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1.
Insect Sci ; 2020 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953986

RESUMO

Insects possess specific immune responses to protect themselves from different types of pathogens. Activation of immune cascades can inflict significant developmental costs to the surviving host. To characterize infection kinetics in a surviving host that experiences baculovirus inoculation, it is crucial to determine the timing of immune responses. Here, we investigated time-dependent immune responses and developmental costs elicited by inoculations from each of two wild-type baculoviruses, Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) and Helicoverpa zea single nucleopolyhedrovirus (HzSNPV), in their common host H. zea. As H. zea is a semi-permissive host of AcMNPV and fully permissive to HzSNPV, we hypothesized that there are differential immune responses and fitness costs associated with resisting infection by each virus species. Newly molted fourth-instar larvae that were inoculated with a low dose (LD15 ) of either virus showed significantly higher hemolymph FAD-glucose dehydrogenase (GLD) activities compared to the corresponding control larvae. Hemolymph phenoloxidase (PO) activity, protein concentration and total hemocyte numbers were not increased, but instead were lower than in control larvae at some time points post-inoculation. Larvae that survived from either virus inoculation exhibited reduced pupal weight; survivors inoculated with AcMNPV grew slower than the control larvae, while survivors of HzSNPV pupated earlier than control larvae. Our results highlight the complexity of immune responses and fitness costs associated with combating different baculoviruses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31976620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insects cannot synthesize sterols and must acquire them from food. The mechanisms underlying how insects uptake dietary sterols are largely unknown except that NPC1b, an integral membrane protein, has been shown to be responsible for dietary cholesterol uptake in Drosophila melanogaster. However, whether NPC1b orthologues in other insect species, particularly the economically important pests, function similarly remains to be determined. RESULTS: In this study, we characterized the function of NPC1b in Helicoverpa armigera, a global pest that causes severe yield losses to many important crops. Limiting dietary cholesterol uptake to insects significantly inhibited food ingestion and weight gain. Compared to the wild-type H. armigera, the CRISPR/Cas9-edited NPC1b mutant larvae were incapable of getting adequate cholesterol and died in their early life stage. Gene expression profile and in-situ hybridization analyses indicated that NPC1b was mainly expressed in the midgut where dietary cholesterol was absorbed. Expression of NPC1b was also correlated with the feeding life stages and was especially upregulated during early larval instars. Protein-ligand docking and sequence similarity analyses further demonstrated that NPC1b proteins of lepidopteran insects shared a relatively conserved cholesterol binding region, NPC1b_NTD, which, however, was highly divergent from bees-derived sequences. CONCLUSION: NPC1b was crucial for dietary cholesterol uptake and growth of H. armigera, and therefore could serve as an insecticide target for the development of a novel pest-management approach to control this economically significant insect pest with little off-target effect on bees and sterol-autotrophic animals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Insect Sci ; 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912953

RESUMO

Insect neuropeptides play an important role in regulating physiological functions such as growth, development, behavior and reproduction. We identified temperature-sensitive neuropeptides and receptor genes of the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. We identified 38 neuropeptide precursor genes and 35 neuropeptide receptors and constructed a phylogenetic tree using additional data from other insects. As temperature adaptability enables B. tabaci to colonize a diversity of habitats, we performed qPCR with two temperature stresses (low = 4°C and high = 40°C) to screen for temperature-sensitive neuropeptides. We found many neuropeptides and receptors that may be involved in the temperature adaptability of B. tabaci. This study is the first to identify B. tabaci neuropeptides and their receptors, and it will help to reveal the roles of neuropeptides in temperature adaptation of B. tabaci. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Pest Manag Sci ; 76(1): 215-226, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31149772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cuticle penetration plays an important role as a mechanism of insecticide resistance, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains poorly understood. In Blattella germanica, the cytochrome P450 gene, CYP4G19, is overexpressed in a pyrethroid-resistant strain. Here, we investigated whether CYP4G19 is involved in the biosynthesis of hydrocarbons and further contributes to cuticular penetration resistance in B. germanica. RESULTS: Compared with the susceptible strain, pyrethroid-resistant cockroaches showed lower cuticular permeability with Eosin Y staining. Removal of epicuticular lipids, mainly nonpolar hydrocarbons, with a hexane wash intensified the cuticular permeability and decreased the resistance index of the resistant strain. CYP4G19 was predominately expressed in the abdominal integument and could be upregulated by desiccation stress or short exposure to beta-cypermethrin. Overexpression of CYP4G19 in the resistant strain was positively correlated with a higher level of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). RNAi-mediated knockdown of CYP4G19 significantly decreased its expression and caused a reduction in CHCs. Meanwhile, CYP4G19 suppression resulted in a non-uniform array of the lipid layer, enhanced cuticle permeability, and compromised insecticide tolerance. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that CYP4G19 is involved in hydrocarbon production and appears to contribute to hydrocarbon-based penetration resistance in B. germanica. This study highlights the lipid-based penetration resistance, advancing our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying P450-mediated cuticular penetration resistance in insects. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.

