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1.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909977

RESUMO

Carbon nanomaterial-based cancer therapy has flourished for decades. However, their practical applications on clinical bases still pose a challenge to address the dilemma of metabolism in vivo. In this study, an attempt is made to design a degradable carbon-silica nanocomposite (CSN) with immunoadjuvant property, which could undergo an enzyme-free degradation process into small particles (~5 nm) and facilitate its clinical application. CSN harbors photothermal and photodynamic properties, and meanwhile as an immunoadjuvant, would help to generate the tumor-associated antigens and mature dendritic cells (DCs). Potent antitumor effects have been achieved in both 4T1 and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumor models with tumor inhibition efficiencies of 93.2% and 92.5%, respectively. We believe that this strategy will benefit to the possible clinical translation and carbon-silica nanomaterial-based cancer therapy.

2.
Oncogene ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911619

RESUMO

Dysregulated metabolism contributes to cancer initiation and progression, but the key drivers of these pathways are just being discovered. Here, we report a critical role for proline catabolism in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) is activated to reduce proline levels by the chromatin remodeling factor lymphoid-specific helicase (LSH), an epigenetic driver of NSCLC. PRODH promotes NSCLC tumorigenesis by inducing epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and IKKα-dependent inflammatory genes, including CXCL1, LCN2, and IL17C. Consistently, proline addition promotes the expression of these inflammatory genes, as well as EMT, tumor cell proliferation, and migration in vitro and tumor growth in vivo, while the depletion or inhibition of PRODH blocks these phenotypes. In summary, we reveal an essential metabolic pathway amenable to targeting in NSCLC.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915961

RESUMO

Zygosaccharomyces rouxii referred as Yeast S is an important microorganism widely applied in traditional fermented food to accelerate flavor formation. Z. rouxii 3-2 referred as Yeast S 3-2 constructed previously is a new strain having higher salt tolerance than wild type. In this study, salt stress response of synthesis key flavor metabolites 3-methylthiopropanol, 2-phenylethyl alcohol, and isoamyl acetate in Yeast S and S 3-2 were investigated based on SPME-GC-MS and RT-qPCR. Analysis of GC-MS data showed that high salinity led to increase the contents of 3-methylthiopropanol and 2-phenylethyl alcohol both in Yeast S and Yeast S 3-2, while inhibited the synthesis of isoamyl acetate, and the induced effect on Yeast S 3-2 was more pronounced than Yeast S. Furthermore, the RT-qPCR results revealed that the salinity could enhance the genes expression of ARO10 and PDC1, and stronger effect on Yeast S 3-2 than S. However, the gene expression of AFT1 was reduced in high-salt culture conditions, which was consistent with the results of GC-MS data. The results presented in this study can provide theoretical support of Z. rouxii 3-2 application during food fermentation.

4.
J Cell Biochem ; 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916291

RESUMO

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the related apoptosis and inflammation damage play key roles in osteoarthritis development. The aim of the present work was to investigate the exact role and potential underlying mechanism of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) in rat chondrocytes exposed to interleukin-Iß (IL-1ß). We observed that IL-1ß stimulation resulted in an apparent enhancement in PKM2 expression. Additionally, loss of PKM2 evidently ascended cell viability in response to IL-1ß exposure. Simultaneously, elimination of PKM2 manifestly repressed IL-1ß-stimulated chondrocyte apoptosis, concomitant with attenuated in the proapoptotic protein markers Bax and cleaved caspase-3, and elevated the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. In the meanwhile, knockdown of PKM2 ameliorated ER stress in IL-1ß-treated chondrocytes, as evidenced by reduced expression of the ER stress-associated proteins GRP78, CHOP, and cleaved caspase-12. Furthermore, PKM2 silencing protected chondrocytes against IL-1ß-triggered inflammatory response, as reflected by the downregulated release of proinflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and prostaglandin E2, as well as decreased nitric oxide generation. More important, abrogating PKM2 expression caused a marked decline in Rspo2 expression, and subsequently blocked Wnt/ß-catenin signaling. Mechanistically, the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling activator Licl effectively impeded the beneficial effects of PKM2 ablation on IL-1ß-stimulated apoptosis and inflammatory response. These findings collectively implicated that PKM2 inhibition protected against ER stress-mediated cell apoptosis and inflammatory injury in rat chondrocytes stimulated with IL-1ß by inactivating Rspo2-mediated Wnt/ß-catenin pathway, and may represented a novel therapeutic target for osteoarthritis.

