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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 114847, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800647

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Nutmeg-5, which consists of Myristica fragrans Houtt., Aucklandia lappa Decne., Inula helenium L., Fructus Choerospondiatis and Piper longum L., is an ancient and classic formula in traditional Mongolian medicine that is widely used in the treatment of ischemic heart disease. However, its material basis and pharmacological mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to explore the potential material basis and molecular mechanism of Nutmeg-5 in improving cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The constituents of Nutmeg-5 absorbed into the blood were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). A mouse MI model was induced in male Kunming mice by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LDA) ligation. Echocardiography was performed to assess cardiac function. The protective effect of Nutmeg-5 and compound Danshen dripping pills as positive control medicine on post-MI cardiac remodeling was evaluated by tissue histology and determination of the serum protein levels of biomarkers of myocardial injury. RNA sequencing analysis of mouse left ventricle tissue was performed to explore the molecular mechanism of Nutmeg-5 in cardiac remodeling after MI. RESULTS: A total of 27 constituents absorbed into blood were identified in rat plasma following gavage administration of Nutmeg-5 (0.54 g/kg) for 1 h. We found that ventricular remodeling after MI was significantly improved after Nutmeg-5 treatment in mice, which was demonstrated by decreased mortality, better cardiac function, decreased heart weight to body weight and heart weight to tibia length ratios, and attenuated cardiac fibrosis and myocardial injury. RNA sequencing revealed that the protective effect of Nutmeg-5 on cardiac remodeling after MI was associated with improved heart metabolism. Further study found that Nutmeg-5 treatment could preserve the ultrastructure of mitochondria and upregulate gene expression related to mitochondrial function and structure. HIF-1α (hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit) expression was significantly upregulated in the hearts of MI mice and significantly suppressed in the hearts of Nutmeg-5-treated mice. In addition, Nutmeg-5 treatment significantly activated the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha signaling pathway, which was inhibited in the hearts of MI mice. CONCLUSIONS: Nutmeg-5 attenuates cardiac remodeling after MI by improving heart metabolism and preserving mitochondrial dysfunction by inhibiting HIF-1α expression in the mouse heart after MI.

2.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 721979, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34692680

RESUMO

The pig is an increasingly popular biomedical model, but only a few in depth data exist on its studies in hair follicle (HF) morphogenesis and development. Hence, the objective of this study was to identify the suitability of the pig as an animal model for human hair research. We performed a classification of pig HF morphogenesis stages and hair types. All four different hair types sampled from 17 different body parts in pig were similar to those of human. The Guard_2 sub-type was more similar to type II human scalp hair while Guard_1, Awl, Auchene, and Zigzag were similar to type I scalp hair. Based on morphological observation and marker gene expression of HF at 11 different embryonic days and six postnatal days, we classified pig HF morphogenesis development from E41 to P45 into three main periods - induction (E37-E41), organogenesis (E41-E85), and cytodifferentiation (>E85). Furthermore, we demonstrated that human and pig share high similarities in HF morphogenesis occurrence time (early/mid gestational) and marker gene expression patterns. Our findings will facilitate the study of human follicle morphogenesis and research on complex hair diseases and offer researchers a suitable model for human hair research.

3.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(39): 8330-8340, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523660

RESUMO

Improving the effective treatment depth of photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an important issue to resolve for its clinical application. In this study, a new biocompatible photosensitizer (PS), namely TQs-PEG4, based on thiadiazolo[3,4-g]quinoxaline (TQ) with ultra-high photoactive property is designed and synthesized. TQs-PEG4 possesses an ultra-high singlet oxygen quantum yield (ΦΔ = 1.04). After encapsulating it with a biodegradable copolymer (DSPE-mPEG2000-cRGD), well distributed organic TQs-PEG4 nanoparticles (NPs) are formed with good water dispersity and excellent active tumor-targeting property. In vitro PDT experiments reveal that TQs-PEG4 NPs present excellent phototoxicities towards different cancer cell lines with an ultra-low dosage (<0.3 µg mL-1). TQs-PEG4 NP mediated PDT significantly inhibited tumor growth even when the tumor was covered with a 6 mm thick piece of pork tissue under 660 nm laser irradiation. Both the histological analysis and biochemical testing demonstrated the good biosafety of TQs-PEG4 NPs towards mice. This study not only develops an ultra-high photoactive organic PS, TQs-PEG4, but also proves the great potential of TQs-PEG4 NPs for application in deep PDT.

