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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2371: 31-42, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596842

RESUMO

Cyclic peptides are an important class of bioactive compounds for the chemical biology and pharmaceutical industry. Chemical synthesis of highly constrained cyclic peptides is often challenging. Here we describe the synthetic strategy of peptide macrocyclization through late-stage palladium-catalyzed C-H activation. These methods utilize endogenous backbone amides in the peptide sequence as directing groups and are efficient in the preparation of small-to-middle size peptide macrocycles.

2.
Cancer Imaging ; 21(1): 56, 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The accuracy of estimating microvascular invasion (MVI) preoperatively in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by clinical observers is low. Most recent studies constructed MVI predictive models utilizing radiological and/or radiomics features extracted from computed tomography (CT) images. These methods, however, rely heavily on human experiences and require manual tumor contouring. We developed a deep learning-based framework for preoperative MVI prediction by using CT images of arterial phase (AP) with simple tumor labeling and without the need of manual feature extraction. The model was further validated on CT images that were originally scanned at multiple different hospitals. METHODS: CT images of AP were acquired for 309 patients from China Medical University Hospital (CMUH). Images of 164 patients, who took their CT scanning at 54 different hospitals but were referred to CMUH, were also collected. Deep learning (ResNet-18) and machine learning (support vector machine) models were constructed with AP images and/or patients' clinical factors (CFs), and their performance was compared systematically. All models were independently evaluated on two patient cohorts: validation set (within CMUH) and external set (other hospitals). Subsequently, explainability of the best model was visualized using gradient-weighted class activation map (Grad-CAM). RESULTS: The ResNet-18 model built with AP images and patients' clinical factors was superior than other models achieving a highest AUC of 0.845. When evaluating on the external set, the model produced an AUC of 0.777, approaching its performance on the validation set. Model interpretation with Grad-CAM revealed that MVI relevant imaging features on CT images were captured and learned by the ResNet-18 model. CONCLUSIONS: This framework provide evidence showing the generalizability and robustness of ResNet-18 in predicting MVI using CT images of AP scanned at multiple different hospitals. Attention heatmaps obtained from model explainability further confirmed that ResNet-18 focused on imaging features on CT overlapping with the conditions used by radiologists to estimate MVI clinically.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19499, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593956

RESUMO

To compare perioperative circulating tumor cells (CTC) in primary upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) patients who underwent hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic nephroureterectomy (HANU) or robotic-assisted nephroureterectomy (RANU). A total of 29 patients received RANU (n = 10) or HANU (n = 19). Peripheral blood samples were collected before, 24 h after surgery (POh24) and on postoperative day 28 (POD28). The demographic and pathologic data are similar in both groups. RANU had a longer operative time (p = 0.031), less bleeding volume (p = 0.004), and comparable pain sore (p = 0.169). The mean CTC numbers before surgery (2.4 vs. 2.3, p = 0.482), POh24 (2.4 vs. 1.9, p = 0.668) and POD28 (0.5 vs. 0.6, p = 0.280) were not significant different among groups. The amount of CTCs in both groups decreased and reached similar level on POD28. No significant difference of overall and intravesical recurrence rate between the two approaches. In comparison to RANU, more surgical manipulation does not affect tumor cell translocation into the bloodstream in UTUC patients who received HANU. However, a longer follow-up would be needed for the final comparison of tumor recurrence.

5.
Food Funct ; 12(19): 8932-8945, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606559

RESUMO

Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill Fructus (SCF) is the ripe fruit of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill, and is often used as a neuroprotective drink. Modern pharmacological studies have shown that lignans are the main bioactive components responsible for neuroprotection and have potential in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism of action of SCF in the treatment of AD from the pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) perspective remains not well established. The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare the pharmacokinetic differences of lignans in normal and AD rats, as well as to investigate their effects on neurotransmitters and their role in the treatment of AD. To achieve this goal, an integrated strategy using LC-MS/MS combined with in vivo microdialysis for the simultaneous determination of lignans of SCF and endogenous neurotransmitters has been developed and validated. The results show that the pharmacokinetic behaviors of ten lignans in the AD group were significantly different from those in the normal group. The AD group had better absorption and slower elimination than the normal group. In addition, the pharmacodynamic results of the Morris water maze (MWM) test, biochemical tests, histopathological examination, as well as immunohistochemistry analysis showed that lignans could improve the learning and memory of AD rats. The oral administration of SCF could restore the levels of the neurotransmitter parameters; seven neurotransmitters showed clockwise or counterclockwise changes with the four lignans in the hippocampal region. Taken together, the PK and PD studies based on in vivo microdialysis sampling might offer novel insights into the mechanisms of action of SCF against AD.