5.
J Insect Sci ; 19(6)2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725878

RESUMO

Armyworm feeding in large, destructive groups is hugely difficult to control and the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walk), is one such pest. In this study, we reported a semisynthetic artificial diet for the oriental armyworm. This diet is based on Ritter's diet, a formula developed for Heliothis zea. The survival of M. separata was extremely low and only around 2% insects can reach the adult stage on Ritter's diet. But, it can reach up to 100% if corn leaf powder (CLP) was mixed, and insects grew faster and gained more mass. After testing a set of mixtures of Ritter's diet and CLP, we found that 14.3% was the optimal proportion of CLP for making the artificial diet. We then used chloroform to extract CLP. Insect performance was still much better on Ch-extracted CLP diets than that on Ritter's diet, but it was poorer than that on the diets containing unprocessed CLP, suggesting that the essential factor(s) was only partially extracted from corn leaf. We then used methanol and dichloromethane, two solvents differing in their polarity, to process the extractions and analyzed the extracted chemicals using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Insects had a better performance on dichloromethane-extracted CLP diet in comparison to methanol-extracted one, indicating that the important factor(s) is more prone to methanol extraction. The reported recipe here is useful for the research on M. separata and possibly other grain-crop eating armyworms. The functions of the chemicals extracted from corn leaf tissue can be investigated in the future studies.


Assuntos
Alimentos Formulados , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays
6.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 102(3): e21593, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612553

RESUMO

The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is one of the most destructive pests worldwide and its management relies exclusively on frequent application of chemical insecticides. Resistance to common insecticides is now widespread, and novel classes of insecticides are needed. Entomopathogenic bacteria and their related products play an important role in the management of this pest. In the present work, one bacterial strain was separated from infected pupae of P. xylostella collected from field and its pathogenicity was evaluated. On the basis of the 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, BLASTN, and phylogenetic analysis, this bacterial isolate was identified as Pseudomonas cedrina. Oral administration of P. cedrina at levels above 10,000 CFU/ml gave significant mortality to P. xylostella larvae. The pathogenicity was also observed by reduced longevity and fecundity in adult females. However, when live bacterial cells were removed, the cultured broth lost any pathogenicity. In response to the bacterial infection, P. xylostella expressed antimicrobial and stress-associated genes. A mixture treatment of P. cedrina and Bacillus thuringiensis showed an additive effect on larval mortality of P. xylostella. These results indicated that P. cedrina is an opportunistic entomopathogen without secretion of toxins. Furthermore, the additive effect of P. cedrina and B. thuringiensis provide a new insight to develop new strategy for controlling P. xylostella.


Assuntos
Mariposas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Larva/microbiologia , Longevidade , Mariposas/genética , Mariposas/metabolismo , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Filogenia , Pseudomonas/classificação , Pseudomonas/patogenicidade , Pupa/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S
7.
Insect Sci ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487096

RESUMO

Intraguild predation (IGP) has been commonly reported between predators and parasitoids used as biological control agents as predators consuming parasitoids within their hosts. However, the effect of parasitoid-mummy consumption on the fitness of the predator and subsequent oviposition site selection have not been well studied. In our study, we conducted two laboratory experiments to examine the influence of Aphidius gifuensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) mummies as prey on fitness and subsequently oviposition site selection of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Results indicate that when H. axyridis was reared on A. gifuensis mummies only, its larval development was prolonged, and body weight of the 4th instar larvae and newly emerged adults, and fecundity decreased. Moreover, H. axyridis did not exhibit oviposition preference on plants infested with unparasitized aphids or aphids parasitized for shorter than 9 days. However, compared with plants with mummies (parasitized ≥9 days), H. axyridis laid more eggs on plants with unparasitized aphids. In contrast, H. axyridis previously fed with A. gifuensis mummies did not show a significant oviposition preference between plants with unparasitized aphids and those with mummies (parasitized ≥9 days). Overall, our results suggest that mummy consumption reduced the fitness of H. axyridis. Although H. axyridis avoided laying eggs on plants with A. gifuensis mummies, prior feeding experience on A. gifuensis mummies could alter the oviposition site preference. Thus, in biological control practice, prior feeding experience of H. axyridis should be carefully considered for reduction of IGP and increase of fitness of H. axyridis on A. gifuensis.

8.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 112: 103203, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425851

RESUMO

Insect cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), the evolutionary products of aquatic hexapod ancestors expanding to terrestrial environment, are deposited on the surface of insect integument and originally functioned primarily as waterproofing agents. CHCs are derived from the conserved fatty acid synthesis pathway in insects. However, the pivotal fatty acid synthase (FAS) involved in hydrocarbon (HC) biosynthesis remains unknown in many insect orders including the primitive Blattodea. Here, we investigated functional FAS genes that modulate cuticular lipid biogenesis in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). Based on our full-length transcriptomic data and the available genomic data, seven FAS genes (BgFas1-7) were identified from B. germanica. Tissue-specific expression analysis revealed that BgFas1, BgFas3, BgFas4 and BgFas7 were highly expressed in the integument, whereas BgFas2 was dominantly expressed in the fat body. BgFas5/6 mRNA was almost negligible in the tested tissues. Systemic RNAi screen was performed against BgFas1-7, we found that only RNAi knockdown of BgFas1 caused a dramatic reduction of methyl-branched HCs (mbHCs) and a slight decrease of straight-chain HCs (scHCs) for both internal and external HCs. Significant reduction of cuticular free fatty acids (cFFAs) was also detected within BgFas1-repressed cockroaches, while repression of CYP4G19 resulted in dramatic increase of cFFAs. Moreover, we found that BgFas1 mRNA levels were correlated with insect molting cycles, and could be induced by long-term mild dryness treatment. Furthermore, desiccation assay revealed that BgFas1 suppression accelerated water loss and led to early death of cockroaches under desiccation. Our results indicate that BgFas1 is necessary for both HC and cFFA biosynthesis in B. germanica. In addition, our study also confirms that cuticular lipids, particularly mbCHCs, are critical for desiccation resistance in B. germanica.


Assuntos
Blattellidae/enzimologia , Ácido Graxo Sintases/genética , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Animais , Blattellidae/genética , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Genes de Insetos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Tegumento Comum , Interferência de RNA
9.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(5-6): 515-524, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127421

RESUMO

Although the tritrophic interactions of plants, insect herbivores and their natural enemies have been intensely studied for several decades, the roles of entomopathogens in their indirect modulation of plant-insect relationships is still unclear. Here, we employed a sublethal dose of a baculovirus with a relatively broad host range (AcMNPV) to explore if feeding by baculovirus-challenged Helicoverpa zea caterpillars induces direct defenses in the tomato plant. We examined induction of plant defenses following feeding by H. zea, including tomato plants fed on by healthy caterpillars, AcMNPV-challenged caterpillars, or undamaged controls, and subsequently compared the transcript levels of defense related proteins (i.e., trypsin proteinase inhibitors, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase) and other defense genes (i.e., proteinase inhibitor II and cysteine proteinase inhibitor) from these plants, in addition to comparing caterpillar relative growth rates. As a result, AcMNPV-challenged caterpillars induced the highest plant anti-herbivore defenses. We examined several elicitors and effectors in the secretions of these caterpillars (i.e., glucose oxidase, phospholipase C, and ATPase hydrolysis), which surprisingly did not differ between treatments. Hence, we suggest that the greater induction of plant defenses by the virus-challenged caterpillars may be due to differences in the amount of these secretions deposited during feeding or to some other unknown factor(s).


Assuntos
Baculoviridae/patogenicidade , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Mariposas/fisiologia , Animais , Catecol Oxidase/genética , Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Herbivoria , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/fisiologia , Larva/virologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/parasitologia , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mariposas/virologia , Peroxidase/genética , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Glândulas Salivares/metabolismo
10.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 79, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930910

RESUMO

Plants emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in response to herbivore attack. VOCs emitted from the Chinese cabbage cultivars in response to the damage by the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, were unknown. Using a solid-phase microextraction-based headspace collection method, we investigated and compared the emissions of VOCs from seven Chinese cabbage cultivars (Qibao, Qingan 80, Lvlong, Yuanbao, Qingan 70, Jinlv, and Lvqiu 66) in response to M. persicae attack. Our results showed that the VOCs emitted from the cultivars Qingan 80 and Yuanbao differed significantly from the other cultivars in response to the attraction of wingless M. persicae. Most importantly, out of the 27 detected compounds, α-caryophyllene was detected only in Qingan 80 and Qibao, but not in the other five cultivars. Among the compounds detected, 2 monoterpene and 12 terpenes were predominant in all cabbage cultivars. Furthermore, the wingless M. persicae showed preference to Qingan 80 while it had the highest nitrogen content among the tested cultivars. Moreover, we found a remarkable relationship among M. persicae attraction, plant nitrogen content, and total volatile emissions. Nitrogen content of the plants has a significant impact on volatile emission and preference behavior of M. persicae. Our results indicate that the wingless M. persicae were efficient in their interspecific host selection with an ability to distinguish plant cultivar differences by leaf nitrogen content. This study will be helpful in understanding aphid host selection, and sets a stage to further study the attractant-based integrated aphid management programs.

11.
Front Physiol ; 10: 197, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890958

RESUMO

The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris), shows body color shifting from red to pale under starvation in laboratory conditions. These body color changes reflect aphid's adaptation to environmental stress. To understand the color-shifting patterns, the underlying mechanism and its biological or ecological functions, we measured the process of A. pisum's body color shifting patterns using a digital imagery and analysis system; we conducted a series of biochemical experiments to determine the mechanism that causes color change and performed biochemical and molecular analyses of the energy reserves during the color shifting process. We found that the red morph of A. pisum could shift their body color to pale red, when starved; this change occurred rapidly at a certain stress threshold. Once A. pisum initiated the process, the shifting could not be stopped or reversed even after food was re-introduced. We also discovered that the orange-red pigments may be responsible for the color shift and that the shift might be caused by the degradation of these pigments. The carbohydrate and lipid content correlated to the fading of color in red A. pisum. A comparative analysis revealed that these reddish pigments might be used as backup energy. The fading of color reflects a reorganization of the energy reserves under nutritional stress in A. pisum; surprisingly, aphids with different body colors exhibit diverse strategies for storage and consumption of energy reserves.