4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(37): 11065-11073, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499492

RESUMO

Food media can affect the solubility of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs). Moreover, when a single digestive fluid and a three-step digestion system were applied to investigate the fate of ZnO NPs, several contradictory results were obtained. Here, we manipulated a novel semiclosed in vitro dynamic digestion system to investigate the difference in the released ionic zinc (Zn2+) content in three types of artificial fluids in the presence of different food media. The results show that there was a significant difference in the released Zn2+ content between the three different types of digestion systems in the presence of the same food media. In addition, the released Zn2+ content was significantly different when different types of food media were applied to the same digestion system. These results demonstrate that the different levels of released Zn2+ content can be ascribed to the difference in digestion systems and food media.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanopartículas , Óxido de Zinco , Meios de Cultura , Solubilidade , Zinco
5.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443912

RESUMO

As a novel nanomaterial for cancer therapy and antibacterial agent, Cu-doped-ZnO nanocrystals (CZON) has aroused concern recently, but the toxicity of CZON has received little attention. Results of hematology analysis and blood biochemical assay showed that a 50 mg/kg dosage induced the increase in white blood cells count and that the concentration of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and Malonaldehyde (MDA) in the serum, liver, and lungs of the CZON group varied significantly from the control mice. Histopathological examinations results showed inflammation and congestion in the liver and lung after a single injection of CZON at 50 mg/kg. A transmission electron microscope (TEM) result manifested the autolysosome of hepatocyte of mice which received CZON at 50 mg/kg. The significant increase in LC3-II and decrease in p62 of hepatocyte in vivo could be seen in Western blot. These results indicated that CZON had the ability to induce autophagy of hepatocyte. The further researches of mechanism of autophagy revealed that CZON could produce hydroxyl radicals measured by erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). The result of bio-distribution of CZON in vivo, investigated by ICP-OES, indicated that CZON mainly accumulated in the liver and two spleen organs. These results suggested that CZON can induce dose-dependent toxicity and autophagy by inducing oxidative stress in major organs. In summary, we investigated the acute toxicity and biological distribution after the intravenous administration of CZON. The results of body weight, histomorphology, hematology, and blood biochemical tests showed that CZON had a dose-dependent effect on the health of mice after a single injection. These results indicated that CZON could induce oxidative damage of the liver and lung by producing hydroxyl radicals at the higher dose.

6.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 4863-4871, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34295159

