of x-ray mirrors. Hence, this paper formulates a processing strategy of employing magnetorheological finishing (MRF) to make the precision of x-ray mirrors fully meet the standard. The combination of fine polishing and super-smooth processing can effectively improve the surface quality of mirrors. The residual error, wavefront gradient, and surface roughness of the mirror can reach 7.2 nm, 0.42 µrad, and 0.28 nm, respectively, after several iterations. The research not only indicates that MRF can replace the existing manufacturing method and greatly improve processing efficiency, but also provides technical support for optimizing the processing route of x-ray mirrors.

10.
Appl Opt ; 61(17): 5019-5030, 2022 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36256179

RESUMO

Conformal vibration polishing (CVP) employing flexible polishing tools is expected to be an efficient means of optical processing, and all current research on it is limited to planar components. Hence, the smoothing characteristics of the middle spatial frequency (MSF) errors and the ability to maintain the surface shape of different types of optics in CVP are analyzed. A combined processing method based on magnetorheological finishing and CVP for full-spatial frequency errors is proposed and verified by experiment. The peak-to-valley value, MSF errors, and surface roughness of the large-diameter component can reach 75 nm, 1.1 nm, and 0.37 nm after 9 h of processing. The research not only demonstrates the excellent removal characteristics of CVP and the effectiveness of the proposed method but also provides an additional choice for the high-precision manufacturing of optics.

11.
Front Chem ; 10: 946183, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36212064

RESUMO

The progress of nanotechnology enables us to make use of the special properties of materials on the nanoscale and open up many new fields of biomedical research. Among them, thermosensitive nanomaterials stand out in many biomedical fields because of their "intelligent" behavior in response to temperature changes. However, this article mainly reviews the research progress of thermosensitive nanomaterials, which are popular in biomedical applications in recent years. Here, we simply classify the thermally responsive nanomaterials according to the types of polymers, focusing on the mechanisms of action and their advantages and potential. Finally, we deeply investigate the applications of thermosensitive nanomaterials in drug delivery, tissue engineering, sensing analysis, cell culture, 3D printing, and other fields and probe the current challenges and future development prospects of thermosensitive nanomaterials.

12.
Front Oncol ; 12: 998445, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36212438

RESUMO

Background: The liver is the most common organ for distant metastasis of pancreatic cancer, and patients with pancreatic cancer liver metastases (PCLM) often die in a short period of time. As such, the establishment of an effective nomogram to predict the probability of early death (survival time ≤3 months) in PCLM patients is of considerable significance. Methods: Patients diagnosed with PCLM in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER) database between 2010 and 2015 were included for model construction and internal validation. A data set was obtained from the Chinese population for external validation. Risk factors that contributed to all-cause and cancer-specific early death were determined by means of univariable and multivariable logistic regression. The accuracy of the nomogram was verified by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and the true consistency of the model was assessed by calibration curves. The clinical applicability of the model was evaluated by means of decision curve analysis (DCA). Results: A total of 12,955 patients were included in the present study, of whom 7,219 (55.7%) experienced early death and 6,973 (53.8%) patients died of PCLM. Through multivariable logistic regression analysis, 11 risk factors associated with all-cause early death and 12 risk factors associated with cancer-specific early death were identified. The area under the curves (AUCs) for all-cause and cancer-specific early death were 0.806 (95% CI: 0.785- 0.827) and 0.808 (95% CI: 0.787- 0.829), respectively. Internal validation showed that the C-indexes of all-cause and cancer-specific early death after bootstrapping (5,000 re-samplings) were 0.805 (95% CI: 0.784-0.826) and 0.807 (95% CI: 0.786-0.828), respectively. As revealed by the calibration curves, the constructed nomograms exhibited good consistency. The decision curve analysis (DCA) indicated the nomograms had significant clinical applicability. Conclusion: In the present study, reliable nomograms were developed for predicting the early death probability in patients with PCLM. Such tools can help clinicians identify high-risk patients and develop individualized treatment plans as early as possible.