5.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898893

RESUMO

Polyoxotungstate supported titanocene {Cp2Ti}2+ clusters H6{K8(Cp2Ti)2P4W24O88(PO4)2}·14H2O (1), H6[Na2P4W14O58(Cp2Ti)2]·12H2O (2), and H2[K6{Cp2Ti}{PW9O33(WO2)}2{NC5H3(COOK)2}(NC5H3(CH3)COOK)·22H2O] (3) have been synthesized, and their single crystal X-ray structures have revealed unprecedented and intriguing structural features. The synthesized compounds have been characterized by various spectroscopic techniques including UV-vis, cyclic voltammogram, NMR, ESI-MS, and inductive coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) in solution and also by IR, TGA, and diffuse reflectance in the solid state. Clusters 1 and 2 are rare examples of lacunary POM supported titanocene clusters obtained by incorporating various phosphorus heteroatoms to form elusive phosphotungstate assemblies, whereas 3 is an unprecedented organometallic as well as heteroleptic pyridyl functionalized POM. Clusters 1-3 show transient photocurrent ON/OFF behavior upon UV-light irradiation and also exhibit characteristic TiIV/III intravalence electron transfer. This behavior is also established by their cyclic voltammograms in mixed phosphate buffers (Na2HPO4/NaH2PO4) which show the evidence of POM supported {Cp2Ti}2+/+ species in their redox solution. Furthermore, ESR line broadening is also observed in these clusters at room temperature, a fact which also confirms the formation of partially reduced/oxidized {Cp2Ti}2+/+ species leading to TiIV/III intravalence electron transfers within all three clusters. The {Cp2Ti}2+ decorated polyoxometalate cluster 3 shows improved transient photocurrent behavior which may be due to the presence of pyridyl carboxyl ions which provide better surface contact for the cluster molecule through the carboxylate moiety to the ITO electrode.

6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 79, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911589

RESUMO

Mice are widely used as experimental models for gut microbiome (GM) studies, yet the majority of mouse GM members remain uncharacterized. Here, we report the construction of a mouse gut microbial biobank (mGMB) that contains 126 species, represented by 244 strains that have been deposited in the China General Microorganism Culture Collection. We sequence and phenotypically characterize 77 potential new species and propose their nomenclatures. The mGMB includes 22 and 17 species that are significantly enriched in ob/ob and wild-type C57BL/6J mouse cecal samples, respectively. The genomes of the 126 species in the mGMB cover 52% of the metagenomic nonredundant gene catalog (sequence identity ≥ 60%) and represent 93-95% of the KEGG-Orthology-annotated functions of the sampled mouse GMs. The microbial and genome data assembled in the mGMB enlarges the taxonomic characterization of mouse GMs and represents a useful resource for studies of host-microbe interactions and of GM functions associated with host health and diseases.

7.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924693

RESUMO

Lung cancer (LC) remains the leading cause of mortality from malignant tumors worldwide. In our previous study, we surveyed both IgG and IgM-bound serological biomarkers and validated a panel of IgG-bound autoantigens for early LC diagnosis with 50% sensitivity at 90% specificity. To further improve the performance of these serological biomarkers, we surveyed HuProt arrays, comprised of 20, 240 human proteins, for IgA-bound autoantigens since IgAs are a major immunoglobulin isotype in the lung. Integrating with IgG-bound autoantigens, we discovered and validated a combined biomarker panel using ELISA-format tests. Specifically, in Phase I, we obtained IgA-based autoimmune profiles of 69 early stage LC patients, 30 healthy subjects and 25 patients with lung benign lesions (LBL) on HuProt arrays, and identified 28 proteins as candidate autoantigens that were significantly associated with early stage LC. In Phase II, we re-purified the autoantigens and converted them into an ELISA-format testing to profile an additional large cohort, comprised of 136 early stage LC patients, 58 healthy individuals, and 29 LBL patients. Integration of IgG autoimmune profiles allowed us to identify and validate a biomarker panel of three IgA autoantigens (i.e., BCL7A, and TRIM33 and MTERF4) and three IgG autoantigens (i.e., CTAG1A, DDX4 and MAGEC2) for diagnosis of early stage LC with 73.5% sensitivity at >85% specificity. In Phase III, the performance of this biomarker panel was confirmed with an independent cohort, comprised of 88 early stage LC patients, 18 LBL patients, and 36 healthy subjects. Finally, a blind test on 178 serum samples was conducted to confirm the performance of the biomarker panel. In summary, this study demonstrates for the first time that an integrated panel of IgA/IgG autoantigens can serve as valuable biomarkers to further improve the performance of early diagnosis of LC.