RESUMO

Background: Phototherapy has significant potential as an effective treatment for cancer. However, the application of a multifunctional nanoplatform for photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) at a single excitation wavelength remains a challenge. Materials and Methods: The double emulsion solvent evaporation method was used to prepare toluidine blue@poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (TB@PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs). The biocompatibility of TB@PLGA NPs was evaluated, and a 660 nm luminescence was used as the light source. The photothermal effect, photothermal stability, and singlet oxygen yield of NPs in an aqueous solution verified the feasibility of NPs as a PTT/PDT synergistic therapy drug. Results: TB@PLGA NPs were successfully prepared and characterized. In vitro experiments demonstrated that TB@PLGA NPs can cause massive necrosis of tumor cells and induce apoptosis through a photodynamic mechanism under 660 nm laser irradiation. The TB@PLGA NPs also achieved optimal tumor inhibition effect in vivo. Conclusion: The TB@PLGA NPs prepared in this study were applied as a dual-mode phototherapeutic agent under single laser irradiation. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated the good potential of PTT/PDT for tumor inhibitors.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Glicóis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fotoquimioterapia , Fototerapia , Cloreto de Tolônio
7.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 237, 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested that glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists such as tirofiban are beneficial for patients with acute coronary syndromes. However, it is still uncertain about the efficacy and safety of tirofiban in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). METHODS: In this prospective non-randomized study, 255 AIS patients were recruited from 4 comprehensive stroke centers in China between January, 2017 and May, 2018. Among them,169 patients were treated with aspirin plus clopidogrel and 86 patients were treated with tirofiban. The primary functional outcome was the distribution of the 90 days' modified Rankin Scale (mRS). The safety outcomes included the incidence of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) at discharge and mortality at 3 months. RESULTS: In the propensity score matched cohort, tirofiban alone was noninferior to the dual antiplatelet with regard to the primary outcome (adjusted common odds ratio, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.46 to 2.04; P = 0.93). Mortality at 90 days was 10% in the dual antiplatelet group and 8% in the tirofiban group (adjusted odds ratio 0.75; 95% CI 0.08 to 7.40, p = 0.81). There was no difference of the ICH rate between two groups (adjusted odds ratio 0.44; 95% CI 0.13 to 1.48, p = 0.18). In the inverse probability of treatment weighting-propensity score-adjusted cohort, similar differences were found for functional and safety outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested that tirofiban use appears to be safe as monotherapy in AIS treatment compared with common dual antiplatelet therapy, however, no improvement in functional outcomes was found. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese clinical trial registry, ChiCTR2000034443 , 05/07/2020. Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos , AVC Isquêmico , Tirofibana , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , China , Clopidogrel/administração & dosagem , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , AVC Isquêmico/tratamento farmacológico , AVC Isquêmico/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Tirofibana/administração & dosagem , Tirofibana/efeitos adversos , Tirofibana/uso terapêutico
8.
Virus Res ; 302: 198369, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684419

RESUMO

Recently, hepatitis E virus (HEV) has caused large outbreaks and presented a significant public health problem. Thus, the mechanism of HEV has attracted increasing research attention. Previous studies revealed that HEV infection induced hepatocyte injuries and structural and functional changes in mitochondria. These pathological changes affected the life cycle of hepatocytes. However, the precise underlying mechanism and the effector protein responsible for this process remain unclear. In the present study, mitochondrial function and the expression of mitophagy-associated mRNA transcripts and proteins were detected in an HEV- infected Mongolian gerbil model. Observation of ultrastructural changes in the liver of the inoculated group revealed the disappearance of mitochondrial cristae of mitochondrion, blurring of the bilayer structure and cavitation in the cytoplasm. The results showed that the mitochondrial transmembrane potential of decreased, mitochondrial transition pore (MPTP) opening increased, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production increased, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity decreased in the HEV-inoculated group. Moreover, the LC3, Beclin1, BNIP3L, Parkin, PINK1 and P62 mRNA levels were significantly increased (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01) in the inoculated group. Western blot and immunohistochemistry assay analyses detected the upregulation of the mitophagy-associated proteins LC3, Beclin1, BNIP3L, Parkin, PINK1 and P62 (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01) in HEV-infected gerbils. All these data demonstrated that HEV infection in vivo induced mitochondrial dysfunction and the activation of the mitophagy pathway, which might be one of the key factors in hepatocyte injury.