6.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(13): 11, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643663

RESUMO

Purpose: This exploratory study aimed to investigate the morphological and pathological alterations of the meibomian gland (MG) with the Staphylococcus aureus crude extracts (SACEs) treatment. Methods: Mouse MG explants were cultured and differentiated with or without SACEs for 48 hours. Explant's viability and cell death were determined by thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and TUNEL assay. MG morphology was observed by Hematoxylin and Eosin staining. Lipid droplet production was detected by Nile Red staining and LipidTox immunostaining. The pro-inflammatory cytokines were detected by ELISA. The relative gene and protein expression in MG explants was determined via quantitative RT-PCR, immunostaining, and immunoblotting. The components of the SACEs were analyzed by immunoblotting and silver staining. Results: Our findings demonstrated that the SACEs treatment induced overexpression of keratin 1 (Krt1) in the ducts and acini of MG explants, accompanied by a decrease in viability and an increase in cell death in explants. Furthermore, the SACEs treatment dose-dependently increased the levels of TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 in MG explants. The SACEs treatment induced activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and AIM2 (absent in melanoma 2)/ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain) inflammasome signaling pathway in explants. Further investigation showed expression of the key adipogenesis-related molecule peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ was decreased after SACEs treatment. However, no change was found in the lipid synthesis of MG explants after treatment with the SACEs. Staphylococcal enterotoxins B (SEB) was detected in the SACEs. SEB induced the overexpression of Krt1 and IL-1ß in ducts and acini of MG explants. Conclusions: Our findings confirm that Staphylococcus aureus induced hyperkeratinization and pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in MG explants ducts and acini. These effects might be mediated by SEB. Activation of the NF-κB and AIM2/ASC signaling pathway is involved in this process.

7.
Plant Physiol ; 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618053

RESUMO

Environmental stresses cause an increased number of unfolded or misfolded proteins to accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), resulting in ER stress. To restore ER homeostasis and survive, plants initiate an orchestrated signaling pathway known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). Asparagine-rich protein (NRP) 1 and NRP2, two homologous proteins harboring a Development and Cell Death domain, are associated with various stress responses in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), but the relevant molecular mechanism remains obscure. Here, we show that NRP1 and NRP2 act as key pro-survival factors during the ER stress response and that they inhibit cell death. Loss-of-function of NRP1 and NRP2 results in decreased tolerance to the ER stress inducer tunicamycin (TM), accelerating cell death. NRP2 is constitutively expressed while NRP1 is induced in plants under ER stress. In Arabidopsis, basic leucine zipper protein (bZIP) 28 and bZIP60 are important transcription factors in the UPR that activates the expression of many ER stress-related genes. Notably, under ER stress, bZIP60 activates NRP1 by directly binding to the UPRE-I element in the NRP1 promoter. These findings reveal a pro-survival strategy in plants wherein the bZIP60-NRPs cascade suppresses cell death signal transmission, improving survival under adverse conditions.

8.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 363-369, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frequent nightmares are related to depressive symptoms in adolescents. Little is known about pathways from frequent nightmares to depressive symptoms. This study aimed to examine the mediation effect of nightmare distress in the association between frequent nightmares and depressive symptoms in a large sample of Chinese adolescents. METHODS: A total of 11,831 adolescents who participated in the baseline survey of Shandong Adolescent Behavior and Health Cohort were included in the analysis. A self-administered questionnaire was used to measure nightmare frequency, nightmare distress, depressive symptoms, sleep duration, insomnia, and demographic characteristics. Linear regressions and mediation analyses were performed to examine the associations between frequent nightmares, nightmare distress and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Of 11,831 participates, 50.9% were males and the mean age was 14.97 ± 1.45. Adolescents with frequent nightmares scored significantly higher on nightmare distress (t = 29.87, P <  0.001) and depressive symptoms (t = 20.05, P < 0.001) than those adolescents without frequent nightmares. Frequent nightmares (ß = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.48-1.60) and nightmare distress (ß = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.28-0.32) were associated with depressive symptoms. Mediation analyses showed that nightmare distress accounted for 63.76% of the total effects in the entire sample, 51.17% in males and 80.00% in females, respectively. LIMITATION: No causality could be made from the cross-sectional data and possible information bias due to self-report. CONCLUSIONS: The association between frequent nightmares and depressive symptoms appears to be substantially mediated by nightmare distress. Assessing and intervening distress associated with frequent nightmares may have important clinical implications for reducing the risk of depression in adolescents.

