Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 194
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Adv Immunol ; 144: 23-63, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699219

RESUMO

B cells are essential to the adaptive immune system for providing the humoral immunity against cohorts of pathogens. The presentation of antigen to the B cell receptor (BCR) leads to the initiation of B cell activation, which is a process sensitive to the stiffness features of the substrates presenting the antigens. Mechanosensing of the B cells, potentiated through BCR signaling and the adhesion molecules, efficiently regulates B cell activation, proliferation and subsequent antibody responses. Defects in sensing of the antigen-presenting substrates can lead to the activation of autoreactive B cells in autoimmune diseases. The use of high-resolution, high-speed live-cell imaging along with the sophisticated biophysical materials, has uncovered the mechanisms underlying the initiation of B cell activation within seconds of its engagement with the antigen presenting substrates. In this chapter, we reviewed studies that have contributed to uncover the molecular mechanisms of B cell mechanosensing during the initiation of B cell activation.

2.
Int J Biol Sci ; 15(9): 1977-1992, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523198

RESUMO

Background: Currently, there are no molecular biomarkers for the early detection of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study focused on identifying RNAs found on tumor-educated blood platelets (TEPs) for detecting stage I NSCLC. Methods: Platelet RNAs, isolated from the blood of 9 patients with NSCLC (stages I and II) and 8 healthy controls, were analyzed using RNA-seq. ITGA2B was selected as a candidate marker. Two different Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR) were used to measure ITGA2B in platelet samples from healthy controls (n = 150), patients with NSCLC (n = 243), and patients with benign pulmonary nodules (n = 141) in two cohorts. Results: Platelet ITGA2B levels were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in patients with NSCLC than in all controls. The diagnostic accuracy of ITGA2B was area under the curve (AUC) of 0.922 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.892-0.952], sensitivity of 92.8%, and specificity of 78.6% in the test cohort and 0.888, 91.2%, and 56.5% in the validation cohort for NSCLC by quantitative real time PCR (q-PCR). Furthermore, ITGA2B maintained diagnostic accuracy for patients with NSCLC using Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) and the other type of internal control, Ribosomal Protein L32 (RPL32) [ddPCR: 0.967 (0.929-1.000) and RPL32: 0.847(0.773-0.920)]. A nomogram incorporating ITGA2B, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and stage could predict the overall survival (C-index = 0.756). Conclusions: TEP ITGA2B is a promising marker to improve identification of patients with stage I NSCLC and differentiate malignant from benign lung nodules.

4.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 41(5): 1133-1137, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468253

RESUMO

This article reviews the current status of the overuse of intravenous (IV) infusions in China and implications to patient safety, and analyzes factors associated with the overuse. Although many factors contribute to the overuse of IV infusions in China, we focus on the construction of an IV infusion management system and tackling cultural problems as the first step to address issues of IV therapy in this commentary.

5.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(5): 1377-1390.e4, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling, combined with CD19 and CD21 signals, imparts specific control of B-cell responses. Dedicator of cytokinesis protein 2 (DOCK2) is critical for the migration and motility of lymphocytes. Although absence of DOCK2 leads to lymphopenia, little is known about the signaling mechanisms and physiologic functions of DOCK2 in B cells. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the underlying molecular mechanism of how DOCK2 regulates BCR signaling and peripheral B-cell differentiation. METHODS: In this study we used genetic models for DOCK2, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP), and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 deficiency to study their interplay in BCR signaling and B-cell differentiation. RESULTS: We found that the absence of DOCK2 led to downregulation of proximal and distal BCR signaling molecules, including CD19, but upregulation of SH2-containing inositol 5 phosphatase 1, a negative signaling molecule. Interestingly, DOCK2 deficiency reduced CD19 and CD21 expression at the mRNA and/or protein levels and was associated with reduced numbers of marginal zone B cells. Additionally, loss of DOCK2 reduced activation of WASP and accelerated degradation of WASP, resulting into reduced actin accumulation and early activation of B cells. Mechanistically, the absence of DOCK2 upregulates the expression of lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1. These differences were associated with altered humoral responses in the absence of DOCK2. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our study has provided a novel underlying molecular mechanism of how DOCK2 deficiency regulates surface expression of CD21, which leads to downregulation of CD19-mediated BCR signaling and marginal zone B-cell differentiation.