8.
Front Med ; 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950345

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the correlation between serum miR-154-5p and urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the association with biomarkers of inflammation and fibrosis in diabetic kidney disease (DKD). A total of 390 patients with T2DM were divided into three groups: normal albuminuria (UACR < 30 mg/g, n = 136, NA), microalbuminuria (UACR at 30-300 mg/g, n = 132, MA), and clinical albuminuria (UACR > 300 mg/g, n = 122, CA). Circulating miR-154-5p, inflammatory (C-reactive protein (CRP); erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR); and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and fibrotic markers (vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF); transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1); and fibronectin (FN)), and other biochemical indicators were assessed via real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and chemiluminescence assay in patients with T2DM and 138 control subjects (NC). UACR, miR-154-5p, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum creatinine (sCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), ESR, CRP, VEGF, TNF-α, TGF-ß1, and FN were significantly higher and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was significantly lower in NA, MA, and CA groups than in NC subjects (P < 0.05). Elevated levels of UACR and miR-154-5p were directly correlated with HbA1c, sCr, BUN, ESR, CRP, VEGF, TNF-α, TGF-ß1, and FN and negatively correlated with eGFR (P < 0.05). miR-154-5p, HbA1c, sCr, BUN, eGFR, ESR, CRP, VEGF, TNF-α, TGF-ß1, and FN were important factors affecting UACR. These findings indicated that elevated serum miR-154-5p is significantly correlated with high UACR in patients with T2DM and may offer a novel reference for the early diagnosis of DKD.

9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(2)2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952240

RESUMO

An a priori map is often unavailable for a mobile robot in a new environment. In a large-scale environment, relying on manual guidance to construct an environment map will result in a huge workload. Hence, an autonomous exploration algorithm is necessary for the mobile robot to complete the exploration actively. This study proposes an autonomous exploration and mapping method based on an incremental caching topology-grid hybrid map (TGHM). Such an algorithm can accomplish the exploration task with high efficiency and high coverage of the established map. The TGHM is a fusion of a topology map, containing the information gain and motion cost for exploration, and a grid map, representing the established map for navigation and localization. At the beginning of one exploration round, the method of candidate target point generation based on geometry rules are applied to extract the candidates quickly. Then, a TGHM is established, and the information gain is evaluated for each candidate topology node on it. Finally, the node with the best evaluation value is selected as the next target point and the topology map is updated after each motion towards it as the end of this round. Simulations and experiments were performed to benchmark the proposed algorithm in robot autonomous exploration and map construction.

10.
Antiviral Res ; : 104707, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953156

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) NS2B-NS3 protease is a validated antiviral target as it is essential for maturation of viral proteins. However, its negatively charged active site hinders the development of orthosteric small-molecule inhibitors. Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) is a powerful tool to generate novel chemical starting points against difficult drug targets. In this study, we screened a fragment compound library against the Zika protease using a primary thermal shift assay and identified twenty-two fragments which (bind to and) stabilize the protease. We then determined the X-ray crystal structures of two hits from different classes, all of which bind to the S1 pocket next to the protease active site. We confirmed that these two fragments bind to the protease without inducing significant conformational changes using solution NMR spectroscopy. These fragment scaffolds serve as the starting point for subsequent lead compound development.

11.
Org Lett ; 22(1): 190-193, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850762

RESUMO

A straightforward synthesis of highly enantioenriched 5,6-dihydro-4H-1,2-oxazines is realized by Pd-catalyzed asymmetric carboetherification of γ,δ-alkenyl oximes with (hetero)aryl and alkenyl halides in the presence of a commercially available bisphosphine ligand. The enantioenriched products can be facilely converted to functionalized alcohols with high fidelity of chiral transfer.