9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 137: 111341, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561646

RESUMO

Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) is a member of mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), and a causative agent of chronic respiratory disease in a wide range of hosts. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is mostly used for the prevention of childhood tuberculosis. Further substantial implications are required for the development and evaluation of new tuberculosis (TB) vaccines as well as improving the role of BCG in TB control strategies. In this study, we prepared PLGA nanoparticles encapsulated with argF antigen (argF-NPs). We hypothesized, that argF nanoparticles mediate immune responses of BCG vaccine in mice models of M. bovis infection. We observed that mice vaccinated with argF-NPs exhibited a significant increase in secretory IFN-γ, CD4+ T cells response and mucosal secretory IgA against M. bovis infection. In addition, a marked increase was observed in the level of secretory IL-1ß, TNF-α and IL-10 both in vitro and in vivo upon argF-NPs vaccination. Furthermore, argF-NPs vaccination resulted in a significant reduction in the inflammatory lesions in the lung's tissues, minimized the losses in total body weight and reduced M. bovis burden in infected mice. Our results indicate that BCG prime-boost strategy might be a promising measure for the prevention against M. bovis infection by induction of CD4+ T cells responses and mucosal antibodies.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Mycobacterium bovis , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Ornitina Carbamoiltransferase/imunologia , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/imunologia , Tuberculose Bovina/prevenção & controle , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/sangue , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mycobacterium bovis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mycobacterium bovis/patogenicidade , Nanopartículas/química , Ornitina Carbamoiltransferase/administração & dosagem , Ornitina Carbamoiltransferase/química , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/administração & dosagem , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Baço/microbiologia , Baço/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
10.
Food Microbiol ; 93: 103603, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912578

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen leading to food poisoning as well as human infections. The present study examined the prevalence and characterization of antimicrobial-resistant S. aureus in sushi from 42 outlets and in pork products from eight outlets in Beijing, China. The total bacterial counts were between 3.0 and 8.9 log CFU/g (mean 5.5 ± 1.5 log CFU/g) in sushi products and 4.8 to 7.4 log CFU/g (mean 5.6 ± 0.8 log CFU/g) in pork products. The mean counts of coliforms were 2.7 and 2.9 log CFU/g in sushi and pork, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from seven sushi outlets (13 isolates) and two pork outlets (2 isolates) with average counts below 2 log CFU/g in all cases. A total of 15 S. aureus isolates were further characterized. Six lineages of S. aureus were present, including ST398 (n = 5), ST25 (n = 4), ST15 (n = 2), ST59 (n = 2), ST8 (n = 1) and ST2631 (n = 1). Thirteen isolates contained the scn virulence marker, whereas four and eight isolates contained the virulence marker edinB and enterotoxin genes, respectively. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance profiles documented resistances to ampicillin (n = 15), penicillin (n = 14), ceftazidime (n = 6), erythromycin (n = 4), tetracycline (n = 3), clindamycin (n = 3), and gentamicin (n = 1). Three MRSA isolates were obtained, one from pork (ST398) and two from one sushi outlet (ST59). They were all resistant to at least three classes of antimicrobials and two of them contained the scn gene and enterotoxin genes. Twelve sushi isolates and one of the pork isolates contained the scn gene, indicating that they were of human origin. This emphasizes the potential importance of transmission through foods of antimicrobial-resistant S. aureus including MRSA. We also showed that S. aureus exhibited geographical variation with regards to ST profiles, antimicrobial-resistance and virulence genes when comparing isolates from sushi products sold in Beijing and Copenhagen, Denmark. Whereas food safety is not compromised by the presence of low amounts of S. aureus in sushi, this study shows that with regards to public health such foods may serve as vehicles for transmission of multidrug-resistant S. aureus and MRSA lineages.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Animais , Pequim , China/epidemiologia , Enterotoxinas/genética , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Humanos , Carne/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
11.
Pharmaceutics ; 12(12)2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271900