6.
Immunol Rev ; 291(1): 75-90, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402506

RESUMO

To efficiently initiate activation responses against rare ligands in the microenvironment, lymphocytes employ sophisticated mechanisms involving signaling amplification. Recently, a signaling amplification mechanism initiated from phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4, 5-biphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] hydrolysis and synthesis for sustained B cell activation has been reported. Antigen and B cell receptor (BCR) recognition triggered the prompt reduction of PI(4,5)P2 density within the BCR microclusters, which led to the positive feedback for the synthesis of PI(4,5)P2 outside of the BCR microclusters. At single molecule level, the diffusion of PI(4,5)P2 was slow, allowing for the maintenance of a PI(4,5)P2 density gradient between the inside and outside of the BCR microclusters and the persistent supply of PI(4,5)P2 from outside to inside of the BCR microclusters. Here, we review studies that have contributed to uncovering the molecular mechanisms of PI(4,5)P2-derived signaling amplification model. Based on these studies, we proposed a "gasoline engine model" in which the activation of B cell signaling inside the microclusters is similar to the working principle of burning gasoline within the engine chamber of a gasoline engine. We also discuss the evidences showing the potential universality of this model and future prospects.

7.
Elife ; 82019 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343409

RESUMO

FcγRIIB binding to its ligand suppresses immune cell activation. A single-nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) change, I232T, in the transmembrane (TM) domain of FcγRIIB loses its suppressive function, which is clinically associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Previously, we reported that I232T tilts FcγRIIB's TM domain. In this study, combining with molecular dynamics simulations and single-cell FRET assay, we further reveal that such tilting by I232T unexpectedly bends the FcγRIIB's ectodomain toward plasma membrane to allosterically impede FcγRIIB's ligand association. I232T substitution reduces in situ two-dimensional binding affinities and association rates of FcγRIIB to interact with its ligands, IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3 by three to four folds. This allosteric regulation by an SNP provides an intrinsic molecular mechanism for the functional loss of FcγRIIB-I232T in SLE patients.

8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 1528278, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355248

RESUMO

Oxidative stress and cardiomyocytes apoptosis were closely involved in the pathological process of doxorubicin- (Dox-) induced cardiac injury. MicroRNA-451 (miR-451) was mainly expressed in cardiomyocytes. However, the role of miR-451 in Dox-induced cardiac injury remained unclear. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of miR-451 on Dox-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. We established a Dox-induced cardiotoxicity model in the mice and manipulated miR-451 expression in the heart using a miR-451 inhibitor, which was injected every other day beginning at one day before Dox injection. Oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hearts were evaluated. miR-451 levels were significantly increased in Dox-treated mice or cardiomyocytes. miR-451 inhibition attenuated Dox-induced whole-body wasting and heart atrophy, reduced cardiac injury, restored cardiac function, and improved cardiomyocyte contractile function. Moreover, miR-451 inhibition reduced oxidative stress and cardiomyocytes apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. miR-451 inhibition increased the expression of calcium binding protein 39 (Cab39) and activated adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. A specific inhibitor of AMPK abolished the protection provided by miR-451 inhibition against cell injury in vitro. In conclusion, miR-451 inhibition protected against Dox-induced cardiotoxicity via activation of AMPK signaling pathway.