13.
Biomater Sci ; 10(22): 6388-6398, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36200925

RESUMO

Bacterial infections seriously threaten human health. Although antibiotics can significantly treat infectious diseases, antibiotics abuse has brought a series of serious problems, such as multidrug-resistant bacteria, adverse effects, and so on. Therefore, it is indispensable to develop alternative therapies with superior efficacy and minor toxicity to enhance the anti-infective outcome, overcome drug resistance and reduce adverse effects. The phase change material (PCM) is a substance that changes its physical properties with elevated temperatures. Nanoparticles based on PCM have been widely used in biomedical research due to their excellent biocompatibility, sustained release, and outstanding targeting properties. In this manuscript, the applications of PCM-based nanoparticles in the treatment of bacterial infections were summarized. Firstly, the composition and biotoxicity of PCM nanocarriers were described. Secondly, various antibacterial strategies based on PCM nanoparticles for combination therapy were highlighted. Finally, the prospects for antibacterial therapy of PCM nanomaterials were summarized.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Infecções Bacterianas , Nanoestruturas , Humanos , Antibacterianos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 853: 158563, 2022 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087669

RESUMO

To improve the degradation efficiency of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWIFA), as well as to overcome the difficulties of subsequent hydrothermal liquid and hydrothermal slag treatment, a two-step treatment strategy of microwave hydrothermal degradation coupled with geopolymer immobilization was proposed. Results showed that the optimal process parameters for microwave hydrothermal dechlorination were a temperature of 220 °C, a time of 1 h, and NaOH addition of 10 wt%. Microwaves accelerated the OH- mediated hydrolysis reactions and promoted the breaking of CCl bonds, leading to dechlorination. The compressive strength of the 20 % MSWIFA-based geopolymers reached 75.79 MPa, and the immobilization rate of the heavy metals (HMs) and Cl- surpassed 90 %. Alkaline environment provided by microwave hydrothermal promoted the formation of Ca(OH)2, which subsequently formed Friedel's salt (3CaO•Al2O3•CaCl2•10H2O) with Cl- in the geopolymer. The charge density difference and density of states (DOS) of Friedel's salt were analyzed by first-principles calculations, confirming that the existence of strong interactions between Ca-s, Al-p, O-p, and Cl-p states was the chemical mechanism of Cl- immobilization. The Friedel's salt and HMs were encapsulated by geopolymers with dense silica-alumina tetrahedral frameworks, achieving the solidification/stabilization (S/S) of HMs and Cl-. This work provided a new approach for the environmentally sound and resourceful treatment of MSWIFA.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Eliminação de Resíduos , Cinza de Carvão/química , Incineração , Resíduos Sólidos , Cloro , Micro-Ondas , Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes , Hidróxido de Sódio , Óxido de Alumínio , Metais Pesados/análise , Dióxido de Silício , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Carbono/química , Material Particulado/química
15.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 27: 100549, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35923777