RESUMO

Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) is a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex imposing a high zoonotic threat to human health. The limited efficacy of BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) and upsurges of drug-resistant tuberculosis require new effective vaccination approaches and anti-TB drugs. Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is a preferential drug delivery system candidate. In this study, we formulated PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulating the recombinant protein bovine neutrophil ß-defensin-5 (B5), and investigated its role in immunomodulation and antimicrobial activity against M. bovis challenge. Using the classical water-oil-water solvent-evaporation method, B5-NPs were prepared, with encapsulation efficiency of 85.5% ± 2.5%. These spherical NPs were 206.6 ± 26.6 nm in diameter, with a negatively charged surface (ζ-potential -27.1 ± 1.5 mV). The encapsulated B5 protein from B5-NPs was released slowly under physiological conditions. B5 or B5-NPs efficiently enhanced the secretion of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-10 in J774A.1 macrophages. B5-NPs-immunized mice showed significant increases in the production of TNF-α and immunoglobulin A (IgA) in serum, and the proportion of CD4+ T cells in spleen compared with B5 alone. In immunoprotection studies, B5-NPs-immunized mice displayed significant reductions in pulmonary inflammatory area, bacterial burden in the lungs and spleen at 4-week after M. bovis challenge. In treatment studies, B5, but not B5-NPs, assisted rifampicin (RIF) with inhibition of bacterial replication in the lungs and spleen. Moreover, B5 alone also significantly reduced the bacterial load in the lungs and spleen. Altogether, our findings highlight the significance of the B5-PLGA NPs in terms of promoting the immune effect of BCG and the B5 in enhancing the therapeutic effect of RIF against M. bovis.

12.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 89(Pt B): 107094, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129097

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke is a serious and life-threatening cerebrovascular thrombotic disease; however, the therapeutic strategy is limited for the complicated mechanism and narrow therapeutic window. Our previous study suggested that Z-Guggulsterone (Z-GS), an active component derived from myrrh, is a good candidate for cerebral injury. The object of this study is to investigate the exact mechanisms of Z-GS in cerebral ischemic stroke. Rats were used to conduct middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model and were treated with different dosage of Z-GS. Morphological results showed that Z-GS significantly alleviated neurological deficits, infarct volume and histopathological damage in MCAO rats. A total of 8276 differentially expressed genes were identified based on microarray analysis. Oxidation-reduction process and inflammatory response were enriched as the significant gene ontology items. TXNIP and NLRP3 were screened as the potential target genes by Series Test of Cluster (STC) analysis. The results were validated by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. Besides, Z-GS successfully inhibited oxidative stress and inflammatory response in oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) treated neurons. Knockdown of TXNIP significantly decreased the expression of NLRP3 in OGD-induced neurons. In addition, Z-GS treatment scarcely changed the expressions of NLRP3 in siRNA-TXNIP pretreated cells compared with the siRNA-TXNIP alone treatment group, suggesting that the neuroprotective effect of Z-GS was dependent on TXNIP-NLRP3 axis. Taken together, this study revealed that Z-GS exerted neuroprotective property through alleviated oxidative stress and inflammation via inhibiting the TXNIP/NLRP3 axis. Z-GS could be considered as a promising candidate for the treatment of ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , AVC Isquêmico/tratamento farmacológico , AVC Isquêmico/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pregnenodionas/farmacologia , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Lesões Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Lesões Encefálicas/etiologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/complicações , Inflamação/metabolismo , Injeções Intraperitoneais , AVC Isquêmico/etiologia , Masculino , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas NLR/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Pregnenodionas/administração & dosagem , Cultura Primária de Células , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver disease is associated with increased bleeding risk. The efficacy and safety of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) is a subject of contention in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with liver disease. METHODS: Electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library) were searched to retrieve studies on the efficacy and safety of DOACs versus warfarin in AF patients with liver disease from January 1980 to April 2020. A meta-analysis was conducted using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Six studies involving 41,859 patients were included. Compared with warfarin, DOACs demonstrated significant reduction in ischemic stroke (HR, 0.68; 95% CI (0.54-0.86)), major bleeding (0.74 (0.59-0.92)), and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) (0.48 (0.40-0.58)), with no significant effect on gastrointestinal bleeding (P = 0.893) in AF patients with liver disease. Similar results were observed in regular-dose, reduced-dose, and active liver disease subgroups, albeit Asian patients had a slight reduction in major bleeding (P = 0.055). Furthermore, the pooled estimates of individual DOAC subgroups indicated that dabigatran and apixaban led to greater safety in major bleeding (P < 0.001), ICH (P < 0.001), and gastrointestinal bleeding (P < 0.005) in these patients. The same trends were observed in AF patients with cirrhosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that DOACs significantly reduce the risk of ischemic stroke, major bleeding, and ICH, with no significant effect on the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding in AF patients with liver disease compared with warfarin.

14.
Anal Chem ; 92(18): 12290-12296, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812418

RESUMO

The detection of nucleic acids usually suffers from a lengthy amplification process. To obtain an enhanced signal within several seconds, a magnetic three-phase single-drop microextraction (MTP-SDME) approach was developed for the quantification of nucleic acids. First, a target-triggered recycling amplification strategy was used to constitute magnetic branched DNA/Fe3O4 networks, which displayed peroxidase-like catalytic activity toward the 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine colorimetric reaction. The networks were separated and enriched by rapid (6 s) MTP-SDME (with only 6 µL of solvent required), thereby producing highly sensitive signals for the quantification of nucleic acids. The signals were significantly amplified by the triple strategy (network formation, MTP-SDME, and catalytic reaction). The application of magnetic extraction minimized the background signal, avoided sample matrix effects, and enhanced the analyte signals. This assay achieved linear calibration curves of between 0.5 aM and 1 pM for microRNA-122 (miRNA-122) and between 1 aM and 1 pM for HBV-T (a DNA fragment from hepatitis B virus). Limits of detection of 0.15 aM for miRNA-122 and 0.34 aM for HBV-T were attained, with relative standard deviations of <5.0% (n = 3). Furthermore, the procedure was applied to determine miRNA-122 and HBV-T in genuine serum samples from hepatocellular carcinoma patients.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/química , Microextração em Fase Líquida , MicroRNAs/sangue , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Humanos , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Estrutura Molecular
15.
Aging Dis ; 11(3): 494-508, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32489697

RESUMO

Leukocytes telomere length has been associated with hypertension, but, whether longitudinal telomeres change could serve as a useful predictive tool in hypertension remains uncertain. This study aimed to examine the longitudinal trajectory of leukocytes telomere length in a population-based prospective study of 1,108 individuals with hypertension. Leukocytes telomere length were measured at baseline and again after a median 2.2 (range 1.5-2.4) years of follow-up. Age as an independent predictor was inversely associated with baseline telomeres and follow-up telomeres. Annual telomere attrition rate was calculated as (follow-up telomeres-baseline telomeres)/follow-up years, and participants were categorized into the shorten and the lengthen groups. Results showed that telomere lengthening was significantly correlated with decreased systolic blood pressure (SBP) (ß=-3.28; P=0.02) and pulse pressure (PP) (ß=-2.53; P=0.02), and the differences were respectively -3.3 mmHg (95%CI, -6.2 to -0.3; P=0.03) in ∆SBP and -2.4 mmHg (95%CI, -4.9 to -0.1; P=0.04) in ∆PP between two groups after adjustment for vascular risk factors and baseline blood pressures. When stratified by age and gender, the correlations were observed in women and patients ≤60 years. Furthermore, among patients using calcium channel blocker (CCB) and angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), those with telomeres lengthening showed a significantly lower level of ∆SBP and ∆PP. There was no correlation between telomere attrition and incidence of cardiovascular events. Our data indicated that increased telomere length of leukocytes was associated with decreased SBP and PP, particularly for patients who received CCB and ARB, supporting that telomere attrition may provide new sight in clinical intervention for hypertension.

16.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 694, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32477148

RESUMO

Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol in lots of foods and traditional Chinese medicines, which has shown promising treatment for neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). However, the molecular mechanisms of its action have not been systematically studied yet. In order to elucidate the network pharmacological prospective effects of resveratrol on NDs, we assessed of pharmacokinetics (PK) properties of resveratrol, studied target prediction and network analysis, and discussed interacting pathways using a network pharmacology method. Main PK properties of resveratrol were acquired. A total of 13,612 genes related to NDs, and 138 overlapping genes were determined through matching the 175 potential targets of resveratrol with disease-associated genes. Gene Ontology (GO) function analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment were performed to obtain more in-depth understanding of resveratrol on NDs. Accordingly, nodes with high degrees were obtained according using a PPI network, and AKT1, TP53, IL6, CASP3, VEGFA, TNF, MYC, MAPK3, MAPK8, and ALB were identified as hub target genes, which showed better affinity with resveratrol in silico studies. In addition, our experimental results demonstrated that resveratrol markedly enhanced the decreased levels of Bcl-2 and significantly reduced the increased expression of Bax and Caspase-3 in hippocampal neurons induced by glutamate exposure. Western blot results confirmed that resveratrol inhibited glutamate-induced apoptosis of hippocampal neurons partly by regulating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. In conclusion, we found that resveratrol could target multiple pathways forming a systematic network with pharmacological effects.

17.
Brain Res Bull ; 160: 141-149, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389388

RESUMO

Sleep deprivation (SD) can induce cognitive and memory impairments. This impairment is in part due to oxidative stress damage in the hippocampus region of the brain. Corilagin (CL), a polyphenol belonging to the tannin family and extracted from Terminalia chebula and Phyllanthus emblica, shows strong antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. NF-E2-related factor (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NADPH oxidase (NOX) are critical targets involved in cellular defense mechanisms against oxidative injury. Thus, we hypothesized that CL could be a preventive treatment for SD-induced memory impairments by inhibiting NOX2 and activating Nrf2. The results from behavioral tests showed that administration of CL resulted in significantly better performance compared to the SD mice. CL significantly normalized the elevated MDA level and the reduced activity of GPx and SOD (P <0.05, p<0.01) caused by SD. In hippocampal tissues, CL effectively activated Nrf2/HO-1 signaling and downregulated NOX2 protein expression compared with SD (P <0.05, P <0.01). Meanwhile, in vitro findings showed that knockdown of Nrf2 blocked the protective effect of CL versus Glu-induced toxicity, while the effect of CL was enhanced in NOX2 siRNA-transfected neurons. Overall, these findings provided evidence that CL ameliorates SD-induced memory impairments in mice by inhibiting NOX2 and activating Nrf2.


Assuntos
Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/uso terapêutico , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidase 2/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Privação do Sono/metabolismo , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/farmacologia , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NADPH Oxidase 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/agonistas , Privação do Sono/tratamento farmacológico
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 259: 112944, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387236

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Huai hua san (HHS) is a traditional Chinese herbal formula which is firstly documented in the ancient Chinese classic medical work "Pu Ji Ben Shi Fang" in 1132 AD. It has been widely used in the treatment of lower gastrointestinal disorders such as acute colitis and hematochezia for more than 800 years. However, scientific evidence of the efficacy and the exact mechanism of HHS against colitis has not yet been reported. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study is to investigate the potential effects of HHS in the alleviation of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and the alteration of colonic microbiota composition and structure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HHS solution was orally administrated to 5% DSS-challenged rats once a day for 8 days. Colitis clinical symptoms of colitis were collected, together with colonic mucosal damage assessed at histomorphometric and ultrastructural levels. The protein levels of inflammatory mediators TNF-α and CRP were detected by ELISA. The colonic vascular permeability was evaluated by Evans blue extravasation. Meanwhile, The effects of the HHS therapy on the colonic microbiota were evaluated by analyzing the V3 and V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene by Illumina sequencing and multivariate statistical methods. RESULTS: Daily oral administration of HHS markedly alleviated DSS-induced colitis, as evidenced by decreased colitis disease activity index (DAI) score, reduced colonic inflammation and normalization of colonic vascular hyperpermeability. Moreover, the 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis demonstrated that HHS treatment during colitis prevented the colitis-associated alteration of colonic microbial community at operational taxonomic unit level, together with the DSS-induced colonic microbiota dysbiosis at taxonomic levels. In addition, HHS therapy reduced colitis-associated high increased ratio of Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes to a normal level. CONCLUSION: HHS could attenuate ulcerative colitis and ameliorate gut microbial dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/microbiologia , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Colo/ultraestrutura , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Permeabilidade , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
19.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(11): 10457-10472, 2020 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433038

RESUMO

Sleep disorder has become a prevalent issue in current society and is connected with the deterioration of neurobehaviors such as mood, cognition and memory. Ellagic acid (EA) is a phenolic phytoconstituent extracted from grains and fruits that has potent neuroprotective properties. This research aimed to study the alleviative effect and mechanism of EA on memory impairment and anxiety caused by sleep deprivation (SD). EA ameliorated behavioral abnormalities in SD mice, associated with increased dendritic spine density, and reduced shrinkage and loss of hippocampal neurons. EA reduced the inflammatory response and oxidative stress injury caused by SD, which may be related to activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway and mitigation of the TLR4-induced inflammatory response. In addition, EA significantly reduced the mortality and ROS levels in glutamate (Glu)-induced hippocampal neuron injury, and these effects of EA were enhanced in TLR4 siRNA-transfected neurons. However, knockdown of Nrf2 dramatically restrained the protective impact of EA on Glu-induced toxicity. Taken together, EA alleviated memory impairment and anxiety in sleep-deprived mice potentially by inhibiting TLR4 and activating Nrf2. Our findings suggested that EA may be a promising nutraceutical ingredient to prevent cognitive impairment and anxiety caused by sleep loss.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Ácido Elágico/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Privação do Sono/complicações , Animais , Ansiedade/imunologia , Ansiedade/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Disfunção Cognitiva/imunologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Hipocampo/imunologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/agonistas , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Neurônios/imunologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cultura Primária de Células , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Privação do Sono/dietoterapia , Privação do Sono/imunologia , Privação do Sono/patologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
20.
Transl Stroke Res ; 11(5): 1077-1094, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323149

RESUMO

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a catastrophic stroke with high mortality, and the mechanism underlying ICH is largely unknown. Previous studies have shown that high serum uric acid (SUA) levels are an independent risk factor for hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and ischemic stroke. However, our metabolomics data showed that SUA levels were lower in recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage (R-ICH) patients than in ICH patients, indicating that lower SUA might contribute to ICH. In this study, we confirmed the association between low SUA levels and the risk for recurrence of ICH and for cardiac-cerebral vascular mortality in hypertensive patients. To determine the mechanism by which low SUA effects ICH pathogenesis, we developed the first low SUA mouse model and conducted transcriptome profiling of the cerebrovasculature of ICH mice. When combining these assessments with pathological morphology, we found that low SUA levels led to ICH in mice with angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension and aggravated the pathological progression of ICH. In vitro, our results showed that p-Erk1/2-MMP axis were involved in the low UA-induce degradation of elastin, and that physiological concentrations of UA and p-Erk1/2-specific inhibitor exerted a protective role. This is the first report describing to the disruption of the smooth muscle cell (SMC)-elastin contractile units in ICH. Most importantly, we revealed that the upregulation of the p-Erk1/2-MMP axis, which promotes the degradation of elastin, plays a vital role in mediating low SUA levels to exacerbate cerebrovascular rupture during the ICH process.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral/sangue , Hemorragia Intracraniana Hipertensiva/sangue , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Animais , Hemorragia Cerebral/patologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Regulação para Cima
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