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1.
J Cell Physiol ; 236(2): 1469-1480, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776539

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis is a severe health problem worldwide, and it is characterized by the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and excessive deposition of collagen. Prolonged arsenic exposure can induce HSCs activation and liver fibrosis. In the present study, the results showed that chronic NaAsO2 ingestion could result in liver fibrosis and oxidative stress in Sprague-Dawley rats, along with representative collagen deposition and HSCs activation. In addition, the inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α)-endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress pathway was activated, and the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 (NOX4) was upregulated in rat livers. Simultaneously, the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) could induce HSCs activation, and NOX4 played an important role in generating ROS in vitro. Moreover, ER stress occurred with HSCs activation at the same time under NaAsO2 exposure, and during ER stress, the IRE1α pathway was responsible for NOX4 activation. Therefore, inhibition of IRE1α activation could attenuate the HSCs activation induced by NaAsO2 . In conclusion, the present study manifested that inorganic arsenic exposure could activate HSCs through IRE1α/NOX4-mediated ROS generation.

2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111271, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920314

RESUMO

Antimony has been listed as a critical pollutant in many countries because of its toxic effects on earth organisms. In this study, titanate nanosheets (TNS) were prepared with a high specific surface area by alkaline hydrothermal method. The adsorption mechanism and adsorption capacity of removing Sb(III) from aqueous solutions with TNS as an adsorbent were investigated for the first time. The FTIR and XPS analysis indicated that the interlayer sodium ions of TNS were responsible for Sb(III) adsorption. The batch experiments were conducted on solution pH, adsorbent dosage, initial concentration and reaction time. The results exhibited that when pH was 2, the removal rate was about 90% with the dosage of TNS was 0.1 g/L. The adsorption reaction was exceedingly rapid in the initial 5 min, and then the reaction was in equilibrium after about 30 min. The experimental data were better fitted with Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption amount could attain 232.56 mg/g. The experiments showed that TNS had outstanding anti-interference performance to common cations. Therefore, TNS were considered to be an excellent material for removing Sb(III) from aqueous solutions.

3.
Mol Biol Rep ; 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190199

RESUMO

Lonicera japonica is used in Chinese herbal medicines with a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties associated with chlorogenic acid, flavonoid and iridoid. The biosynthesis of these compounds could be affected by genetic inheritance and epigenetic modification. However, the mechanisms that regulate the expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of these compounds are rarely known. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the biosynthesis gene expression of these compounds was related to histone H3K4 and H3K9 methylation levels. These active compounds content of L. japonica were measured by UPLC-MS/MS. H3K4me3 showed a positive correlation with chlorogenic acid and loganic acid content, and H3K9me positively correlated with luteolin content. The correlation between histone methylation levels and the levels of luteolin and loganic acid in L. japonica from different producing areas validate the regulatory role of histone methylation in biosynthesis of bioactive compounds. Our study demonstrated a potential regulatory network of H3K9/H3K4 methylation to gene expression and content of secondary metabolites, and provided a basis for understanding the mechanism underlying the variation of major bioactive compounds in L. japonica.

4.
Dalton Trans ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196729

RESUMO

Ethylene production is an important and direct indicator related to the development of the petrochemical industry in a country. However, the separation and purification of ethylene is an extremely energy-consuming process. In this review, the latest progress in the purification of ethylene using metal organic frameworks (MOFs), a new type of physical adsorbent, is summarized according to four classifications of pore engineering, including pore surface functionalization, molecular sieving, controlled framework softness and dynamic pore-dominated molecular diffusion. Finally, the current challenges and future prospects in this field are also discussed.

5.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 42(5): 686-690, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131525

RESUMO

Hereditary angioedema(HAE)is a rare,hereditary disease characterized by recurrent subcutaneous and submucosal edema.Known genes associated with the pathogenesis of HAE include C1 esterase inhibitor gene,FⅫ gene,plasminogen gene,and angiopoietin 1 gene.Based on the known gene mutations,this review analyzes the effects of these mutations on the functions of protein products to figure out the possible pathogenic mechanism,so as to provide references for further investigations on the pathogenesis of HAE and seeking new prevention and treatment approaches.