12.
J Insect Physiol ; 114: 136-144, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904400

RESUMO

Melanism in insects is important for their physical protection, immunoreactions, and sclerotization. The vetch aphid, Megoura viciae (Buckton), has relatively strong tanning in its prothorax, head, antennae, cornicles, and legs. It was hypothesized that M. viciae may sequester the high level of l-DOPA in its host Vicia faba to help in its melanization process for ecological adaptation. To confirm this hypothesis, the amount of l-DOPA in M. viciae was modified and quantified. We first generated a Trifolium repens (clover, low l-DOPA containing) host to cut off the extra l-DOPA intake by M. viciae. The rate-limiting tyrosine hydroxylase gene of M. viciae (MV-TH) was then cloned and analyzed. To further reduce the l-DOPA level in the insect, RNAi was used to downregulate the transcriptional level of MV-TH. Our results confirmed that M. viciae could indeed sequester l-DOPA in its body, and its ample storage of this amino acid could be the reason for the strong tanning of its body. M. viciae reared on T. repens could upregulate its MV-TH to enhance l-DOPA biosynthesis and thus maintain a high level of l-DOPA. The MV-TH repression by RNAi lasted for about 3 days, successfully decreasing the l-DOPA level. Aside from a slight decrease in exuvia tanning, no other obvious change in body appearance was detected in the RNAi-treated insect. Although M. viciae can obtain most of its l-DOPA directly from its original host, its internal l-DOPA synthetase is still functional, especially when extra l-DOPA is removed from the diet. This capability to enhance its shield ensures the ecological adaptation of this insect.


Assuntos
Afídeos/metabolismo , Levodopa/metabolismo , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Afídeos/genética , Afídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Melaninas/metabolismo , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Vicia faba
13.
Pest Manag Sci ; 75(6): 1517-1526, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tracking predator-prey interactions using automated image recording systems provides insights into novel patterns and mechanisms of predator-prey dynamics, thus these systems have the potential to evaluate biological control agents effectively. Using an automated video tracking system, we aimed to quantify the behavioural patterns of a generalist predator Harmonia axyridis in response to changing prey density. The effect of intraspecific interactions on foraging efficiency was evaluated. In addition, functional response parameters were compared between the observations and model predictions. RESULTS: The associated behavioural component of prey consumption by H. axyridis was modified by prey density, especially for dual predator trials. Both individual and paired H. axyridis exhibited type II functional responses and a consistent cycle of behaviour. Interestingly, intra-specific interference did not affect overall prey consumption. Divergence between estimated and calculated functional response parameters was observed, which might due to the difficulty of separating foraging and non-foraging activity. CONCLUSIONS: Interference interactions between H. axyridis conspecifics might alter their foraging patterns; however, the outcome of prey consumption was not affected by this behaviour. In conclusion, automated video tracking systems may be used to expose the detailed foraging behaviour of predators and could be used to evaluate a wide range of natural enemies. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Besouros , Comportamento Predatório , Gravação em Vídeo , Animais , Automação
14.
Ecol Evol ; 8(20): 9975-9985, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397440

RESUMO

Insect cuticle color formed with melanin pigments has numerous types of mutants which usually cause pleiotropic effects. Melanism has been widely studied, but mutants with light-colored phenotype as well as the consequent fitness changes have rarely been reported.Here, in the laboratory strain of Harmonia axyridis, we found a novel mutant gr and confirmed that the mutation was inherited in a simple Mendelian autosomal recessive manner. This mutant (HAM) continuously displayed a light-colored pigmentation versus dark blackish in the wild phenotype (HAW). L-DOPA and dopamine are melanin precursors, and less L-DOPA was present in the cuticle of larval and adult HAM mutants compared to HAW wild type, but more dopamine was detected in the larval cuticle of HAM (p ≤ 0.0235). For the orange background of elytra, the composition as well as total concentration of carotenoids was different between HAM and HAW, which resulted in significantly lower saturation value but significantly higher hue value in HAM than in HAW (p < 0.0001).Extensive fitness changes were detected in HAM. (a) HAM larvae had similar predation capacity and preimaginal development time as HAW, but the newly emerged adults were much smaller (p < 0.0001). (b) Both fecundity and egg hatch rate in cross ♀(HAM) × â™‚(HAM) were significantly lower than those in ♀(HAW) × â™‚(HAW) (p ≤ 0.0087), but were not different with those in ♀(HAW) × â™‚(HAM).

15.
Front Physiol ; 9: 1392, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30337884

RESUMO

Herbivores respond differently to the level of plant diversity encountered. Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are highly polyphagous herbivores which cause considerable damage to various crops. Herein, we reared this species both in polyculture and monoculture, including preferred and less preferred host plants such as Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.). Trends in survival and oviposition were recorded, and impact of plants on growth and development of B. tabaci were studied, particularly in terms of detoxification and digestive enzymatic activity in the insects. We found that the survival rate was the highest in Chinese cabbage monoculture treatment. Further, the egg numbers on individual species in the polyculture generally reflected numbers on the same plant species in monoculture. However, more eggs were observed in each of the four plant species tested in the context of polyculture. The activity of superoxide dismutases (SOD) and alkaline phosphatase (AKP) in B. tabaci fed in a choice situation were significantly lower than those fed with tomato monoculture, indicating a dilution of toxicity with a multi-plant diet compared with less preferred host plant diet. Also, the survival rate of B. tabaci in monoculture was negatively correlated with SOD amount of whitefly. In the plants attacked by whiteflies, the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and catalase (CAT) in Chinese cabbage was lower in polyculture than in the monoculture. These results implied that multi-plant treatments contained fewer secondary metabolite substances and might be less toxic to polyphagous herbivores. As such, the work herein contributes knowledge relevant for more effective control and management of B. tabaci.

16.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 778, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967627

RESUMO

In natural ecological systems, plants are often simultaneously attacked by both insects and pathogens, which can affect each other's performance and the interactions can be extended to higher trophic levels, such as parasitoids. The English grain aphid (Sitobion avenae) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) are two common antagonists that pose a serious threat to wheat production. Numerous studies have investigated the effect of a single factor (insect or pathogen) on wheat production. However, investigation on the interactions among insect pests, pathogens, and parasitoids within the wheat crop system are rare. Furthermore, the influence of the fungicide, propiconazole, has been found to imitate the natural ecosystem. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of B. graminis on the biological performance of grain aphids and the orientation behavior of its endoparasitic wasp Aphidius gifuensis in the wheat system. Our findings indicated that B. graminis infection suppressed the feeding behavior, adult and nymph weight, and fecundity and prolonged the developmental time of S. avenae. We found that wheat host plants had decreased proportions of essential amino acids and higher content of sucrose following aggravated B. graminis infection. The contents of Pro and Gln increased in the wheat plant tissues after B. graminis infection. In addition, B. graminis infection elicited immune responses in wheat: increase in the expression of defense genes, content of total phenolic compounds, and activity of three related antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, co-infection of B. graminis and S. avenae increased the attraction to A. gifuensis compare to that after infestation with aphids alone. In conclusion, our results indicated that B. graminis infection adversely affected the performance of S. avenae in wheat through restricted nutrition and induced defense response. Furthermore, the preference of parasitoids in such an interactive environment might provide an important basis for pest management control.

17.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 708, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29892310

RESUMO

In nature, plants have evolved sophisticated defense mechanisms against the attack of pathogens and insect herbivores. Plant volatile-mediated plant-to-plant communication has been assessed in multitrophic systems in different plant species and different pest species. ß-ocimene is recognized as an herbivore-induced plant volatile that play an important role in the chemical communication between plants and pests. However, it is still unclear whether ß-ocimene can active the defense mechanism of Chinese cabbage Brassica pekinensis against the peach aphid Myzus persicae. In this study, we found that treatment of Chinese cabbage with ß-ocimene inhibited the growth of M. persicae in terms of weight gain and reproduction. Moreover, ß-ocimene treatment negatively influenced the feeding behavior of M. persicae by shortening the total feeding period and phloem ingestion and increasing the frequency of stylet puncture. When given a choice, winged aphids preferred to settle on healthy Chinese cabbage compared with ß-ocimene-treated plants. In addition, performance of the parasitoid Aphidius gifuensis in terms of Y-tube olfaction and landings was better on ß-ocimene-treated Chinese cabbage than on healthy plants. Furthermore, ß-ocimene significantly increased the expression levels of salicylic acid and jasmonic acid marker genes and the accumulation of glucosinolates. Surprisingly, the transcriptional levels of detoxifying enzymes (CYP6CY3, CYP4, and GST) in aphids reared on ß-ocimene-treated Chinese cabbage were significantly higher than those of aphids reared on healthy plants. In summary, our results indicated that ß-ocimene can activate the defense response of Chinese cabbage against M. persicae, and that M. persicae can also adjust its detoxifying enzymes machinery to counter the host plant defense reaction.