9.
Sci Adv ; 5(7): eaaw0315, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328160

RESUMO

B cell activation is regulated by the stimulatory or inhibitory co-receptors of B cell receptors (BCRs). Here, we investigated the signaling mechanism of Fc receptor-like 1 (FcRL1), a newly identified BCR co-receptor. FcRL1 was passively recruited into B cell immunological synapses upon BCR engagement in the absence of FcRL1 cross-linking, suggesting that FcRL1 may intrinsically regulate B cell activation and function. BCR cross-linking alone led to the phosphorylation of the intracellular Y281ENV motif of FcRL1 to provide a docking site for c-Abl, an SH2 domain-containing kinase. The FcRL1 and c-Abl signaling module, in turn, potently augmented B cell activation and proliferation. FcRL1-deficient mice exhibited markedly impaired formation of extrafollicular plasmablasts and germinal centers, along with decreased antibody production upon antigen stimulation. These findings reveal a critical BCR signal-enhancing function of FcRL1 through its intrinsic recruitment to B cell immunological synapses and subsequent recruitment of c-Abl upon BCR cross-linking.

10.
Elife ; 82019 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290744

RESUMO

B lymphocytes use B cell receptors (BCRs) to recognize antigens. It is still not clear how BCR transduces antigen-specific physical signals upon binding across cell membrane for the conversion to chemical signals, triggering downstream signaling cascades. It is hypothesized that through a series of conformational changes within BCR, antigen engagement in the extracellular domain of BCR is transduced to its intracellular domain. By combining site-specific labeling methodology and FRET-based assay, we monitored conformational changes in the extracellular domains within BCR upon antigen engagement. Conformational changes within heavy chain of membrane-bound immunoglobulin (mIg), as well as conformational changes in the spatial relationship between mIg and Igß were observed. These conformational changes were correlated with the strength of BCR activation and were distinct in IgM- and IgG-BCR. These findings provide molecular mechanisms to explain the fundamental aspects of BCR activation and a framework to investigate ligand-induced molecular events in immune receptors.

12.
Cell Immunol ; : 103926, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151736

RESUMO

Immune cells including B and T lymphocytes have a remarkable ability to sense the physical perturbations through their surface expressed receptors. At the advent of modern imaging technologies paired with biophysical methods, we have gained the understanding of mechanical forces exerted by immune cells to perform their functions. This review will go over the imaging techniques already being used to study mechanical forces in immune cells. We will also discuss the dire need for new modern technologies for future work.

13.
Int Immunol ; 31(12): 759-770, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169885

RESUMO

Antibody production results from B-cell activation and proliferation upon antigen binding. Discs large homolog 1 (Dlg1), a scaffold protein from the membrane-associated guanylate kinase family, has been shown to regulate the antigen receptor signaling and cell polarity in lymphocytes; however, the physiological function of Dlg1 in humoral responses is not completely clear. Here, we addressed this question using a conditional knockout (KO) mouse model with Dlg1 deficiency in different B-cell subsets by crossing dlg1fl/fl mice with either mb1cre/+ or aicdacre/+ mice, respectively. In both mouse models, we observed that Dlg1 deficiency in B cells (Dlg1-KO B cells) led to obvious hyper-antibody responses upon immunization, the effect of which was more obvious in antigen-recall responses. Mechanistically, we found that Dlg1-KO B cells exhibited hyper-proliferation compared with wild-type B cells upon antigen stimulation, suggesting that the hyper-antibody responses are likely induced by the hyper-proliferation of Dlg1-KO B cells. Indeed, further studies demonstrated that Dlg1 deficiency in B cells led to the down-regulation of a tumor suppressor, FoxO1. Thus, all these results reveal an unexpected function of Dlg1 in restraining hyper-antibody responses through the inhibition of FoxO1 and thus antigen-binding-induced proliferation in B cells.

14.
Clin Ther ; 41(8): 1631-1637.e4, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174860

RESUMO

This study categorizes the types of inappropriate intravenous prescriptions in hospitalized patients in China. Prescription data from 2016 were retrospectively analyzed based on predefined categories of inappropriateness. Of the 123,521 patients included, 89.2% received intravenous medications, contributing to 80% of the patients' hospital medication costs. Of significant concern, antibiotics and traditional Chinese medicines were administered to 44.3% and 14.5% of hospitalized patients, respectively. Overall, 11.4% of all intravenous prescriptions were classified as inappropriate, with improper diluent and diluent volumes being the primary cause. A team-based collaborative approach is necessary to address this widespread issue in China.