RESUMO

Background: The burden of disease caused by tobacco use is a grave public health concern in China. Preventing smoking initiation among adolescents will lower the prevalence of adult tobacco use later. Surveillance of tobacco use among adolescents helps set priorities in developing tobacco control policies. We aim to ascertain the prevalence and differences of cigarette use across sex, grade, and region among middle and high school students in 2019 and associated changes from 2013-14 to 2019 among middle school students. Methods: Using a multistage stratified cluster-randomized sampling design with national and provincial representativeness, we conducted two school-based cross-sectional surveys in 2013-14 and in 2019. A total of 155 117 middle school students in grades 7-9 in 2013-14 and 288 192 middle and high school students in grades 7-12 in 2019 were interviewed. Self-reported experimental and current (past 30-day) cigarette use among middle school and high school students; frequent use (≥20 days in the past 30 days) and intensity (>20 cigarettes per day) of smoking among current cigarette users; and location of smoking among current cigarette users were investigated. All estimates were weighted based on the complex sampling design. Findings: The 2013-14 survey (overall response rate: 98.1%) included 155 117 middle school students (47.1% girl). The 2019 survey (overall response rate: 98.7%) included 147 270 middle school students (46.5% girl), 106 432 academic high school students (50.8% girl) and 34 490 vocational high school students (43.8% girl). In 2019, the prevalence rate of experimental and current cigarette use was 12.9% and 3.9% for middle school students, 21.6% and 5.6% for academic high school students, and 30.3% and 14.7% for vocational high school students, respectively, with large sex and regional differences. The prevalences of smoking on 20 or more days and daily cigarette use in the past 30 days were higher in vocational high school (5.9%, 4.1%) than in academic high school (1.8%, 1.2%) and middle school (0.7%, 0.5%), and higher among boys than girls. The proportions of current cigarette users smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day in the past 30 days for girls were higher than for boys in academic high school. Students usually smoke at school and at home. Boys were more likely to use cigarettes in an internet cafe, while girls often smoked at social venues. From 2013-14 to 2019, the prevalences of experimental and current cigarette use declined by 5.0% and 2.0% (percentage points), respectively, among middle school students but increased by 1.4% and 0.5% (percentage points) among rural girls. Among current cigarette users in middle school students, the proportions of heavy cigarette use (>20 cigarettes per day) have increased by 1.8 percentage points, mainly among boys, by 2.2% (percentage points). Interpretation: From 2013-14 to 2019, the prevalences of experimental and current cigarette use among middle school students decreased overall but increased among rural girls, while the intensity of cigarette use rose among boys. Cigarette use among Chinese adolescents differs across sex and regions, with higher rates among boys, in rural areas, and in the Western region (low socioeconomic status). Smoking is much more prevalent in vocational high schools than the other settings. Effective targeted tobacco control interventions among adolescents are urgently needed in China. Funding: Dr. Zhuo Chen is supported by National Natural Science Foundation (Grant#: 72174098) through the University of Nottingham Ningbo China.

16.
Cell Immunol ; 379: 104590, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36030565

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease resulted from the unrestrained inflammatory attack towards the insulin-producing islet ß cells. Although the exact etiology underlying T1D remains elusive, viral infections, especially those specific strains of enterovirus, are acknowledged as a critical environmental cue involved in the early phase of disease initiation. Viral infections could either directly impede ß cell function, or elicit pathological autoinflammatory reactions for ß cell killing. Autoimmune responses are bolstered by a massive body of virus-derived exogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and the presence of ß cell-derived damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). In particular, the nucleic acid components and the downstream nucleic acid sensing pathways serve as the major effector mechanism. The endogenous retroviral RNA, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and genomic fragments generated by stressed or dying ß cells induce host responses reminiscent of viral infection, a phenomenon termed as viral mimicry during the early stage of T1D development. Given that the interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) are considered as hub transcription factors to modulate immune responses relevant to viral infection, we thus sought to summarize the critical role of IRFs in T1D pathogenesis. We discuss with focus for the impact of IRFs on the sensitivity of ß cells to cytokine stimulation, the vulnerability of ß cells to viral infection/mimicry, and the intensity of immune response. Together, targeting certain IRF members, alone or together with other therapeutics, could be a promising strategy against T1D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Infecções por Enterovirus , Ácidos Nucleicos , Viroses , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Humanos , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , Padrões Moleculares Associados a Patógenos
18.
PLoS Med ; 19(8): e1004064, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36006870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a leading cause of premature death in China, especially among adult men. Since the implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in 2005, nationwide tobacco control has been strengthened, but its long-term impact on smoking prevalence is unclear. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Five nationally representative surveys of the China Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance (CCDRFS) were conducted in 2007, 2010, 2013, 2015, and 2018. A total of 624,568 adults (278,605 men and 345,963 women) aged 18 to 69 years were randomly selected from 31 provinces (or equivalent) in China. Temporal changes in smoking prevalence and patterns (e.g., percentages of those smoking manufactured cigarettes, amount smoked, and age at smoking initiation) were analyzed, overall and by sex, urban or rural residence, year of birth, education and occupation, using linear regression methods. Among men, the standardized prevalence of current smoking decreased from 58.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 56.1 to 60.7) to 50.8% (95% CI: 49.1 to 52.5, p < 0.001) between 2007 and 2018, with annual decrease more pronounced in urban (55.7% [95% CI: 51.2 to 60.3] to 46.3% [95% CI: 43.7 to 49.0], p < 0.001) than rural men (59.9% [95% CI: 57.5 to 62.4] to 54.6% [95% CI: 52.6 to 56.6], p = 0.05) and in those born before than after 1980. Among rural men born after 1990, however, the prevalence increased from 40.2% [95% CI: 34.0 to 46.4] to 52.1% ([95% CI: 45.7 to 58.5], p = 0.007), with the increase taking place mainly before 2015. Among women, smoking prevalence remained extremely low at around 2% during 2007 to 2018. No significant changes of current smoking prevalence (53.9% to 50.8%, p = 0.22) were observed in male patients with at least 1 of major chronic diseases (e.g., hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infarction, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)). In 2018, 25.6% of adults aged ≥18 years smoked, translating into an estimated 282 million smokers (271 million men and 11 million women) in China. Across 31 provinces, smoking prevalence varied greatly. The 3 provinces (Yunnan, Guizhou, and Hunan) with highest per capita tobacco production had highest smoking prevalence in men (68.0%, 63.4%, and 61.5%, respectively), while lowest prevalence was observed in Shanghai (34.8%). Since the children and teenage groups were not included in the surveys, we could not assess the smoking trends among youths. Furthermore, since the smoking behavior was self-reported, the smoking prevalence could be underestimated due to reporting bias. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that the smoking prevalence has decreased steadily in recent decades in China, but there were diverging trends between urban and rural areas, especially among men born after 1980. Future tobacco control strategies should target rural young men, regions with high tobacco production, and patients suffering from chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Fumar , Fumar Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Front Neurosci ; 16: 945454, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35844209

