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1.
Immunol Invest ; : 1-13, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238104

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of miR-494 inhibition through the NF-κB signaling pathway on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) mouse model. METHODS: The AKI mice induced by LPS were treated with miR-494 antagomir, and the kidney parameters and indicators of oxidative stress were detected. HE and TUNEL staining were performed to observe the kidney histopathology and the apoptosis in renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs), respectively. The ROS level was measured using dihydroethidium (DHE) staining. In addition, qRT-PCR, western blotting, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and ELISA were also used to detect gene or protein expression. RESULTS: LPS-induced AKI mice injected with the miR-494 antagomir showed reduced blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Cr) with improved kidney histopathology. The expression levels of p-IKKα/ß, p-IκBα and p65 NF-κB in the nucleus were increased in kidney tissues from the LPS-induced AKI mice, and they were decreased by the miR-494 antagomir. Moreover, the results of IHC showed that the miR-494 antagomir downregulated p65 NF-κB in kidney tissues from the LPS-induced AKI mice, accompanied by decreased levels of TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, MDA, NO, and ROS but increased levels of SOD and GSH. In addition, the LPS-induced AKI mice had increased apoptosis in RTECs, as well as increased Caspase-3 and Bax and decreased Bcl-2, which were reversed by the miR-494 antagomir. CONCLUSIONS: The inhibition of miR-494 could reduce inflammatory responses and improve oxidative stress in kidney tissues from LPS-induced AKI mice by blocking the NF-κB pathway accompanying by reduced apoptosis in RTECs.

2.
J Craniofac Surg ; 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238870

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: By measuring velopharyngeal structure and evaluating speech intelligibility, to explore and observe the association between velopharyngeal anatomy and speech outcomes in these patients. METHODS: Thirty-one adult patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency after the primary palatoplasty aged 18 to 35 years (mean 22.03 years) were enrolled as the study group. The patients had significant hypernasality and audible nasal emission. The degree of velopharyngeal closure assessed by electronic nasopharyngeal fiberoptic endoscopy was grade III. Cephalometric analysis was performed on lateral cephalograms to measure velopharyngeal structure, including hard palate length (ANS-PNS), velar length (PNS-U), pharyngeal depth (PNS-PPW), and oropharyngeal airway space (U-MPW). Their speech intelligibility was evaluated through the Mandarin Chinese speech intelligibility test, and each speech sample was examined by 2 speech and language pathologists. The results were assessed with the SPSS 23.0 software package, and regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between velopharyngeal structure and speech outcomes. RESULTS: A significant negative correlation was confirmed between speech intelligibility and pharyngeal depth. Pharyngeal depth also showed a linear relationship with speech intelligibility, and there was no significant correlation between speech intelligibility and other measures (hard palate length, velar length, oropharyngeal airway space). CONCLUSIONS: In the velopharyngeal anatomy, only pharyngeal depth was associated with speech intelligibility in adult patients with severe velopharyngeal insufficiency, this is consistent with our clinical observation. It suggests that appropriate reduction of pharyngeal depth during palatopharyngoplasty may have a good effect on the speech recovery in patients with cleft palate and patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency after palatorrhaphy.

3.
Pathol Oncol Res ; 27: 602714, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257560

RESUMO

CUL4A regulate the termination of autophagy in a physical process. However, the relationship between CUL4A and autophagy in cancer is unclear. We retrospectively investigated 99 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) cases. Whole sections were used for immunohistochemical analysis for p62, and LC3B expression. Q-score was defined as the sum of the labeling intensity and proportion. The cut-off point for immunoreactivity was set. CUL4A was overexpressed in cell lines and autophagy reflux was compared after manipulation. The iCCA cases with CUL4A overexpression had significantly higher prevalence of intact activated autophagy (42.4 vs. 15.2%; p = 0.003), which was significantly associated with advance tumor stage (34.1% vs. 15.4%; p = 0.032), less extensive necrosis (8.3 vs. 49.3%; p < 0.001), and shortened disease-free survival (mean, 19.6 vs. 65.5 months, p = 0.015). In vitro, iCCA cells with CUL4A overexpression significantly increased LC3II level as compared to the cells under basal condition. Although both cell types showed intact autophagy with increased LC3II expression after bafilomycin A1 treatment, the accumulation of LC3II was higher in CUL4A-overexpressing cells. CUL4A overexpression increased the proliferation of cells as compared with control cells. After treatment with bafilomycin A1, proliferation was inhibited in both cell types, but the effects were more prominent in the cells overexpressing CUL4A. CUL4A promotes autophagy, and exhibits significantly higher autophagic flux which affects the proliferation of iCCA cells; these effects correlated with advance tumor stage and poor prognosis. Thus, targeting autophagy may be potentially therapeutic in iCCA.