6.
Environ Pollut ; : 116051, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189448

RESUMO

Bisphenol AF (BPAF) is an emerging environmental pollutant. Although BPAF is widely spread in the environment and human surroundings, its interference with ovarian function has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism underlying the effect of BPAF on the apoptosis of KGN cells, which maintain the physiological characteristics of ovarian granulosa cells. Our results indicated that BPAF induces KGN cell apoptosis in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Meanwhile, BPAF exposure significantly promoted the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins, including Bax, Bid and Bak, while the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins, such as Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1, decreased significantly. We further detected a significant increase in intracellular ROS levels in response to high concentrations of BPAF exposure. After blocking the corresponding pathway, it was found that ROS mediates ASK1 and JNK activation. Furthermore, the role of Ca2+ overload and estrogen receptor ß (ERß) in BPAF-induced KGN cell apoptosis was also confirmed by using inhibitors. These results suggest that BPAF has potential reproductive toxicity for females, and ROS-ASK1-JNK axis may play a key role in BPAF-induced ovarian dysfunction. In addition, Ca2+ overload and ERß pathway activation may also be an important mechanism of reproductive toxicity of BPAF.

7.
J Autoimmun ; : 102562, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168359

RESUMO

Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a rare autoinflammatory disease with systemic involvement, and its pathophysiology remains unclear. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in the Chinese population have revealed an association between AOSD and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus; however, causal variants in the MHC remain undetermined. In the present study, we identified independent amino-acid polymorphisms in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules that are associated with Han Chinese patients with AOSD by fine-mapping the MHC locus. Through conditional analyses, we identified position 34 in HLA-DQα1 (p = 1.44 × 10-14) and Asn in HLA-DRß1 position 37 (p = 5.12 × 10-11) as the major determinants for AOSD. Moreover, we identified the associations for three main HLA class II alleles: HLA-DQB1*06:02 (OR = 2.70, p = 3.02 × 10-14), HLA-DRB1*15:01 (OR = 2.44, p = 3.66 × 10-13), and HLA-DQA1*01:02 (OR = 1.97, p = 1.09 × 10-9). This study reveals the relationship between functional variations in the class II HLA region and AOSD, implicating the MHC locus in the pathogenesis of AOSD.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168709

RESUMO

Transmembrane channel-like protein 1 (TMC1) and lipoma HMGIC fusion partner-like 5 (LHFPL5) are recognized as two critical components of the mechanotransduction complex in inner-ear hair cells. However, the physical and functional interactions of TMC1 and LHFPL5 remain largely unexplored. We examined the interaction between TMC1 and LHFPL5 by using multiple approaches, including our recently developed ultrasensitive microbead-based single-molecule pulldown (SiMPull) assay. We demonstrate that LHFPL5 physically interacts with and stabilizes TMC1 in both heterologous expression systems and in the soma and hair bundle of hair cells. Moreover, the semidominant deafness mutation D572N in human TMC1 (D569N in mouse TMC1) severely disrupted LHFPL5 binding and destabilized TMC1 expression. Thus, our findings reveal previously unrecognized physical and functional interactions of TMC1 and LHFPL5 and provide insights into the molecular mechanism by which the D572N mutation causes deafness. Notably, these findings identify a missing link in the currently known physical organization of the mechanotransduction macromolecular complex. Furthermore, this study has demonstrated the power of the microbead-based SiMPull assay for biochemical investigation of rare cells such as hair cells.

9.
Food Chem ; : 128482, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160770

RESUMO

Cyanidin-3-glucoside is a major anthocyanin in legumes, black rice, and purple potato, and has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In the present study, the effect of acylation on cyanidin-3-glucoside lipophilicity, stability, and antioxidant capacity was investigated. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was enzymatically acylated through transesterification with fatty acid esters to produce three monoacylated cyanidin-3-glucoside esters, cyanidin-3-(6″-n-octanoyl)-glucoside, cyanidin-3-(6″-lauroyl)-glucoside, and cyanidin-3-(6″-myristoyl)-glucoside. Cyanidin-3-(6″-n-octanoyl)-glucoside had the highest thermostability and photostability of the three cyanidin-3-glucoside esters. While the in vitro antioxidant activity of cyanidin-3-(6″-n-octanoyl)-glucoside was 7.5%-14.3% lower than that of cyanidin-3-glucoside (p < 0.05), its cellular antioxidant activity increased by 33.3% (p < 0.05). Further, while cyanidin-3-(6″-lauroyl)-glucoside had lower stability and in vitro antioxidant activity than that of cyanidin-3-(6″-n-octanoyl)-glucoside, its cellular antioxidant capacity was 125.9% and 69.4% higher than cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-(6″-n-octanoyl)-glucoside, respectively (p < 0.05). This study demonstrated that transesterification can be used to improve the stability and in vivo antioxidant activity of cyanidin-3-glucoside.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226556

