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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(1): 136-148, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34964344

RESUMO

Flavoalkaloids are a unique class of compounds in tea, most of which have an N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinone moiety substituted at the A ring of a catechin skeleton. 1-Ethyl-5-hydroxy-pyrrolidone, a decomposed product of theanine, was supposed to be the key intermediate to form tea flavoalkaloids. However, we have also detected another possible theanine intermediate, 1-ethyl-5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid, and speculated if there are related conjugated catechins. Herein, four novel spiro-flavoalkaloids with a spiro-γ-lactone structural moiety were isolated from Yingde green tea (Camellia sinensis var. assamica) in our continuing exploration of new chemical constituents from tea. The structures of the new compounds, spiro-flavoalkaloids A-D (1-4), were further elucidated by extensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy together with the calculated 13C NMR, IR, UV-vis, high-resolution mass, optical rotation, experimental, and calculated circular dichroism spectra. We also provided an alternative pathway to produce these novel spiro-flavoalkaloids. Additionally, their α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were determined with IC50 values of 3.34 (1), 5.47 (2), 22.50 (3), and 15.38 (4) µM. Docking results revealed that compounds 1 and 2 mainly interacted with residues ASP-215, ARG-442, ASP-352, GLU-411, HIS-280, ARG-315, and ASN-415 of α-glucosidase through hydrogen bonds. The fluorescence intensity of α-glucosidase could be quenched by compounds 1 and 2 in a static style.

2.
Bioact Mater ; 9: 183-197, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820565

RESUMO

Inflammatory response plays a critical role in myocardial infarction (MI) repair. The neutrophil apoptosis and subsequent macrophage ingestion can result in inflammation resolution and initiate regeneration, while the therapeutic strategy that simulates and enhances this natural process has not been established. Here, we constructed engineered neutrophil apoptotic bodies (eNABs) to simulate natural neutrophil apoptosis, which regulated inflammation response and enhanced MI repair. The eNABs were fabricated by combining natural neutrophil apoptotic body membrane which has excellent inflammation-tropism and immunoregulatory properties, and mesoporous silica nanoparticles loaded with hexyl 5-aminolevulinate hydrochloride (HAL). The eNABs actively targeted to macrophages and the encapsulated HAL simultaneously initiated the biosynthesis pathway of heme to produce anti-inflammatory bilirubin after intracellular release, thereby further enhancing the anti-inflammation effects. In in vivo studies, the eNABs efficiently modulated inflammation responses in the infarcted region to ameliorate cardiac function. This study demonstrates an effective biomimetic construction strategy to regulate macrophage functions for MI repair.

3.
J Hazard Mater ; 422: 126950, 2022 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449327

RESUMO

With the increasing serious water pollutions, an increasing interest has given for the nanocomposites as environmental catalysts. To date, noble metals-based nanocomposites have been extensively studied by researchers in environmental catalysis. In detail, serving as key functional parts, noble metals are usually combined with other nanomaterials for rationally designing nanocomposites, which exhibit enhanced catalytic properties in pollutants removal. Noble metals in the nanocomposites possess tailored properties, thus playing different important roles in catalytic oxidation reactions for pollutants removal. To motivate the research and elaborate the progress of noble metals, this review (i) summarizes advanced characterization techniques and rising technology of theoretical calculation for evaluating noble metal, and (ii) classifies the roles according to their disparate mechanism in different catalytic oxidation reactions. Meanwhile, the enhanced mechanism and influence factors are discussed. (iii) The conclusions, facing challenges and perspectives are proposed for further development of noble metals-based nanocomposites as environmental catalysts.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Nanoestruturas , Catálise , Metais , Oxirredução
4.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 11(11): 3542-3552, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34900535

RESUMO

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) signaling promotes lipogenesis. However, mTOR inhibitors also displayed a significant side effect of hyperlipidemia. Thus, it is essential to develop mTOR-specific inhibitors to inhibit lipogenesis. Here, we screened the endogenous inhibitors of mTOR, and identified that FKBP38 as a vital regulator of lipid metabolism. FKBP38 decreased the lipid content in vitro and in vivo via suppression of the mTOR/P70S6K/SREBPs pathway. 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-Heptamethoxyflavone (HMF), a citrus flavonoid, was found to target FKBP38 to suppress the mTOR/P70S6K/SREBPs pathway, reduce lipid level, and potently ameliorate hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Our findings suggest that pharmacological intervention by targeting FKBP38 to suppress mTOR/P70S6K/SREBPs pathway is a potential therapeutic strategy for hyperlipidemia, and HMF could be a leading compound for development of anti-hyperlipidemia drugs.