RESUMO

Due to the dyeing process, learning samples used for color prediction of pre-colored fiber blends should be re-prepared once the batches of the fiber change. The preparation of the sample is time-consuming and leads to manpower and material waste. The two-constant Kubelka-Munk theory is selected in this article to investigate the feasibility to minimize and optimize the learning samples for the theory since it has the highest prediction accuracy and moderate learning sample size requirement among all the color prediction models. Results show that two samples, namely, a masstone obtained by 100% pre-colored fiber and a tint mixed by 40% pre-colored fiber and 60% white fiber, are enough to determine the absorption and scattering coefficients of a pre-colored fiber. In addition, the optimal sample for the single-constant Kubelka-Munk theory is also explored.

20.
ACS Omega ; 7(28): 24587-24595, 2022 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35874198

RESUMO

The coal tends to be affected by the water vapor from quenching coke process in the pyrolysis process during the coal carbonization process and in turn causes the variation of physicochemical properties of semicoke. The preparation of semicoke based on different pyrolysis temperatures and water vapor content was carried out in order to investigate the influence of water vaper on physicochemical properties of the pyrolytic semicoke, combined with specific surface area analysis and thermal analysis to study the pore structure and combustion properties of semicoke. The morphology of the semicoke and the alteration rule of carbon-containing functional groups were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The result indicates that adding an appropriate amount of water vapor (40%) instead of excess (60%) in the pyrolysis process (800 °C) is beneficial to the increase of the proportion of fixed carbon and the removal of volatile and ash. The specific surface area and the combustion performance of the semicoke is significantly improved when the appropriate amount of water vapor was added. The water vapor content has a slight effect on surface functional groups when the temperature ranges from 500 to 700 °C, whereas the higher water vapor content inhibits the improvement of physicochemical properties of the semicoke when the pyrolysis temperature is higher (800 °C). Therefore, the entry of excess water vapor (60%) into the high-temperature pyrolysis section should be avoided in the process of quenching coke or it would have an adverse impact on the performance of semicoke.

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