RESUMO

To investigate the effectiveness of different permeable bricks on the pollutants from urban rainfall runoff, three common used bricks (ceramic brick, cement brick, and steel slag brick) were selected and applied to study their decontamination performance. The influencing factors such as rainfall intensity and contaminant concentrations were investigated. Then the ultrapure water was used to wash the permeable brick to research the pollution status and cleaning characteristics by monitoring the water quality of the rinsing water. Suspended solids (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd) in the influent and effluent were measured. The results showed the following: (I) The upper layer of the brick may play a more critical role in purification process; the uniform and dense pore distribution of ceramic permeable brick was instrumental in the retention of particulates. (II) Contaminant concentration and rainfall intensity had a great influence on pollutants with lower removal rate and had little effect on pollutants with higher removal rate. (III) Non-sintered bricks containing a certain amount of cement increased the pH after filtration. (IV) The removal performance of permeable brick for dissolved pollutants such as COD, NH4-N, and TN was inferior to that for SS, TP, and heavy metals since the discrepancy in removal mechanism of pollutants. The study could offer a new perspective for the decontamination research of pervious bricks.

11.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 30(24): 127659, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137375

RESUMO

A novel series of deoxyvasicinone-tetrahydro-beta-carboline hybrids were synthesized and evaluated as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and ß-amyloid peptide (Aß) aggregation inhibitors for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The results revealed that the derivatives had multifunctional profiles, including AChE inhibition, Aß1-42 aggregation inhibition, and neuroprotective properties. Inspiringly, hybrids 8b and 8d displayed excellent inhibitory activities against hAChE (IC50 = 0.93 and 1.08 nM, respectively) and Aß1-42 self-aggregation (IC50 = 19.71 and 2.05 µM, respectively). In addition, 8b and 8d showed low cytotoxicity and good neuroprotective activity against Aß1-42-induced damage in SH-SY5Y cells.

12.
J Hazard Mater ; : 124258, 2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153791

RESUMO

Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are attracting much interest due to their potential toxicity and ubiquity in consumer products. However, understanding of pristine and transformed ZnO NPs impact on soil microbial communities is still limited. Here, we explored changes in the microbial communities of soils treated with pristine and sulfidized ZnO NPs (s-ZnO NPs), and their corresponding Zn ions (ZnSO4) for 30 and 90 days exposures at 100 and 500 mg Zn kg-1. The similarity in bacterial community responses was observed between ZnO NPs and s-ZnO NPs, and these Zn treatments significantly affected the bacterial communities at 90 days, which exhibited distinct patterns compared to ZnSO4. The single-time tested DTPA and H2O extractable Zn ions could not fully explain the observed ZnO NPs and s-ZnO NPs impact on bacterial communities. The two most dominant phylum Nitrospirae and Actinobacteria, associated with the reduction of NH4+-N and dissolved organic carbon, demonstrated significant changes in soils exposed to ZnO NPs and s-ZnO NPs. This suggests the potential long-term impact of transformed ZnO NPs on soil carbon and nitrogen cycling. For fungal communities, we did not find the distinct response patterns of fungal communities between nanoparticulate and ionic Zn exposures.

13.
J Org Chem ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140953

RESUMO

A Ru(II)-catalyzed bisallylation of imidazopyridines with vinylcyclopropanes or vinyl cyclic carbonate has been successfully realized. Notably, pharmacophore imidazopyridine was utilized as an intrinsic directing group, which gave access to value-added bisallylated products in high yields via double tandem C-H and C-C/C-O activation. The current methodology was featured with broad substrate scope, good functional group compatibility, and operational simplicity.