5.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34829539

RESUMO

Radiation therapy is a common treatment for head and neck cancers. However, because of the presence of nerve structures (brain stem, spinal cord, and brachial plexus), salivary glands (SGs), mucous membranes, and swallowing muscles in the head and neck regions, radiotherapy inevitably causes damage to these normal tissues. Among them, SG injury is a serious adverse event, and its clinical manifestations include changes in taste, difficulty chewing and swallowing, oral infections, and dental caries. These clinical symptoms seriously reduce a patient's quality of life. Therefore, it is important to clarify the mechanism of SG injury caused by radiotherapy. Although the mechanism of radiation-induced SG injury has not yet been determined, recent studies have shown that the mechanisms of calcium signaling, microvascular injury, cellular senescence, and apoptosis are closely related to oxidative stress. In this article, we review the mechanism by which radiotherapy causes oxidative stress and damages the SGs. In addition, we discuss effective methods to prevent and treat radiation-induced SG damage.

6.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 758978, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721119

RESUMO

Objective: Although previous studies have reported on disrupted amygdala subregional functional connectivity in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), most of these studies were conducted in GAD patients with comorbidities or with drug treatment. Besides, whether/how the amygdala subregional functional networks were associated with state and trait anxiety is still largely unknown. Methods: Resting-state functional connectivity of amygdala subregions, including basolateral amygdala (BLA) and centromedial amygdala (CMA) as seed, were mapped and compared between 37 drug-naïve, non-comorbidity GAD patients and 31 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs). Relationships between amygdala subregional network dysfunctions and state/trait anxiety were examined using partial correlation analyses. Results: Relative to HCs, GAD patients showed weaker functional connectivity of the left BLA with anterior cingulate/medial prefrontal cortices. Significantly increased functional connectivity of right BLA and CMA with superior temporal gyrus and insula were also identified in GAD patients. Furthermore, these functional connectivities showed correlations with state and trait anxiety scores. Conclusions: These findings revealed abnormal functional coupling of amygdala subregions in GAD patients with regions involved in fear processing and emotion regulation, including anterior cingulate/medial prefrontal cortex and superior temporal gyrus, which provide the unique biological markers for GAD and facilitating the future accurate clinical diagnosis and target treatment.

7.
Phytomedicine ; : 153853, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous studies suggest that major Camellia sinensis (tea) catechins can inhibit 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro), inspiring us to study 3CLpro inhibition of the recently discovered catechins from tea by our group. METHODS: Autodock was used to dock 3CLpro and 16 tea catechins. Further, a 3CLpro activity detection system was used to test their intra and extra cellular 3CLpro inhibitory activity. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was used to analyze the dissociation constant (KD) between the catechins and 3CLpro. RESULTS: Docking data suggested that 3CLpro interacted with the selected 16 catechins with low binding energy through the key amino acid residues Thr24, Thr26, Asn142, Gly143, His163, and Gln189. The selected catechins other than zijuanin D (3) and (-)-8-(5''R)-N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinone-3-O-cinnamoylepicatechin (11) can inhibit 3CLpro intracellularly. The extracellular 3CLpro IC50 values of (-)-epicatechin 3-O-caffeoate (EC-C, 1), zijuanin C (2), etc-pyrrolidinone C and D (6), etc-pyrrolidinone A (9), (+)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG), and (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) are 1.58 ± 0.21, 41.2 ± 3.56, 0.90 ± 0.03, 46.71 ± 10.50, 3.38 ± 0.48, and 71.78 ± 8.36 µM, respectively. The KD values of 1, 6, and GCG are 4.29, 3.46, and 3.36 µM, respectively. CONCLUSION: Together, EC-C (1), etc-pyrrolidinone C and D (6), and GCG are strong 3CLpro inhibitors. Our results suggest that structural modification of catechins could be conducted by esterificating the 3-OH as well as changing the configuration of C-3, C-3''' or C-5''' to discover strong SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors.

8.
Am J Cancer Res ; 11(10): 5027-5037, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34765309

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori antibiotic resistance is a serious concern in China, where it severely influences treatment for H. pylori infection. To overcome this, it is essential to apply personalized therapies based on local or individual data on antibiotic-resistant phenotypes or genotypes. We conducted a large-scale multi-center study with a retrospective cross-sectional observational design to investigate the antibiotic-resistant phenotypes and genotypes of H. pylori in China. Strains were isolated from the gastric biopsy samples of H. pylori-infected patients from five different regions in China. The strains were tested for antibiotic-resistant phenotypes and genotypes, and the agreement between the two was assessed. In total, 4242 H. pylori strains were isolated and cultured, with an 84.43% success rate. The primary and secondary antibiotic resistance rates of H. pylori were 37.00% and 76.93% for clarithromycin, 34.21% and 61.58% for levofloxacin, 2.20% and 6.12% for amoxicillin, 1.61% and 3.11% for furazolidone, 1.18% and 3.31% for tetracycline, and 87.87% and 93.48% for metronidazole, respectively. The dual-resistance patterns for metronidazole/clarithromycin, metronidazole/levofloxacin, and clarithromycin/levofloxacin were 43.6%, 38.4%, and 26.1%, respectively. Clarithromycin- and levofloxacin-resistant H. pylori phenotypes and genotypes showed satisfactory agreement. Based on these findings, clarithromycin- and levofloxacin-resistant genotype testing could partially replace traditional antibiotic susceptibility testing in China. Continuous monitoring and personalized treatments based on individual and local H. pylori antibiotic-resistance data remain necessary.

9.
Ther Adv Chronic Dis ; 12: 20406223211052388, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729158

RESUMO

Aim: To evaluate the renal outcomes and prognostic factors among patients with type-2 diabetes (T2D) and biopsy-confirmed diabetic nephropathy (DN), non-diabetic renal disease (NDRD) and DN mixed with NDRD (MIX). Design and Methods: Patients with both T2D and chronic kidney disease (CKD) who underwent renal biopsy between January 2014 and December 2016 were recruited in this prospective observational study. Participants were divided into DN group, NDRD group, or MIX group according to the baseline pathological diagnosis. The primary endpoint was a composite renal event of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or ⩾ 40% reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Results: Among the 292 participants included, 153 (52.4%) belonged to the DN group, 30 (10.3%) belonged to the NDRD group, and 109 (37.3%) belonged to the MIX group. During the median follow-up of 27 months, the adverse renal events occurred in 132 (44.2%) patients. Compared with NDRD group, the multiple adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for renal events in patients with DN and MIX groups were 3.900 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.103-13.788) and 2.691 (95% CI: 0.662-10.936), respectively. Baseline lower eGFR (HR: 1.159, 95% CI: 1.060-1.266), severe proteinuria (HR: 2.047, 95% CI: 1.227-3.416), lower hemoglobin (HR: 1.170, 95% CI: 1.008-1.267), and a family history of diabetes (HR: 1.138, 95% CI: 1.008-2.285) were independent predictors for adverse renal outcomes in patients with DN. Conclusion: In patients with T2D and CKD, pure DN and MIX group displayed a worse renal prognosis than NDRD group. Worse renal function, severe proteinuria, lower hemoglobin, and a family history of diabetes may be associated with adverse renal outcomes in patients with DN.

10.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 746325, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616692

RESUMO

Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase genes (bla KPC) play an important role in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in China. A rapid detection method for bla KPC genes and investigations into the molecular characteristics of bla KPC positive Klebsiella pneumoniae were necessary. In this study, an easy and rapid recombinase aided amplification assay (RAA) for bla KPC was established. This protocol could be completed at 39°C in 15-20 min. The sensitivity of this assay was determined as 48 copies per reaction, and the specificity was 100%. The bla KPC RAA method could be used for clinical diagnosis and epidemiological investigation. Among 801 fecal samples from inpatients, 34 bla KPC positive isolates were identified from each sample, of which 23 isolates were K. pneumoniae. ST11 with bla KPC-2 was the most prevalent type. All these strains were multidrug resistant and carried various virulence genes. Fecal carriage of bla KPC positive carbapenem-resistant K.pneumoniae poses significant challenges for public health control.


Assuntos
Infecções por Klebsiella , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Humanos , Infecções por Klebsiella/diagnóstico , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Recombinases/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623269

RESUMO

Upright-legged locomotion is a desirable ability for people with paraplegia. This paper introduces a newly developed lightweight powered exoskeleton (LIPE) for level walking and posture transfer of people with paraplegia using a user-centered design concept, which integrates the requirements of practical use, mechanical structure, and control system. The LIPE was evaluated with two subjects through several experimental tasks including kinematics and dynamics analysis in a local hospital. Results of functional evaluation showed that these subjects received the exoskeleton intervention well and the LIPE could provide appropriate gait assistance to the wearer during level walking, it could also help the wearer achieve the posture transfer from sitting to standing or from standing to sitting independently. Moreover, an endurance test also indicated that LIPE allows wearers to use it continuously for a long time. It is lightweight, cost effective, easy to use, and practical for people with paraplegia in their daily lives.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto Energizado , Marcha , Humanos , Paraplegia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Caminhada
12.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1979883, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632939

RESUMO

High alcohol-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (HiAlc Kpn) in the gut microbiota had been demonstrated to be the causative agent of fatty liver disease (FLD). However, the catabolic pathways for alcohol production in vivo remain unclear. Here, we characterized the genome of HiAlc and medium alcohol-producing (MedAlc) Kpn and constructed an adh (an essential gene encoding alcohol dehydrogenase) knock-out HiAlc Kpn W14 strain (W14Δadh) using CRISPR-Cas9 system. Subsequently, we established the mouse model via gavage administration of HiAlc Kpn W14 and W14 Δadh strains, respectively. Proteome and metabolome analysis showed that 10 proteins and six major metabolites involved in the 2,3-butanediol fermentation pathway exhibited at least a three-fold change or greater during intestinal growth. Compared with HiAlc Kpn W14-fed mice, W14Δadh-fed mice with weak alcohol-producing ability did not show apparent pathological changes at 4 weeks, although some steatotic hepatocytes were observed at 12 weeks. Our data demonstrated that carbohydrate substances are catabolized to produce alcohol and 2,3-butanediol via the 2,3-butanediol fermentation pathway in HiAlc Kpn, which could be a promising clinical diagnostic marker. The production of high amounts of endogenous alcohol is responsible for the observed steatosis effects in hepatocytes in vivo.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; : 151059, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678361

RESUMO

Recently, persulfate (PS) activation system has grown up as a primary branch of advanced oxidation processes, and biochar has been recognized as a potential nonmetal material in this field. However, few studies have focused on the corresponding relationship between actives sites on biochar and active species in AOPs. To pave this way, similar biochar (obtained from different pyrolysis temperature) with different functional structures were involved. In this study, biochar derived from swine bone (BBC) was applied in PS activation system to degrade acetaminophen (ACT). The results showed that both radical and non-radical pathway worked in the PS/BBCs systems, and the degradation rate (from 0.1042 to 0.4364 min-1) climbed with the increase of pyrolysis temperature (from 700 to 900 °C). To probe into the corresponding relationship between functional structure and active species, the effect of pyrolysis temperature on functional structure was analyzed. It came out that 1) defects could act as active sites for various active species; 2) persistent free radicals could do favor to the generation of 1O2 and O2-; 3) hydroxyapatite in swine bone only served as hard templet for the porous structure. ACT degradation process was measured by Liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer, and Scendesmus obliquus was applied to investigate the toxicity of PS/BBCs system. It illustrated that the existence of SO4- mainly contributed to the generation of high toxic intermediates (such as biphenyl and diphenyl ether) in the PS/BBCs system. Furthermore, the enhancement of adsorption capacity would mitigate the toxicity of PS/BBCs systems to some extent.

14.
Org Lett ; 23(21): 8533-8538, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699225

RESUMO

A novel, easy-to-handle, and regioselective vicinal dioxidation of alkenes under transition metal and organic peroxide free conditions has been developed. This approach uses N-hydroxyphthalimide and its analogues as the transient nitroxyl-radical precursors and 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxoammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEMPO+BF4-) as the oxidant as well as the source of persistent nitroxide. By employing this method, multifarious structurally important dioxidation products were efficiently synthesized from simple alkenes and complex bioactive molecule derivatives.

15.
Bioresour Technol ; 345: 126052, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592459

RESUMO

A significant amount of food waste (FW) is produced every year. If it is not disposed of timeously, human health and the ecological environment can be negatively affected. Lactic acid (LA), a high value-added product, can be produced by fermentation from FW as a substrate, realizing the concurrent treatment and recycling of FW, which has attracted increasing research interest. In this paper, the latest advances and deficiencies were presented from the following aspects: microorganisms involved in LA fermentation and the metabolic pathways of Lactobacillus, fermentation conditions, and methods of enhanced biotransformation and LA separation. The limitations of the LA fermentation of FW are mainly associated with low LA concentration and yield, the low purity of L(+)-LA, and the high separation costs. The establishment of biorefineries of FW with lactic acid as the target product is the future development direction, but there are still many research studies to be done.

16.
Anal Chem ; 93(39): 13311-13318, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569224

RESUMO

As a global health challenge, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is strongly associated with chronic inflammation. Targeting inflammation, particularly inflammatory factors, is regarded as an important strategy for HCC diagnosis and treatment. Pyroglutamic aminopeptidase I (PGP-I), a common exopeptidase, was recently identified as a novel inflammatory cytokine in cells. However, whether PGP-I is involved in HCC development and can be regarded as a biomarker remains unclear. To address this issue, endogenous PGP-I was imaged in live cells and in vivo, and the related biochemical and pathological processes were analyzed accordingly with a newly developed fluorogenic PGP-I biosensor. Bioimaging with the specific biosensor demonstrated the aberrant expression of PGP-I in HCC cell lines and tumor-bearing nude mice. Moreover, overexpression of PGP-I in HCC cells promoted tumor progression, whereas knockdown of PGP-I significantly suppressed tumor cell growth and migration. The activity of PGP-I was further identified to be highly related to the phosphorylation of STAT3, which could be impeded by the natural product parthenolide. Collectively, these findings suggest that PGP-I, which can promote hepatocellular tumor progression through the classical inflammation-/tumor-related IL-6/STAT3 pathway, may serve as a potential HCC biomarker and therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Piroglutamil-Peptidase I , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Ácido Pirrolidonocarboxílico
17.
Invest New Drugs ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peritumoral fibroblasts are key components of the tumor microenvironment. Through remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and secretion of pro-tumorigenic cytokines, peritumoral fibroblasts foster an immunosuppressive milieu conducive to tumor cell proliferation. In this study, we investigated if peritumoral fibroblasts could be therapeutically engineered to elicit an anti-cancer response by abolishing the proteolytic activities of membrane-bound metalloproteinases involved in ECM modulation. METHODS: A high affinity, glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase (TIMP) named "T1PrαTACE" was created for dual inhibition of MT1-MMP and TACE. T1PrαTACE was expressed in fibroblasts and its effects on cancer cell proliferation investigated in 3D co-culture models. RESULTS: T1PrαTACE abrogated the activities of MT1-MMP and TACE in host fibroblasts. As a GPI protein, T1PrαTACE could spontaneously detach from the plasma membrane of the fibroblast to co-localize with MT1-MMP and TACE on neighboring cancer cells. In a 3D co-culture model, T1PrαTACE promoted adherence between the cancer cells and surrounding fibroblasts, which led to an attenuation in tumor development. CONCLUSION: Peritumoral fibroblasts can be modulated with the TIMP for the elimination of cancer cells. As a novel anti-tumor strategy, our approach could potentially be used in combination with conventional chemo- and immunotherapies for a more effective cancer therapy.

18.
J Vis Exp ; (174)2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515684

RESUMO

Human pluripotent stem cell-derived astrocytes (hiPSC-A) and neurons (hiPSC-N) provide a powerful tool for modeling Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) pathophysiology in vitro. Multi-electrode array (MEA) recordings are a means to record electrical field potentials from large populations of neurons and analyze network activity over time. It was previously demonstrated that the presence of hiPSC-A that are differentiated using techniques to promote a spinal cord astrocyte phenotype improved maturation and electrophysiological activity of regionally specific spinal cord hiPSC-motor neurons (MN) when compared to those cultured without hiPSC-A or in the presence of rodent astrocytes. Described here is a method to co-culture spinal cord hiPSC-A with hiPSC-MN and record electrophysiological activity using MEA recordings. While the differentiation protocols described here are particular to astrocytes and neurons that are regionally specific to the spinal cord, the co-culturing platform can be applied to astrocytes and neurons differentiated with techniques specific to other fates, including cortical hiPSC-A and hiPSC-N. These protocols aim to provide an electrophysiological assay to inform about glia-neuron interactions and provide a platform for testing drugs with therapeutic potential in ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes , Astrócitos , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Neurônios Motores
19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 3766641, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471637

RESUMO

Tooth bleaching is becoming increasingly popular among patients with tooth staining, but the safety of bleaching agents on tooth structure has been questioned. Primarily thriving on the biofilm formation on enamel surface, Streptococcus mutans has been recognized as a major cariogenic bacterial species. The present study is aimed at investigating how cold-light bleaching would change enamel roughness and adhesion of Streptococcus mutans. Human premolars were divided into 72 enamel slices and allocated into 3 groups: (1) control, (2) cold-light bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide (Beyond™), and (3) 35% hydrogen peroxide (Beyond™) alone. Biofilms of Streptococcus mutans were cultivated on enamel slices in 5% CO2 (v/v) at 37°C for 1 day or 3 days. Enamel surfaces and biofilms were observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was applied to quantify the roughness of enamel surface, and the amounts of biofilms were measured by optical density of scattered biofilm and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Cold-light bleaching significantly increased (p < 0.05) surface roughness of enamel compared to controls, but significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) adhesion of Streptococcus mutans on enamel in the bacterial cultures of both 1 day and 3 days. In conclusion, cold-light bleaching could roughen enamel surface but inhibit Streptococcus mutans adhesion at the preliminary stage after the bleaching treatment.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus mutans/fisiologia , Clareamento Dental/métodos , Dente/efeitos dos fármacos , Dente/microbiologia , Aderência Bacteriana , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esmalte Dentário/microbiologia , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Humanos , Luz , Microscopia de Força Atômica/métodos , Medicamentos Compostos contra Resfriado, Influenza e Alergia , Propriedades de Superfície , Dente/patologia
20.
Pharmacol Res ; 173: 105866, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474103

RESUMO

A variety of systemic chemotherapy regimens have been used for recurrent/metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (R/M HNSCC). However, most guidelines have been derived from a single clinical trial, and no studies have comprehensively compared their efficacy and safety. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases. Eligible studies reported overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), and ≥ 3 adverse events rate (AEs). Eighteen eligible trials involving 4930 patients and 15 treatment regimens were included. The results suggest that patients with R/M HNSCC exhibit better tumor response with the cetuximab/platinum/5-FU, pembrolizumab/platinum/5-FU or pembrolizumab alone, accompanied by a low AE rate. Nivolumab also showed better efficacy than other single agents. Immunotherapy has achieved better efficacy.

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