4.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 43(3): 488-493, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238428

RESUMO

A case of primary oral mucosal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma(DLBCL)due to long-term use of methotrexate(MTX)for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis(RA)was admitted to the Department of Hematology,Fujian Medical University Union Hospital.We analyzed and discussed the clinical features,diagnosis and treatment,and prognosis of specific malignant lymphoma induced by MTX in this RA patient.Our purpose is to improve the awareness and knowledge of other iatrogenic immunodeficiency-associated lymphoproliferative disorders of clinicians and pathologists.This study provides a new reference for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of MTX-associated DLBCL.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/induzido quimicamente , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos
5.
J BUON ; 26(3): 774-780, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268935

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of induction chemotherapy combined with chrono-chemotherapy or conventional chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. METHODS: 150 patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma were divided into two groups: chrono-chemotherapy group (n=75, receiving induction chemotherapy combined with chrono-chemotherapy and IMRT, and control group (n=75, receiving induction chemotherapy combined with conventional chemotherapy and IMRT. Besides, the levels of T lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood before and after treatment were compared, and the long-term survival and disease progression were followed up and recorded. RESULTS: After treatment, the short-term efficacy of patients was evaluated. The overall response rate was 94.7% (71/75) in chrono-chemotherapy group and 96.0% (72/75) in control group. Moreover, the levels of cluster of differentiation (CD)3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, CD16+CD56+ and CD19+ T cells in peripheral blood of patients at 6 months after treatment were significantly lower than those before treatment. The level of posttreatment CD16+CD56+ T cells in chrono-chemotherapy group was significantly higher than that in control group. Furthermore, the follow-up results showed that the 3-year overall survival (OS) was 73.3% and 69.3%, and the 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 60.0% and 62.7% in chrono-chemotherapy group and control group, respectively. Finally, Log-rank test showed no significant differences in OS and PFS between the two groups of patients. CONCLUSIONS: As a new treatment mode, chrono-chemotherapy combined with induction chemotherapy and IMRT can reduce the incidence rate and severity of treatment-related adverse reactions and improve immunosuppression without reducing clinical efficacy, which is worthy of clinical promotion and application.

6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 185: 620-628, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216663

RESUMO

Mandarin (Citrus reticulata L.) essential oil (MEO) reportedly displays excellent antimicrobial properties. In this study, MEO was loaded into chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs). The characteristics, antibacterial properties and benefit in pork preservation of MEO-CSNPs were evaluated. The MEO-CSNPs displayed an excellent encapsulation efficiency (EE) (67.32%-82.35%), the particle size values of 131.3 nm-161.9 nm, and the absolute zeta potential values above 30 mV. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the MEO was incorporated into CSNPs without requiring a chemical reaction, the antibacterial activity of the MEO remained. Furthermore, the damage of MEO-chitosan nanoemulsions (MEO-CSs) to the cell membranes of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) was confirmed by the change of bacterial cell morphology. The anti-biofilm assays verified that the MEO-CSs substantially inhibited biofilm formation and destroyed the mature biofilms. MEO-CSs were also applied to pork, proving a great potential for pork preservation. This study provides a potential approach for developing and utilizing MEO-CSs as natural antimicrobial agents in the food industry.

7.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200469

RESUMO

The photophysical and biological properties of two new phenanthroline-based ligand ruthenium complexes were investigated in detail. Their DNA interaction modes were determined to be the intercalation mode using spectra titration and viscosity measurements. Under irradiation, obvious photo-reduced DNA cleavages were observed in the two complexes via singlet oxygen generation. Furthermore, complex 2 showed higher DNA affinity, photocleavage activity, and singlet oxygen quantum yields than complex 1. The two complexes showed no toxicity towards tumor cells (HeLa, A549, and A375) in the dark. However, obvious photocytotoxicities were observed in the two complexes. Complex 2 exhibited large PIs (phototherapeutic indices) (ca. 400) towards HeLa cells. The study suggests that these complexes may act as DNA intercalators, DNA photocleavers, and photocytotoxic agents.


Assuntos
Clivagem do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenantrolinas/farmacologia , Compostos de Rutênio/farmacologia , Células A549 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células HeLa , Humanos , Substâncias Intercalantes/farmacologia , Ligantes , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacologia , Oxigênio Singlete/metabolismo
8.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 603: 582-593, 2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216954

RESUMO

The development of recyclable photocatalyst with high adsorption and excellent photocatalytic performance has attracted considerable attention. Herein, we report a three-component photocatalyst by constructing porous amine functionalized zirconium metal organic framework (UiO-66-NH2) and broad photo-responsive AgI on flexible carbon fiber cloth (CFC). UiO-66-NH2 nanoparticles (200-400 nm) were in-situ grown on the surface of CFC (16.5 ± 0.5 µm, 4 × 4 cm2) by a solvothermal route, then AgI particles (50-100 nm) were synthesized on CFC/UiO-66-NH2 via a modified chemical bath deposition method. The obtained CFC/UiO-66-NH2/AgI can effectively adsorb 19.0% levofloxacin (LVFX) or 18.4% ciprofloxacin (CIP) in 60 min in the dark and degrade 84.5% LVFX or 79.6% CIP in 120 min under visible light irradiation. Furthermore, the filter-membrane-shaped CFC/UiO-66-NH2/AgI can be utilized to treat the flowing sewage (CIP, 10 mg/L, ~1 L/h), and the removing efficiency of CIP reached 71.0% after 10 grades. Therefore, this work demonstrates the huge application prospect of recyclable CFC/UiO-66-NH2/AgI with high adsorption and photocatalytic capacity in flowing sewage treatment under visible light illumination.

9.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 908: 174307, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245748

RESUMO

Pulmonary vascular remodeling (PVR) is the pathological basis of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Incomplete understanding of PVR etiology has hindered drug development for this devastating disease, which exhibits poor prognosis despite the currently available therapies. Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT), a process of cell transdifferentiation, has been recently implicated in cardiovascular diseases, including PH. But the questions of how EndMT occurs and how to pharmacologically target EndMT in vivo have yet to be further answered. Herein, by performing hematoxylin-eosin and immunofluorescence staining, transmission electron microscopy and Western blotting, we found that EndMT plays a key role in the pathogenesis of PH, and importantly that aspirin, a FDA-approved widely used drug, was capable of ameliorating PVR in a preclinical rat model of hypoxia-induced PH. Moreover, aspirin exerted its inhibitory effects on EndMT in vitro and in vivo by suppressing HIF-1α/TGF-ß1/Smads/Snail signaling pathway. Our data suggest that EndMT represents an intriguing drug target for the prevention and treatment of hypoxic PH and that aspirin may be repurposed to meet the urgent therapeutic needs of hypoxic PH patients.

10.
J Healthc Eng ; 2021: 5556172, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194683

RESUMO

In recent years, the prevalence of sensory integration disorders in children in urban areas has increased. Most existing sensory integration treatments are located in hospital-based sensory integration units; however, medical resources are extremely limited, making it difficult to guarantee the appropriate treatment time and intervention results for many children. The concept of sensory integration therapy must be disseminated widely and correctly to meet these children's needs. Although most urban communities have a high number of children's spaces, these spaces require improvement. This study proposes the incorporation of the concept of sensory integration therapy into neighborhood open spaces for children to positively impact children's sensory development. The purpose of this study is to determine the effective facility factors of an occupational therapy room, translate them into a community facility design, clarify the categories and relative importance of each design attribute, and explore the design strategies of the children's facilities in neighborhood open spaces based on the sensory integration theory. This study investigates the importance of the sensory integration treatment level. The facilities in neighborhood open spaces for children can be considered systemic structures consisting of five partitioned units with different levels of importance among the synergistic components within each unit. These structures will enable children to experience sensory stimulation during daily outdoor play and will serve as preventive and therapeutic tools.

11.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201969

RESUMO

Decreased concentration of phospholipids were observed in brain tissue from individuals with dementia compared with controls, indicating phospholipids might be a key variable in development of age-related cognitive impairment. The reflection of these phospholipid changes in blood might provide both reference for diagnosis/monitoring and potential targets for intervention through peripheral circulation. Using a full-scale targeted phospholipidomic approach, 229 molecular species of plasma phospholipid were identified and quantified among 626 senile residents; the association of plasma phospholipids with MoCA score was also comprehensively discussed. Significant association was confirmed between phospholipid matrix and MoCA score by a distance-based linear model. Additionally, the network analysis further observed that two modules containing PEs were positively associated with MoCA score, and one module containing LPLs had a trend of negative correlation with MoCA score. Furthermore, 23 phospholipid molecular species were found to be significantly associated with MoCA score independent of fasting glucose, lipidemia, lipoproteins, inflammatory variables and homocysteine. Thus, the decreased levels of pPEs containing LC-PUFA and the augmented levels of LPLs were the most prominent plasma phospholipid changes correlated with the cognitive decline, while alterations in plasma PC, PS and SM levels accompanying cognitive decline might be due to variation of lipidemia and inflammatory levels.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206942

RESUMO

There is mixed evidence regarding whether video games affect executive function. The inconsistent results in this area may have to do with researchers' conceptualizations of executive function as a unified construct or as a set of independent skills. In the current study, 120 university students were randomly assigned to play a video game or to watch a screen record of the video game. They then completed a series of behavioral tasks to assess the shifting, updating and inhibiting subcomponents of executive function. Scores on these tasks were also used as indicators of a component-general latent variable. Results based on analysis of covariance showed that, as predicted, the inhibition subcomponent, but not the updating or the shifting subcomponent, was significantly enhanced after gaming. The component-general executive function was not enhanced after gaming once the results were controlled for other subcomponents. The results were unrelated to participants' self-reported positive and negative affect. The findings add key evidence to the literature on executive function and potentially contribute to the therapeutic use of video games to maintain executive function in the aged population.

13.
J Hazard Mater ; 418: 126288, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102358

RESUMO

Terrestrial ecosystems are widely contaminated by microplastics due to extensive usage and poor handling of plastic materials, but the subsequent fate and remediate strategy of these pollutants are far from fully understood. In soil environments, microplastics pose a potential threat to the survival, growth, and reproduction of soil microbiota that in turn threaten the biodiversity, function, and services of terrestrial ecosystems. Meanwhile, microorganisms are sensitive to microplastics due to the adaptability to changes in substrates and soil properties. Through the metabolic and mineralization processes, microorganisms are also crucial participator to the plastic biodegradation. In this review, we present current knowledges and research results of interactions between microplastics and microorganisms (both fungi and bacteria) in soil environments and mainly discuss the following: (1) effects of microplastics on microbial habitats via changes in soil physical, chemical, and biological properties; (2) effects of microplastics on soil microbial communities and functions; and (3) soil microbial-mediated plastic degradation with the likely mechanisms and potential remediation strategies. We aim to analyze the mechanisms driving these interactions and subsequent ecological effects, propose future directives for the study of microplastic in soils, and provide valuable information on the plastic bioremediation in contaminated soils.

14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13404, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183739

RESUMO

Cervical cancer continues to impose a heavy burden worldwide, and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, especially persistent infection with type 16 (HPV-16), is known to be the primary etiological factor. Therapeutic vaccines are urgently needed because prophylactic vaccines are ineffective at clearing pre-existing HPV infection. Here, two recombinant Listeria strains (LMΔ-E6E7 & LIΔ-E6E7) with deletions of the actA and plcB genes, expressing the shuffled HPV-16 E6E7 protein were constructed. The strains were delivered into the spleen and liver by intravenous inoculation, induced antigen-specific cellular immunity and were eliminated completely from the internal organs several days later. Intravenously treating with single strain for three times, or with both strains alternately for three times significantly reduced the tumor size and prolonged the survival time of model mice. Combination immunotherapy with two strains seemed more effective than immunotherapy with single strain in that it enhanced the survival of the mice, and the LMΔ-E6E7-prime-LIΔ-E6E7-boost strategy showed significant stronger efficacy than single treatment with the LIΔ-E6E7 strain. The antitumor effect of this treatment might due to its ability to increase the proportion of CD8+ T cells and reduce the proportion of T regulatory cells (Tregs) in the intratumoral milieu. This is the first report regarding Listeria ivanovii-based therapeutic vaccine candidate against cervical cancer. Most importantly we are the first to confirm that combination therapy with two different recombinant Listeria strains has a more satisfactory antitumor effect than administration of a single strain. Thus, we propose a novel prime-boost treatment strategy.

15.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; : 17470218211030838, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165352

RESUMO

Cognitive control, although it has limited capacity, serves an essential role in supporting a broad range of cognitive functions. The backward masking majority function task (MFT-M) is a validated behavioural method for measuring the capacity of cognitive control (CCC), but the administration is lengthy. We tested the relative efficiency of administering the MFT-M using an adaptive method based on the principles of computerised adaptive testing (CAT). Participants were 40 healthy young adults aged 18-26. Scores on the adaptive version were highly correlated with scores based on the original approach to administration and showed high test-retest reliability. In addition, compared with the original task of 864 trials (about 86 min), less than 216 trials (20 min) were required in the adaptive version. The results suggest that CAT is a valid and more efficient method for assessing CCC than the MFT-M. This study provides an example of adaptive trial selection in task administration, an approach that can advance the methodology of behavioural science.

16.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(6): 597, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108451

RESUMO

Circular RNA (circRNAs) functions vital in the pathogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the expressions and functions of certain circRNAs on metastasis and proliferation of that cancer is still unclear. Bioinformation analysis and qRT-PCR indicated that CircC16orf62 was prominent upregulated in HCC of which the expression level was positively associated to cancer's malignant progression. Gain or loss-of-function studies indicated that the reduction of CircC16orf62 expression promotes the proliferation, invasion, and glycolysis of HCC in vitro and in vivo. The bioinformatic analysis found that miR-138-5p and PTK2 were the downstream target of CircC16or62. Then, the FISH(Fluorescence immunoin situ hybridization) and cell nucleoplasmic separation determined that CircC16orf62 located in the cell cytoplasm. Plasmid vectors or siRNAs were used to change the expression of CircC16orf62, miR-138-5p, and PTK2 in PC cell lines. CircC16orf62 functioned as a molecular sponge for miR-138-5p, and a competitive endogenous RNA for PTK2, promoting AKT/mTOR pathway activation. Our observations lead us to conclude that CircC16orf62 functions as an oncogene in HCC progression, behaving as a competitive endogenous RNA for miR-138-5p binding, thus activating the AKT/mTOR pathway. In conclusion, CircC16orf62 is an oncogene through the miR-138-5p/PTK2/Akt axis in HCC cells, indicating CircC16orf62 can be a therapeutic target with potentiality for liver cancer and a predictive marker for people with HCC.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072866

RESUMO

Patients with heart failure (HF) often present with signs and symptoms that are often nonspecific and with a wide differential diagnosis, making diagnosis and prognosis of HF by clinical presentation alone challenging. Our knowledge on genetic diversity is rapidly evolving with high-throughput DNA sequencing technology, which makes a great potential for genetic biomarker development. The present review attempts to provide a comprehensive review on the modification of major genetic components in HF patients and to explore the potential application of these components as clinical biomarkers in the diagnosis and in monitoring the progress of HF. The literature search was conducted using six databases, resulting in the inclusion of eighteen studies in the review. The findings of these studies were summarized narratively. An appraisal of the reporting quality of the included studies was conducted using a twelve-item checklist adapted from the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist. The findings showed that changes in genetic components in patients with HF compared to healthy controls could be noninvasive diagnostic or prognostic tools for HF with higher specificity and sensitivity in comparison with the traditional biomarkers. This review provided evidence for the potential of developing genetic biomarkers of HF.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Biomarcadores , Marcadores Genéticos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Humanos
18.
Cancer Discov ; 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078620

RESUMO

Reduced protein levels of SMARCB1 (a.k.a. BAF47, INI1, SNF5) have long been observed in synovial sarcoma (SS). Here, we show that combined Smarcb1 genetic loss with SS18-SSX expression in mice synergized to produce aggressive tumors with histomorphology, transcriptomes, and genome-wide BAF-family complex distributions distinct from SS18-SSX alone, indicating a defining role for SMARCB1 in SS. Smarcb1 silencing alone in mesenchyme modeled epithelioid sarcomagenesis. In mouse and human SS cells, SMARCB1 was identified within PBAF and canonical BAF (CBAF) complexes, co-incorporated with SS18-SSX in the latter. Recombinant expression of CBAF components in human cells reconstituted CBAF sub-complexes that contained equal levels of SMARCB1, regardless of SS18 or SS18-SSX inclusion. In vivo, SS18-SSX expression led to whole-complex CBAF degradation, rendering increases in the relative prevalence of other BAF-family subtypes, PBAF and GBAF complexes, over time. Thus, SS18-SSX alters BAF subtypes levels/balance and genome distribution, driving synovial sarcomagenesis.

19.
Water Res ; 201: 117330, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134038

RESUMO

Membrane filtration in various forms has become an increasingly used treatment method worldwide for the supply of safe drinking water. The fouling of membranes is commonly considered to be the major operational limitation to its wider application since it leads to frequent backwashing and a shortening of membrane life, and increased production costs. The components of natural organic matter (NOM) in surface waters have been reported previously to be important foulants of nanofiltration (NF) membranes, however, the potential beneficial effect of particular components of these 'foulants' has not been investigated or demonstrated to date. In this study, we have considered the roles of different organic materials including autochthonous NOM (e.g., biopolymers) and allochthonous NOM (e.g., humic substances) on the fouling of NF membranes by bench-scale tests with samples of two representative source waters (UK) taken in two different seasons (autumn and winter). Microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) were employed to generate two permeates, between which the presence of biopolymers (30 kDa - 90 kDa) is the major difference. We developed sequential filtration (MF/UF-NF) to investigate biopolymers' behaviours in NF process. The results showed that the accumulation of biopolymers on NF membranes can mitigate fouling by providing a protective layer in which medium-low molecular weight (MW) materials (e.g. humic substances) are separated by adsorption and/or size exclusion. The protective layers assisted by biopolymers were seen to be thicker under scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation and characterized by higher roughness (i.e. three-dimensional, spacial structure) and greater adsorptive capacity. Moreover, improvement on NF membrane fouling mitigation could be more significant in autumn, comparing to that in winter. The findings in this study were found to be repeatable in similar tests with samples of comparable raw waters in China, and will be important to the practical application of NF membrane systems in terms of a new approach to combating fouling in long-term operation.

20.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(22): 2944-2962, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268364

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is a global pandemic and poses a major threat to human health worldwide. In addition to respiratory symptoms, COVID-19 is usually accompanied by systemic inflammation and liver damage in moderate and severe cases. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of antioxidant proteins, participating in COVID-19-mediated inflammation and liver injury. Here, we show the novel reciprocal regulation between NRF2 and inflammatory mediators associated with COVID-19-related liver injury. Additionally, we describe some mechanisms and treatment strategies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , SARS-CoV-2 , Transdução de Sinais
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