12.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 358, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No previous study has investigated the association between oolong tea consumption and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we aim to elucidate the association between oolong tea consumption and ESCC and its joint effects with a novel composite index. METHODS: In a hospital-based case-control study, 646 cases of ESCC patients and 646 sex and age matched controls were recruited. A composite index was calculated to evaluate the role of demographic characteristics and life exposure factors in ESCC. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate the point estimates between oolong tea consumption and risk of ESCC. RESULTS: No statistically significant association was found between oolong tea consumption and ESCC (OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 0.94-2.05). However, drinking hot oolong tea associated with increased risk of ESCC (OR = 1.60, 95% Cl: 1.06-2.41). Furthermore, drinking hot oolong tea increased ESCC risk in the high-risk group (composite index> 0.55) (OR = 3.14, 95% CI: 1.93-5.11), but not in the low-risk group (composite index≤0.55) (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.74-1.83). Drinking warm oolong tea did not influence the risk of ESCC. CONCLUSIONS: No association between oolong tea consumption and risk of ESCC were found, however, drinking hot oolong tea significantly increased the risk of ESCC, especially in high-risk populations.

13.
Infect Agent Cancer ; 14: 37, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832086

RESUMO

Background: It has been reported that lncRNA MAGI2-AS3 can promote many types of cancer, such as breast cancer and bladder cancer, by regulating cell behaviors, such a proliferation, invasion, and migration. However, its role in cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) is unclear. This study aims to investigate the role of MAGI2-AS3 in CSCC. Methods: Sixty-four CSCC patients (36 to 68 years, 46.3 ± 5.1 years) out of 136 CSCC patients admitted by Shengjing hospital affiliated to China Medical University from June 2010 to October 2013 were included in the present study. Among the 64 enrolled patients, 20 were HPV-16 positive cases, 24 were HPV-18 positive cases and 20 were HPV negative. CSCC and non-tumor biopsies from CSCC patients as well as C-33A cell lines were used. Cells were transfected with MAGI2-AS3 and CDK6 expression vectors as well as with MAGI2-AS3 siRNA to analyze gene interactions. Cell cycle analysis was performed to analyze the effects of transfections on cell cycle progression. qPCR and western blot were applied to analyze gene expression. Paired t-test and ANOVA (one-way) combined with Tukey test were used for data comparisons. Survival analysis was performed by plotting and comparing survival curves. Results: qRT-PCR results showed that CDK6 and MAGI2-AS3 were both up-regulated in CSCC and positively correlated with each other. MAGI2-AS3 and CDK6 expression was not significantly affected by HPV infections. High levels of MAGI2-AS3 were associated with the poor survival of CSCC patients. In CSCC cells, MAGI2-AS3 over-expression up-regulated CDK6, while MAGI2-AS3 siRNA down-regulated CDK6. In CCK-8 assay, MAGI2-AS3 and CDK6 over-expression led to increased proliferation rate of CSCC cells by reducing CDK6 levels, while MAGI2-AS3 siRNA didn't. In addition, CDK6 over-expression attenuated the effect of MAGI2-AS3 siRNA silencing. Conclusions: In conclusion, MAGI2-AS3 promoted CSCC cell proliferation by up-regulating CDK6.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811031

RESUMO

Microorganisms in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) play a key role in the removal of pollutants from municipal and industrial wastewaters. A recent study estimated that activated sludge from global municipal WWTPs harbors 1-2×109 microbial species, the majority of which have not yet been cultivated and twenty-eight core taxa were identified as "most-wanted" ones [Nat. Microbiol. 4 (7): 1183-1195, 2019]. Cultivation and characterization of the "most-wanted" core bacteria are critical to understand their genetic, physiological, phylogenetic and ecological traits, as well as to improve the performance of WWTPs. In this study, we isolated a bacterial strain, designated SJ-1, who represents a novel cluster within ß-Proteobacteria and corresponds to OTU_16 within the 28 core taxa in the "most-wanted" list. Strain SJ-1 was identified and nominated as Casimicrobium huifangae gen. nov. sp. nov. of a novel family Casimicrobiaceae C. huifangae is ubiquitously distributed and is metabolically versatile. In addition to mineralizing various carbon sources (including carbohydrates, aromatic compounds and short chain fatty acids), C. huifangae is capable of nitrate reduction and phosphorus accumulation. The population of C. huifangae accounted for more than 1% in that of the activated sludge microbiome from Qinghe WWTP, which showed seasonal dynamic changes. Co-occurrence analysis suggested that C. huifangae was an important module hub in the bacterial network of Qinghe WWTP.Importance Activated sludge process is the most widely applied biotechnology and is one of the best ecosystems to address microbial ecological principles. Yet, the cultivation of core bacteria and exploring their physiology and ecology are limited. In this study, the core and novel bacterial taxon C. huifangae was cultivated and characterized. This study revealed that C. huifangae functioned as an important module hub in the activated sludge microbiome and it potentially plays an important role in municipal wastewater treatment plants.