14.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e2000660, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141510

RESUMO

SCOPE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid-ß (Aß) related imbalance, tau-hyperphosphorylation, and neuroinflammation, in which Aß and neuroinflammation could induce brain insulin resistance (IR). Gut microbiome disorder is correlated with inflammation in AD. As of yet, there are no effective treatments clinically. Thus, we focus on the potential benefit of quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (Q3G), a pharmacologically active flavonol glucuronide, on AD treatment by regulating brain IR and the gut microbiome. METHODS AND RESULTS: AD mice model built through intracerebroventricular injection of Aß1-42 and AD cell model developed through the SH-SY5Y cell line and Aß1-42 were used to explore the protective effects of Q3G on AD. Neurobehavioral test, brain insulin signaling pathway, and high-throughput pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA were assessed. Data showed that Q3G attenuated neuroinflammation and brain IR in Aß1-42 -injected mice and relieved apoptosis in Aß1-42 -treated SH-SY5Y cells by interrupting the downstream insulin signaling. Q3G ameliorated Aß accumulation and Tau phosphorylation, restored CREB and BDNF levels in the hippocampus, and reversed Aß1-42 -induced cognitive impairment. Besides, Q3G restored Aß1-42 -induced reduction of short-chain fatty acids and gut microbiota dysbiosis. CONCLUSION: Q3G could alleviate brain IR through directly acting on the brain or modulating the gut-brain axis, ultimately to relieve Aß1-42 -induced cognitive dysfunction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(10): e0008776, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Aedes albopictus is an important vector of ZIKV worldwide. To date, most experiments have focused on the vertical transmission of ZIKV in Ae. aegypti, while studies on Ae. albopictus are very limited. To explore vertical transmission in Ae. albopictus, a series of laboratory studies were carried out. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, Ae. albopictus were blood-fed with ZIKV-infectious blood, and the ovaries and offspring viral infection rates were analyzed by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). ZIKV was detected in the ovaries and oviposited eggs in two gonotrophic cycles. The minimum filial egg infection rates in two gonotrophic cycles were 2.06% and 0.69%, and the effective population transmission rate was 1.87%. The hatching, pupation, and emergence rates of infected offspring were not significantly different from those of uninfected offspring, indicating that ZIKV did not prevent the offspring from completing the growth and development process. ZIKV was detected in three of thirteen C57BL/6 suckling mice bitten by ZIKV-positive F1 females, and the viremia persisted for at least seven days. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ZIKV can be vertically transmitted in Ae. albopictus via transovarial transmission. The vertical transmission rates in F1 eggs and adults were 2.06% and 1.87%, respectively. Even though the vertical transmission rates were low, the female mosquitoes infected via the congenital route horizontally transmitted ZIKV to suckling mice through bloodsucking. This is the first experimental evidence of offspring with vertically transmitted ZIKV initiating new horizontal transmission. The present study deepens the understanding of the vertical transmission of flaviviruses in Aedes mosquitoes and sheds light on the prevention and control of mosquito-borne diseases.

16.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125246

RESUMO

Stable electron transport materials (ETMs) with fewer surface defects and proper energy level alignments with halide perovskite active layers are required for efficient perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with long-term durability. Here, two-dimensional van der Waals mixed valence tin oxides Sn2O3 and Sn3O4 are controllably synthesized and applied as ETMs for planar PSCs. The synthesized Sn2O3 and Sn3O4 have size of 5-20 nm and disperse well in water as stable colloids for months. Both Sn2O3 and Sn3O4 exhibit typical n-type semiconductor energy band structures, low trap density, and suitable energy level alignments with halide perovskites. Steady-state power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 22.36% and 21.83% are obtained for Sn2O3-based and Sn3O4-based planar PSCs. In addition, the half cells without hole transport materials and back electrodes show good UV-stability with average PCE of 99.0% and 95.7% for Sn2O3-based and Sn3O4-based devices remaining after 1000 h of ultraviolet soaking with an intensity of 70 mW cm-2.