18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 7344, 2018 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29743686

RESUMO

The maternal effects of the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae on offspring phenotypes and performance on wheat varieties with different resistance traits were examined. We found that both conditioning wheat varieties(the host plant for over 3 months) and transition wheat varieties affected the biological parameters of aphid offspring after they were transferred between wheat varieties with different resistance traits. The conditioning varieties affected weight gain, development time (DT), and the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm), whereas transition varieties affected the fecundity, rm, net reproductive rate, and fitness index. The conditioning and transition wheat varieties had significant interaction effects on the aphid offspring's DT, mean relative growth rate, and fecundity. Our results showed that there was obvious maternal effects on offspring when S. avenae transferred bwteen wheat varieties with different resistance level, and the resistance traits of wheat varieties could induce an interaction between the conditioning and transition wheat varieties to influence the growth, development, reproduction, and even population dynamics of S. avenae. The conditioning varieties affected life-history traits related to individual growth and development to a greater extent, whereas transition varieties affected fecundity and population parameters more.


Assuntos
Afídeos/genética , Herança Materna/genética , Animais , Afídeos/fisiologia , Fertilidade , Fenótipo , Reprodução , Triticum/genética
19.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0196219, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29684073

RESUMO

Plant leaves of different ages differ in nutrients and toxic metabolites and thus exhibit various resistance levels against insect herbivores. However, little is known about the influence of leaf ontogeny on plant resistance to phloem-feeding insects. In this study, we found that the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, preferred to settle on young cabbage leaves compared with mature or old leaves, although young leaves contained the highest concentration of glucosinolates. Furthermore, aphids feeding on young leaves had higher levels of glucosinolates in their body, but aphids performed better on young leaves in terms of body weight and population growth. Phloem sap of young leaves had higher amino acid:sugar molar ratio than mature leaves, and aphids feeding on young leaves showed two times longer phloem feeding time and five times more honeydew excretion than on other leaves. These results indicate that aphids acquired the highest amount of nutrients and defensive metabolites when feeding on young cabbage leaves that are strong natural plant sinks. Accordingly, we propose that aphids generally prefer to obtain more nutrition rather than avoiding host plant defense, and total amount of nutrition that aphids could obtain is significantly influenced by leaf ontogeny or source-sink status of feeding sites.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/química , Afídeos/fisiologia , Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glucosinolatos/química , Animais , Brassica/química , Brassica/parasitologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Floema/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Prunus persica/parasitologia
20.
J Insect Physiol ; 107: 157-166, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29649482

RESUMO

Sterols are essential nutrients for eukaryotes. Insects are obligate sterol auxotrophs and must acquire this key nutrient from their diets. The digestive tract is the organ for absorbing nutrients as well as sterols from food. In mice, the Niemann-Pick type C1 Like 1 (NPC1L1) gene is highly expressed in the intestine and is critical for cholesterol absorption. In contrast, the molecular mechanisms for the absorption of dietary sterols in insects have not been well studied. We annotated NPC1 genes in 39 insects from 10 orders using available genomic and transcriptomic information and inferred phylogenetic relationships. Insect NPC1 genes were grouped into two sister-clades, NPC1a and NPC1b, suggesting a likely duplication in the ancestor of insects. The former exhibited weaker gut-biased expression or a complete lack of tissue-biased expression, depending on the species, while the latter was highly enriched in the gut of three lepidopteran species. This result is similar to previous findings in Drosophila melanogaster. In insects, NPC1a accumulated non-synonymous substitutions at a lower rate than NPC1b. This pattern was consistent across orders, indicating that NPC1a evolved under stronger molecular constraint than NPC1b.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Filogenia , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Colesterol/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Insetos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo
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