15.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 35(11): 2035-2049, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814352

RESUMO

In order to explore the microbial communities and functions in distinct environments of acid mine drainage (AMD) ecosystem and fully comprehend the patterns of AMD formation and development, high-throughput sequencing technology was used to study the prokaryotic community composition in AMD puddles and surrounding rills in a mining area in Mengzi, Yunnan Province, China. By combining with physicochemical properties of the samples, we distinguished the key factors affecting the community structure and analyzed the environmental functions of the microflora. We discovered that the main phyla in AMD puddles were Euryarchaeota, Proteobacteria (including the class α-, γ- and δ-Proteobacteria), Nitrospirae, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Acidobacteria. Community structure of the AMD puddles apparently differed from that of the surrounding rills. Microbial diversity was significantly positively correlated with pH, whereas the relative abundance of Thermoplasmata was negatively correlated with pH and this class might play a predominant role in community structure. There was high relative abundance of the genus Ferroplasma (6.60%-86.34%) in different samples of AMD puddles. Acidithiobacillus spp. were the major iron- and/or sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in AMD solutions and sediments, whereas relative abundance of the obligate iron-oxidizer Leptospirillum spp. was lower, and Ferrovum spp. were almost only present in the AMD solutions. In addition, acidophilic or acid-tolerant heterotrophic bacteria were widely distributed in the AMD solutions and sediments, which might promote the growth of iron- and/or sulfur-oxidizers and catalyze the oxidative/reductive dissolution of metal ores. Our results suggested that pH significantly impacted the microbial community structure of AMD environment by affecting the microbial diversity and microflora distribution.

16.
Am J Cancer Res ; 9(11): 2442-2455, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815045

RESUMO

As a potential antitumor drug and chemotherapeutic sensitizer, disulfiram combined with Copper (DSF/Cu2+) does not exert considerable antitumor effects on an immunocompetent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) model. In this article, we will explore the mechanism underlying the resistance to DSF in HCC. We analyzed the antitumor effect of DSF/Cu2+ in vivo studies. Tumor and immune cells collected from mice were analyzed by flow cytometry. Then, we analyzed the transcriptional changes in liver cancer cells after DSF/Cu2+ treatment by transcriptional expression profiling. The expression of PD-L1 was detected by real-time PCR, Western blotting and flow cytometry. The expression of PARP1 and GSK3ß was knocked down by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). A subcutaneous Hepa1-6 tumor model was used for single-drug or combined-drug studies. Tissue chips (268 samples of liver cancer tissue) were used to analyze the relationship among PARP1, p-GSK3ß and PD-L1. We found that DSF/Cu2+ failed to inhibit HCC tumor growth in C57BL/6 mice. DSF/Cu2+ upregulated PD-L1 expression by inhibiting PARP1 activity and enhancing GSK3ß phosphorylation at Ser9 and ultimately inhibited T cell infiltration. The combination of DSF/Cu2+ and an anti-PD-1 antibody produced an additive effect that slowed HCC growth in mice. In addition, we observed negative associations between PARP1 and p-GSK3ß (Ser9) or PD-L1 expression in tumor tissue samples from HCC patients. Through in vitro and in vivo studies, we found that DSF/Cu2+ could restrain GSK3ß activity by inhibiting PARP1, leading to the upregulation of PD-L1 expression. Combination therapy with DSF/Cu2+ and an anti-PD-1 antibody showed much better antitumor efficacy than monotherapy.

17.
Anticancer Drugs ; 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815762

RESUMO

Drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of advanced cervical cancer. The oncogenic microRNA-21 (miR-21) is involved in drug resistance in various cancers. However, the regulatory role of miR-21 and its target, Smad7 in drug resistance of cervical cancer remains to be elucidated. We compared miR-21 and Smad7 levels in human samples from chemoradiotherapy-resistance cervical cancer (resistant group) and chemoradiotherapy-sensitive cervical cancer (sensitive group) patients. Then, the miR-21 level was manipulated in HeLa and SiHa cervical cancer cells and the Smad7 level was determined by PCR and western blot. We also manipulated miR-21, Smad7 or both in cells, and measured cell viability using cell counting kit-8 method and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) biomarkers using Western blot. In human samples, resistant group has significantly higher miR-21 and lower Smad7 levels than sensitive group. In-vitro analysis demonstrated downregulated Smad7 after transfection with miR-21 mimics. When cells were transfected with Smad7 inhibitor, we observed increased drug resistance and changed levels of EMT-biomarkers after chemoradiotherapy, suggesting that downregulation of Smad7 decreased the sensitivity through EMT. When the cells were transfected with miR-21 inhibitor alone, we found increased sensitivity to chemoradiotherapy through EMT. However, such effects were attenuated when Smad7 was also downregulated after cotransfection. In summary, we provided clinical and experimental evidence that decreased miR-21 may improve drug resistance through EMT by direct targeting Smad7 in cervical cancer. Our data suggest that miR-21/Smad7 pathway may be an effective target for drug resistance in cervical cancer treatment.