9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5739, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34667166

RESUMO

Protein aggregates associated with neurodegenerative diseases have the ability to transmit to unaffected cells, thereby templating their own aberrant conformation onto soluble homotypic proteins. Proteopathic seeds can be released into the extracellular space, secreted in association with extracellular vesicles (EV) or exchanged by direct cell-to-cell contact. The extent to which each of these pathways contribute to the prion-like spreading of protein misfolding is unclear. Exchange of cellular cargo by both direct cell contact or via EV depends on receptor-ligand interactions. We hypothesized that enabling these interactions through viral ligands enhances intercellular proteopathic seed transmission. Using different cellular models propagating prions or pathogenic Tau aggregates, we demonstrate that vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein and SARS-CoV-2 spike S increase aggregate induction by cell contact or ligand-decorated EV. Thus, receptor-ligand interactions are important determinants of intercellular aggregate dissemination. Our data raise the possibility that viral infections contribute to proteopathic seed spreading by facilitating intercellular cargo transfer.

10.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 532, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vertigo and dizziness (VD) are among the most frequently seen symptoms in clinics and are important for medical students, especially for those in Chinese standardized residency training (SRT). The aim of our study was to examine the PAL method's feasibility in the clinical teaching of VD-related diseases for SRT students in China. METHODS: This is a randomized, controlled, multicenter study. A total of 228 residents were invited to participate in this study, of which 198 completed the program. The students were randomized into two groups, and VD-related diseases were taught using lecture-based learning (control group) or peer-assisted learning (PAL). An examination paper and a rating scale were used to evaluate students' performance in the mastery of VD-related theoretical knowledge and clinical skills, meanwhile students' perceptions, satisfaction, and risk of burnout were also analyzed using a questionnaire. Independent-samples t-test and chi-square analysis were performed to evaluate statistical significance for continuous variables and categorical variables, respectively, using SPSS 18.0 software. RESULTS: The PAL group performed better in mastering theoretical knowledge and clinical skills than the control group. And more students believed that PAL could help improve their personal qualities such as teamwork skills. However, more students reported that PAL increased the risk of burnout. CONCLUSIONS: PAL was a suitable and effective method in the clinical teaching of some specialized diseases, especially it was recommended for students who had gained initial knowledge and skills, such as Chinese SRT students. However, we should draw attention to the increased risk of burnout if PAL is intended to be widely used in clinical teaching. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN53773239 , 05/07/2021, retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Internato e Residência , Estudantes de Medicina , China , Tontura , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Ensino , Vertigem/diagnóstico
11.
Cancer Cell Int ; 21(1): 548, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune haemorrhagic disease whose pathogenesis is associated with bone marrow megakaryocyte maturation disorder and destruction of the haematopoietic stem cell microenvironment. METHODS: In this study, we report the qualitative and quantitative profiles of the ITP proteome. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was conducted to elucidate the protein profiles of clinical bone marrow mononuclear cell (BMMC) samples from ITP patients and healthy donors (controls). Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopaedia Genes and Genome (KEGG) pathway analyses were performed to annotate the differentially expressed proteins. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed with the BLAST online database. Target proteins associated with autophagy were quantitatively identified by parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) analysis. RESULTS: Our approaches showed that the differentially expressed autophagy-related proteins, namely, HSPA8, PARK7, YWHAH, ITGB3 and CSF1R, were changed the most. The protein expression of CSF1R in ITP patients was higher than that in controls, while other autophagy-related proteins were expressed at lower levels in ITP patients than in controls. CONCLUSION: Bioinformatics analysis indicated that disruption of the autophagy pathway is a potential pathological mechanism of ITP. These results can provide a new direction for exploring the molecular mechanism of ITP.

12.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) and Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines recommend that clinical trials follow a study framework that aligns with their objective to test the relative efficacy or safety (equality) or effectiveness (superiority, noninferiority, or equivalence) between interventions. We conducted a systematic review to assess the proportion of studies that demonstrated inconsistency between the framing of their research question, sample size calculation, and conclusion and those that should have framed their research question differently based on the compared interventions. METHODS: We included studies from 5 high-impact-factor orthopaedic journals published in 2017 and 2019 that compared at least 2 interventions using patient-reported outcome measures. RESULTS: We included 228 studies. The sample size calculation was reported in 60.5% (n = 138) of studies. Of these, 52.2% (n = 72) were inconsistent between the framing of their research question, sample size calculation, and conclusion. The majority (n = 137) of sample size calculations were for equality, but 43.8% of these studies concluded superiority, noninferiority, or equivalence. Studies that framed their research question as equality (n = 186) should have been framed as superiority (n = 129), equivalence (n = 52), or noninferiority (n = 3). Only 2 studies correctly framed their research question as equality. CONCLUSIONS: Studies published in high-impact journals were inconsistent between the framing of their research question, sample size calculation, and conclusion. Authors may be misinterpreting research findings and making clinical recommendations solely based on p values. Researchers are encouraged to state and justify their methodological framework and choice of margin(s) in a publicly published protocol as they have implications for sample size and the applicability of conclusions. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The results of clinical research must be interpreted using confidence intervals, with careful consideration as to how the confidence intervals relate to clinically meaningful differences in outcomes between treatments. The more typical practice of relying on p values leaves the clinician at high risk of erroneous interpretation, recommendation, and/or action.

13.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256628, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492040

RESUMO

Paratuberculosis a contagious and chronic disease in domestic and wild ruminants, is caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Typical clinical signs include intractable diarrhea, progressive emaciation, proliferative enteropathy, and mesenteric lymphadenitis. Paratuberculosis is endemic to many parts of the world and responsible for considerable economic losses. In this study, different types of paratuberculosis and MAP in sheep and goats were investigated in Inner Mongolia, a northern province in China contiguous with two countries and eight other provinces. A total of 4434 serum samples were collected from six cities in the western, central, and eastern regions of Inner Mongolia and analyzed using the ELISA test. In addition, tissue samples were collected from seven animals that were suspected to be infected with MAP. Finally, these tissues samples were analyzed by histopathological examination followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), IS1311 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PCR-REA), and a sequence analysis of five genes. Among all 4434 ruminant serum samples collected from the six cities in the western, central, and eastern regions of Inner Mongolia, 7.60% (337/4434) measured positive for the MAP antibody. The proportions of positive MAP antibody results for serum samples collected in the western, central, and eastern regions were 5.10% (105/2058), 6.63% (85/1282), and 13.44% (147/1094), respectively. For the seven suspected infected animals selected from the herd with the highest rate of positivity, the gross pathology and histopathology of the necropsied animals were found to be consistent with the pathological features of paratuberculosis. The PCR analysis further confirmed the diagnosis of paratuberculosis. The rest of the results demonstrated that herds of sheep and goats in Inner Mongolia were infected with both MAP type II and type III. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the two subtypes of MAP strains in sheep and goats in Inner Mongolia.

14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 3016-3023, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467691

RESUMO

The acupoint application of Euodiae Fructus at Yongquan(KI1) can significantly improve the sleep quality of patients with insomnia with berberine as the main effective component for the efficacy. Nineteen active compounds and 203 drug targets were screened out from Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP). After comparison with GeneCards and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man(OMIM), 24 common genes of diseases and drugs were obtained. STRING 11.0 was used to construct a protein-protein interaction(PPI) network of the overlapping genes, and Matthews correlation coefficient(MCC) was employed to screen the core genes, which were then subjected to enrichment analysis with gene ontology(GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes(KEGG). The results revealed that the main compounds of Euodiae Fructus, such as berberine and rutaecarpine, participated in the biological processes(such as neurotransmitter receptor activity) by regulating C-reactive protein(CRP), estrogen receptor 1(ESR1), 5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT) receptor, and interleukin-6(IL-6) to exert sedative, anxiolytic, and antidepressant effects. Sixty 4-week-old SPF mice were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, a positive drug(diazepam tablets) group, and low-, medium-, and high-dose berberine groups. Medication with corresponding drugs was performed for one week. The results demonstrated that berberine was potent in reducing the activities and standing times of mice, down-regulating the levels of CRP and IL-6 mRNA in the hypothalamus, and up-regulating the expression of 5-HT(P<0.01); however, no significant effect on ESR1 was observed. The network of Euodiae Fructus in treating insomnia was constructed by network pharmacology and verified by tests. The findings indicated that the therapeutic efficacy of Euodiae Fructus in treating insomnia was achieved by participating in multiple biological processes, such as neurotransmitter receptor activity, which provided a scientific basis for its clinical application.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Animais , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Ontologia Genética , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Camundongos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/genética
15.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; : AAC0047021, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491808

RESUMO

Eliminating the latent HIV reservoir remains a difficult problem for creating an HIV functional cure or achieving remission. The "block-and-lock" strategy aims to steadily suppress transcription of the viral reservoir and lock the HIV promoter in deep latency using latency-promoting agents (LPAs). However, to date, most of the investigated LPA candidates are not available for clinical trials, and some of them exhibit immune-related adverse reactions. The discovery and development of new, active, and safe LPA candidates for an HIV cure are necessary to eliminate residual HIV-1 viremia through the "block-and-lock" strategy. In this study, we demonstrated that a new small-molecule compound, Q308, silenced the HIV-1 provirus by inhibiting Tat-mediated gene transcription and selectively downregulating the expression levels of the facilitated chromatin transcription (FACT) complex. Strikingly, Q308 induced the preferential apoptosis in HIV-1 latently infected cells, indicating that Q308 may reduce the size of the viral reservoir and thus further prevent viral rebound. These findings highlight that Q308 is a novel and safe anti-HIV-1 inhibitor candidate for a functional cure.

16.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt B): 127200, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537644

RESUMO

A deoxidizing packing material (DPM) with an encapsulated deoxidizing agent (DA) was developed to construct the packed anodes of a trickle-bed microbial fuel cell (TB-MFC) for treating waste gas. The encapsulated DA can consume O2 in waste gas and increase the voltage output and power density (PD) of the constructed TB-MFC. The DPM effectively enables the circulating water in TB-MFC for maintaining a low level of dissolved oxygen for 80 h. The results revealed that when the concentration of isopropanol (IPA) in waste gas was 0.74 g/m3, the TB-MFC (DPM with DA) exhibited an IPA removal efficiency (RE) of up to 99.7%. When DPM with DA was used as the packing material of the TB-MFC (486.6 mW/m3), the PD was 2.54 times that obtained when using coke as the packing material (191.6 mW/m3). The next-generation sequencing results demonstrated that because the oxygen content of the MFC anode chamber decreased over time in the TB-MFC, the richness of anaerobic electrogens (Pseudoxanthomonas, Flavobacterium, and Ferruginibacter) in the packing materials was increased. These electrogens mainly attached to the DPM, and IPA-degraders appeared in the circulating water of the TB-MFC. This enabled the TB-MFC to simultaneously achieve a high voltage output and IPA RE.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536279

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) are susceptible to various infections. OBJECTIVE: We estimated the risk of herpes zoster (HZ) among individuals with DM compared to individuals in the general population. DATA SOURCES: We searched the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trails, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and PerioPath databases from their inception to January 30, 2021 for studies on the risk of HZ in individuals with DM. STUDY SELECTION: Two authors independently screened all articles identified. DATA EXTRACTION: The same two authors independently extracted the data. Four case-control studies and 12 cohort studies were included. DATA SYNTHESIS: Meta-analyses were performed using fixed and mixed-effects models. In the pooled analysis, individuals with DM had a higher risk of developing HZ (pooled relative risk: 1.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.21-1.57) than individuals in the general population. The results were consistent in subgroup analyses stratified by type of diabetes, age, and study design. In individuals with DM, cardiovascular disease had an additive effect on increasing the risk of HZ (pooled relative risk: 1.19, 95% confidence interval: 1.11-1.28). There was a linear dose-response association between age and the risk of HZ in individuals with DM. CONCLUSION: Individuals with DM have an increased risk of HZ compared to the general population. Varicella vaccination should be provided to individuals with DM regardless of their age, prioritizing older adults and those with cardiovascular disease. Varicella vaccination policies for individuals with DM should be updated based on the evidence.

18.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125954, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492872

RESUMO

Biodegradable (Bio) plastic films are widely viewed as promising alternative products of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films to minimize plastic debris accumulation and pollution in agroecosystems. Yet, this speculation indeed lacks of sufficient evidences. We conducted a landfill investigation on the aging characteristics of Bio and LDPE plastic films in maize field, and the effects on soil aggregate composition and carbon & nitrogen stocks. The degradation rate of Bio film was up to 41.1% while that of LDPE film was zero. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that the crack formation of Bio film had a pronounced domino effect, and FTIR showed that old Bio film displayed an extra wide peak threshold ranging from 3000 to 3500 cm-1. Particularly, the abundance of microplastics was elevated with the increased plastic residues, and the increment mostly resulted from Bio residues. Critically, plastic residues significantly lowered the soil macro-aggregates (>0.25 mm) proportion, while increasing that of micro-aggregates (0.1-0.25 mm) in LDPE, and silt/clay fraction (<0.1 mm) in Bio respectively. They significantly promoted total nitrogen content of the aggregates with the same size, but decreased the organic carbon content, dramatically lowering the C/N. Therefore, we first identified the fate of plastic film residues in agroecosystems and revealed the serious deficiencies of Bio plastic film.


Assuntos
Plásticos Biodegradáveis , Solo , Agricultura , Carbono , Ecossistema , Nitrogênio , Plásticos
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(17): 4334-4343, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581036

RESUMO

Xanthoceras sorbifolia, an excellent oil-rich woody species, has high comprehensive economic value in edible, medicinal, and ornamental fields. The chemical composition, pharmacological effect, and quality control of X. sorbifolia were introduced, and its development and application were reviewed in this study. As revealed by the previous research, the main chemical constituents of X. sorbifolia were triterpenoids, flavonoids, fatty acids, phenylpropanoids, steroids, phenolic acids, organic acids, etc. It possesses pharmacological effects, such as neuroprotection, bacteriostasis, anti-oxidation, anti-tumor, anti-inflammation, analgesia, anti-HIV, and anti-coagulation. X. sorbifolia is widely applied in medical, food, chemical industry, and other fields, and deserves in-depth research and development.


Assuntos
Sapindaceae , Triterpenos , Anti-Inflamatórios , Flavonoides , Pesquisa
20.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490953

RESUMO

The nutritional level of vitamin D may affect musculoskeletal health. We have reported that vitamin D is a pivotal protector against tissue injuries by suppressing local renin-angiotensin system (RAS). This study aimed to explore the role of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the protection against muscle atrophy and the underlying mechanism. A cross-sectional study on participants (n = 1034) in Shanghai (China) was performed to analyze the association between vitamin D level and the risk of low muscle strength as well as to detect the circulating level of angiotensin II (Ang II). In animal studies, dexamethasone (Dex) was applied to induce muscle atrophy in wild-type (WT) and VDR-null mice, and the mice with the induction of muscle atrophy were treated with calcitriol for 10 days. The skeletal muscle cell line C2C12 and the muscle satellite cells were applied in in vitro studies. The increased risk of low muscle strength was correlated to a lower level of vitamin D (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.58) accompanied by an elevation in serum Ang II level. Ang II impaired the myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts as illustrated by the decrease in the area of myotubes and the downregulation of myogenic factors (myosin heavy chain [MHC] and myogenic differentiation factor D [MyoD]). The phenotype of muscle atrophy induced by Dex and Ang II was aggravated by VDR ablation in mice and in muscle satellite cells, respectively, and mediated by RAS and its downstream phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/forkhead box O1 (PI3K/Akt/FOXO1) signaling. Calcitriol treatment exhibited beneficial effects on muscle function as demonstrated by the increased weight-loaded swimming time, grip strength, and fiber area, and improved fiber type composition via regulating ubiquitin ligases and their substrates MHC and MyoD through suppressing renin/Ang II axis. Taken together, VDR protects against skeletal muscle atrophy by suppressing RAS. Vitamin D could be a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of skeletal muscle atrophy. © 2021 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).

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