15.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(17): 2099-2109, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31114136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The methylated septin 9 (mSEPT9) assay was the first blood-based test approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration as a colorectal screening test. However, the diagnostic and prognostic role of preoperative mSEPT9 for colorectal cancer (CRC) in Chinese patients is still unknown. AIM: To improve the understanding of diagnostic and prognostic factors, serum mSEPT9 was detected in Chinese CRC patients. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 354 cases, of which 300 had CRC and 54 were normal, was performed in China. Patients' characteristics, treatments, and laboratory data, including age, the date of surgery, Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) stages, distant metastasis (M), and so on, were collected. Methylation levels of SEPT9 were quantified by quantitative, methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction before surgery. In addition, the effects of mSEPT9 on the occurrence and prognosis of 330 CRC cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database were evaluated using bioinformatics analyses. Potential prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier univariate analysis. RESULTS: In Chinese CRC patients, positive mSEPT9 was strongly associated with advanced UICC stages, deeper invasion by the primary tumor, and more distant metastasis. Methylation levels of SEPT9 were stage-dependent and showed a stepwise increase in UICC stages (I-IV), primary tumor categories (T1-T4), regional node categories (N0-N2), and distant metastasis categories (M0-M1). The patients with positive mSEPT9 showed a tendency toward lower PFS. After analyzing TCGA clinical data, the high mSEPT9 group was found to be obviously correlated only with more distant metastasis. The patients with high mSEPT9 levels showed a tendency toward lower OS. Besides, nine meaningful mSEPT9 sites were found to provide guidance for the follow-up studies. CONCLUSION: MSEPT9 analysis may add valuable information to current tumor staging. Serum mSEPT9 in Chinese CRC patients appears to offer promising novel prognostic markers and might be considered for monitoring CRC recurrence.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Septinas/metabolismo , Adenoma/sangue , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/cirurgia , Idoso , China , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Biologia Computacional , Metilação de DNA , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Período Pré-Operatório , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Int J Cancer ; 145(10): 2873-2883, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044420

RESUMO

We analyzed the number of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and Epstein-Barr virus DNA (EBV DNA) for diagnosis, monitoring and prognosis of patients with metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (mNPC). The levels of CTCs and EBV DNA were measured at baseline and after first-line chemotherapy in 148 mNPC patients prospectively enrolled between December 2014 and August 2016. We also collected 122 non-mNPC cases within the same time frame for examining CTCs and EBV DNA at baseline. In 270 NPC patients, we observed improved specificity (86.0% vs. 41.0%) and inferior sensitivity (42.3% vs. 81.3%) of CTCs as compared to EBV DNA for diagnosis of distant metastasis. mNPC patients were stratified into unfavorable and favorable prognostic groups, respectively, based on CTC of 12 at baseline and 1 after first-line chemotherapy and EBV DNA of 10,000 at baseline and 4,000 after first-line chemotherapy. Conversion of baseline unfavorable CTCs and EBV DNA to favorable after first-line chemotherapy was associated with significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) compared to patients with unfavorable CTCs and EBV DNA at both time points. Among patients with a complete/partial response as per imaging evaluation, favorable CTCs and EBV DNA levels after first-line chemotherapy were associated with significantly longer PFS and OS. In conclusion, our data demonstrated the number of CTCs and EBV DNA before, after and during first-line chemotherapy were strong predictive markers for mNPC patients. When utilized in conjunction with imaging studies, CTCs and EBV DNA could provide additional prognostic information.