17.
J Surg Oncol ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to analyze the association between health-related quality of life and treatment modality among esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) survivors. METHODS: Patients completed the EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-OES18 at baseline and follow-up. A time to deterioration model analysis was performed to compare longitudinal EORTC QLQ-C30/QLQ-OES18 data between surgery alone and surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy. RESULTS: For EORTC QLQ-C30 scale, compared with surgery alone, significant delays in time to deterioration in role functioning (16.05 months vs. 15.00 months; p = .045), cognitive functioning (20.80 months vs. 16.26 months; p = .017), social functioning (19.09 months vs. 12.35 months; p = .001), and dyspnea (18.53 months vs. 14.62 months; p = .011) were observed for surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy. For QLQ-OES18 scale, compared with surgery alone, significant delays in time to deterioration in dysphagia (13.75 months vs. 8.16 months; p = .005), choking when swallowing (20.67 months vs. 15.08 months; p = .001), and dry mouth (21.78 months vs. 17.28 months; p = .039) were observed for surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who received postoperative chemotherapy had significant delay in time to deterioration in multiple ESCC-related symptoms, functions of EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-OES18.

18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111429, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039870

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely distributed in the environment and human surroundings and is closely related to the occurrence of many chronic diseases including female infertility. Although BPA-induced granulosa cell apoptosis has been widely reported, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we evaluated the induction effect of BPA exposure on apoptosis and mechanisms of regulation in KGN cells (a human granulosa-like tumor cell line). Our results indicated that BPA induced apoptosis of KGN cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. BPA exposure significantly promoted the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. We also observed that high concentrations of BPA significantly promoted the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium ion (Ca2+) accumulation. The involvement of ROS and Ca2+ in BPA-induced KGN cell apoptosis was confirmed by pretreatment with NAC (an antioxidant) and BAPTA-AM (a calcium chelator). After inhibitors pretreatment to block the corresponding signaling pathways, it was found that BPA-induced phosphorylation of JNK and ASK1 proteins and apoptosis of KGN cells were significantly inhibited. We pretreated with G15 (a GPER inhibitor) and found that BPA-induced ROS generation and Ca2+ accumulation and apoptosis were significantly inhibited. These results suggest that BPA exposure induces KGN cell apoptosis through GPER-dependent activation of the ROS/Ca2+-ASK1-JNK signaling pathway. Our study provides mechanisms by which BPA induced apoptosis of granulosa cells and ovarian dysfunction.

19.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(11): 8419-8427, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033902

RESUMO

AarF domain containing kinase 4 (ADCK4) is identified as a candidate gene associated with hereditary nephrotic syndrome (NS). Kruppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) is reported to promote podocyte survival by blocking the ERK/p38 MAPK pathways. Both ADCK4 and KLF5 are involved in the occurrence and development of podocyte disease, but their interaction remains unclear. Firstly, we found that the mRNA levels of ADCK4 and KLF5 decreased in NS patients, and both levels showed an obvious linear relationship. Secondly, we cloned the ADCK4 promoter region and examined its promoter activity in Hela, A549, and HEK 293 cell lines. Deletion analysis showed that the region - 116/- 4 relative to the transcriptional start site (TSS) was the core region of ADCK4 promoter. Thirdly, mutation analysis showed that putative binding sites for KLF5 contributed to the ADCK4 promoter activity. In HEK293 cells, we found that KLF5 upregulated the mRNA and protein levels of ADCK4. Finally, our chromatin immunoprecipitation assay found that KLF5 could bind to the specific region of ADCK4 promoter. These results showed that KLF5 can positively regulate the transcriptional activity of ADCK4.

20.
Mol Ther ; 2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002417

RESUMO

Ferroptosis is primarily caused by intracellular iron catalytic activity and lipid peroxidation. The potential interplay between ferroptosis and apoptosis remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the expression of a nuclear long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), LINC00618, is reduced in human leukemia and strongly increased by vincristine (VCR) treatment. Furthermore, LINC00618 promotes apoptosis by increasing the levels of BCL2-Associated X (BAX) and cleavage of caspase-3. LINC00618 also accelerates ferroptosis by increasing the levels of lipid reactive oxygen species (ROS) and iron, two surrogate markers of ferroptosis, and decreasing the expression of solute carrier family 7 member 11 (SLC7A11). Interestingly, VCR-induced ferroptosis and apoptosis are promoted by LINC00618, and LINC00618 accelerates ferroptosis in a manner dependent upon apoptosis. LINC00618 attenuates the expression of lymphoid-specific helicase (LSH), and LSH enhances the transcription of SLC7A11 after the recruitment to the promoter regions of SLC7A11, further inhibiting ferroptosis. Knowledge of these mechanisms demonstrates that lncRNAs related to ferroptosis and apoptosis are critical to leukemogenesis and chemotherapy.

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