18.
J Org Chem ; 2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833373

RESUMO

An efficient Cu-catalyzed direct sulfonylation of indolines with easily accessible sulfonyl chlorides has been realized under air atmosphere via chelation-assisted strategy. This protocol exhibits several unique characteristics, including broad substrate scope, good functional group tolerance, and operational convenience, which enables a regioselective access to a variety of C-7 functionalized indoline scaffolds in moderate to good yields. The mechanistic study reveals that sulfonyl radical might be involved in this transformation.

19.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2019 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838736

RESUMO

Excessive intake of fluoride inhibits bone growth in both humans and animals. It is unknown whether fluoride acts directly on the growth plate to inhibit longitudinal bone growth, and its mechanism of action has not been elucidated. In this study, we used an organ culture system and SW1353 cells to evaluate the effects of fluoride on endochondral ossification. Neonatal rat metatarsal bones were dissected and cultured with or without fluoride for 7 days. The total length and width of the metatarsal rudiments and the length of the calcification zone were measured. Chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assay in sectioned bones. The apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry, and the expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bax, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3 were detected by western blotting in SW1353 cells. Linear measurements demonstrated that fluoride induced a biphasic effect on longitudinal bone growth in organ culture, with a significant growth inhibition at a high concentration (10-4 M) and a stimulatory action at low concentration (10-6 M) of fluoride. Histomorphometrical analysis of growth plate from fluoride-exposed metatarsal rudiments showed a significant reduction in the height of the proliferative and hypertrophic chondrocyte zones. Analysis of the Col2α1 and Col10α1 expression by immunohistochemistry revealed fluoride-suppressed metatarsal growth plate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. In addition, fluoride increased the number of apoptotic chondrocytes in the metatarsal growth plate. Western blotting showed an up-regulated expression of Caspase-3 and Bax and down-regulated expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 after treatment with 5 × 10-4 M fluoride in SW1353 cells. Our findings indicated that fluoride inhibited longitudinal bone growth by acting directly at the growth plate in cultured neonatal rat metatarsal bones. Such growth inhibition was mediated by suppressing proliferation and differentiation, increasing apoptosis of resting chondrocytes and causing premature cell senescence in the growth plate.

20.
J Vasc Access ; : 1129729819894090, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829085

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with arteriovenous fistulas are advised to avoid carrying heavy objects draped over the fistula arm. Awareness gradually leads to overprotection and a reduction in the use of the fistula arm. However, restricting motion in the fistula arm leads to decreased quality of life and diminished muscle strength. The current safety recommendations regarding lifting heavy items with the fistula arm are primarily based on experience. Few studies have provided evidence clarifying the scope of safe activity and the influence of load bearing on the continued patency of arteriovenous fistulas. METHODS: This prospective observation was based on a long-term follow-up study in which 86 hemodialysis recipients with arteriovenous fistulas were randomized into either a dumbbell group or a handgrip group. The dumbbell group exercised with 6-lb dumbbells, while the handgrip group squeezed rubber balls. Postintervention primary patency and adverse events at the 6-month follow-up were analyzed. RESULTS: No significant difference in postintervention primary patency was observed between the dumbbell group and the handgrip group at 6 months (97.4% vs 95.0%). There were two participants with high-flow fistulas in the dumbbell group and three in the handgrip group, with no significant difference between the two groups (5.3% vs 7.5%). In both groups, there were no other adverse events reported regarding cardiac failure, aneurysm, puncture site hematoma, or hemorrhage. CONCLUSION: Hemodialysis patients can safely use their fistula arm to lift objects weighing less than 6 lb, which encourages increased motion and helps preserve the functionality of the fistula arm.

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