17.
J Immunol ; 202(11): 3187-3197, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028120

RESUMO

Dendritic cells (DCs) play key roles in Ab responses by presenting Ags to lymphocytes and by producing proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, we reported that DC-specific knockout of discs large homologue 1 (Dlg1) resulted in a significantly reduced capacity to mediate Ab responses to both thymus-independent and thymus-dependent Ags in Dlg1 fl/flCd11c-Cre-GFP mice. Mechanistically, Dlg1-deficient DCs showed severely impaired endocytosis and phagocytosis capacities upon Ag exposure. In parallel, loss of Dlg1 significantly jeopardized the proinflammatory cytokine production by DCs upon TLR stimulation. Thus, Dlg1-deficient DCs lost their functions to support innate and adaptive immunities. At a cellular level, Dlg1 exhibited an indispensable function to maintain membrane potential changes by securing potassium ion (K+) efflux and subsequent calcium ion (Ca2+) influx events in DCs upon stimulation, both of which are known to be required for proper function of DCs. At a molecular level, Dlg1 did so by retaining the integrity of voltage-gated K+ channels (including Kv1.3) in DCs. The loss of Dlg1 led to a decreased expression of K+ channels, resulting in impaired membrane potential changes and, as a consequence, reduced proinflammatory cytokine production, compromised Ag endocytosis, and phagocytosis. In conclusion, this study provided, to our knowledge, a novel insight into Dlg1 and the voltage-gated K+ channels axis in DC functions.

18.
Fertil Steril ; 111(5): 982-990.e2, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism with clinical data analysis in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) of infertile women in the Intravenous Infusion Safety Evaluation Center of Hunan Province, People's Republic of China. DESIGN: Genetic Association Study. SETTING: Reproductive medicine clinical. PATIENT(S): This genetic association study included 722 infertile women who received the standard long treatment protocol with accessible and complete electronic medical records. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The clinical parameters were obtained from the Intravenous Infusion Safety Evaluation center. RESULT(S): Basal FSH levels in the TT group were significantly higher than those of the CC group. The FSH levels after down-regulation in the TT group were higher than those of CC/CT genotypes. The TT genotype patients received significantly higher total doses of GnRH agonist and FSH compared with CC/CT genotypes, whereas the total dose of hCG was higher in the CT genotypes compared with the CC/TT genotypes. Further association analysis between hormone levels and COH outcomes indicated significantly negative correlation of basal FSH levels with antral follicle count and number of oocytes as well as the down-regulation FSH levels with the number of metaphase II oocytes and oocytes. CONCLUSION(S): The MTHFR C677T polymorphism was associated with high doses of ovarian stimulation medications, as well as higher FSH levels. The negative correlation between FSH levels and the number of oocytes suggested that C677T polymorphism may play a role in the poor prognosis of COH oocytes. This needs to be studied in future prospective studies with longer follow-up.


Assuntos
Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Infertilidade Feminina/sangue , Infertilidade Feminina/genética , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/terapia , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Cancer Biomark ; 24(4): 449-459, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909186

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sirtuins (SIRT) are NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases that are involved in the regulation of cancer-associated pathways. However, the biological role of these deacetylases remains elusive in glioblastoma (GBM). Here, we evaluated the effects of 7 sirtuins regarding their occurrence and prognostic value for GBM. METHODS: In this research, the effects of SIRT5 on the occurrence and prognosis of GBM were evaluated using integrative bioinformatics analyses. RESULTS: Based on comprehensive analyses of data obtained from web-based bioinformatics platforms, the data demonstrate that only SIRT5 expression is statistically decreased in GBM tissues. The clinical relevance analysis shows that downregulation of SIRT5 is significantly correlated with a shorter survival time. Moreover, the expression levels of SIRT5 were confirmed to be negatively associated with DNA methylation status. In addition, a protein-protein interaction network was constructed to determine the relationship of genes coexpressed with SIRT5. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that SIRT5 was potentially involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition and in regulating cell communications. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our results indicate that SIRT5 acts as a potential suppresser during tumorigenesis, and suggest that SIRT5 may be a promising prognostic biomarker of GBM.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/mortalidade , Sirtuínas/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genômica/métodos , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Prognóstico
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA