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1.
Front Nutr ; 8: 765589, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796195

RESUMO

Oil-in-water emulsions are widely encountered in the food and health product industries. However, the unsaturated fatty acids in emulsions are easily affected by light, oxygen, and heat, which leads to oxidation, bringing forward difficulties in controlling emulsion quality during transportation, storage, and retail. Proteins are commonly used as emulsifiers that can enhance the shelf, thermal and oxidation stability of emulsions. Polyphenols are commonly found in plants and members of the family have been reported to possess antioxidant, anticancer, and antimicrobial activities. Numerous studies have shown that binding of polyphenols to proteins can change the structure and function of the latter. In this paper, the formation of protein-polyphenol complexes (PPCs) is reviewed in relation to the latters' use as emulsifiers, using the (covalent or non-covalent) interactions between the two as a starting point. In addition, the effects polyphenol binding on the structure and function of proteins are discussed. The effects of proteins from different sources interacting with polyphenols on the emulsification, antioxidation, nutrient delivery and digestibility of oil-in-water emulsion are also summarized. In conclusion, the interaction between proteins and polyphenols in emulsions is complicated and still understudied, thereby requiring further investigation. The present review results in a critical appraisal of the relevant state-of-the-art with a focus on complexes' application potential in the food industry, including digestion and bioavailability studies.

2.
Front Nutr ; 8: 735501, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34692748

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic disorders that threatens public health. Nevertheless, its exact mechanism and relative intervention remain largely obscure. Accumulating evidence indicate that tither Anoectochilus roxburghii polysaccharide (ARP) or exercise (EX) exhibited the beneficial effects on metabolic health. However, the synergetic beneficial effects of ARP and EX as a combined intervention on obesity-induced metabolic disorders remain largely obscure. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and intervened with ARP and EX for 12 continuous weeks. The results indicated that the ARP, EX, and ARP combined with EX treatment group regulated lipogenesis by suppressing the fatty acid pathway, dampening the system oxidative stress by stimulating Nrf2-mediated phase II enzyme system, and promoting the mitochondrial function by activating the mitochondrial complexes and PGC-1α in HFD mice. More importantly, the combination of ARP and EX showed an even greater beneficial effects relative to either ARP or EX alone, especially in decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and increasing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content. Taken together, these findings further confirmed that ARP and EX could be effective interventions on obesity-induced metabolic abnormalities, and that the combination of ARP and EX exhibited the beneficial synergetic effects.

3.
Food Funct ; 12(20): 9947-9954, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492679

RESUMO

Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) have been proven as an easy energy source and active ingredient to prevent obesity and other metabolic disorders. However, the inherent hydrophobic nature of MCFAs causes poor aqueous solubility and dissolution in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, thus limiting their applications in aqueous foods. To address these issues, a nutraceutical carrier system was developed by coating nanoliposomes with carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) through a series of well-designed processes, including thin-film hydration, dynamic high pressure microfluidization (DHPM) and surface modification. Electron microscopy investigation reveals an obvious morphology evolution from the uncoated nanoliposomes (UC-LPs) to the final CMCS coated nanoliposomes (CMCS-LPs). Together with the FTIR results, it confirms the successful coating of CMCS. More importantly, the resultant CMCS-LPs have a more negatively charged surface with a ζ-potential value of around -18.5 mV, which helps to increase the stability by avoiding severe particle aggregation. Owing to the above benefits, the encapsulated MCFAs can be safely retained in a long storage period of 90 days at 4 °C and the new carrier system also exhibits a more sustained release of MCFAs in the GI fluid.

4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(32): 9395-9406, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344151

RESUMO

There are still many challenges in understanding the absorption and transport mechanism of liposomes in the gastrointestinal tract of infants, especially for liposome-coentrapped two or more substances. In this study, novel docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-anthocyanidin-codelivery liposomes (DA-LPs) were fabricated and characterized, and their digestive and absorptive behaviors were evaluated using the in vitro infant digestive method combined with the Caco-2 cell model. The liposomal bilayer structure remained intact with the particles aggregated in simulated infant gastric fluid, while their phospholipid membrane underwent enzymatic lipolysis under simulated intestinal conditions. Compared to single substance-loaded liposomes (DHA- or anthocyanidin-loaded liposomes), the digested DA-LPs showed better cell viability, higher cellular uptake and membrane fluidity, and lower reactive oxygen species (ROS). It can be concluded that DA-LPs are promising carriers for simultaneously transporting hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules and may be beneficial for improving nutrient absorption and alleviating intestinal stress oxidation.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos , Células CACO-2 , Digestão , Humanos , Lactente , Lipossomos
5.
Psychophysiology ; 58(12): e13920, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383329

RESUMO

Selective attention is essential when we face sensory inputs with distractions. In the past decades, Lavie's load theory of selective attention delineates a complete picture of distractor suppression under different attentional control load. The present study was originally designed to explore how reward modulates the load effect of attentional selection. Unexpectedly, it revealed new findings under extended attentional load that was not involved in previous work. Participants were asked to complete a rewarded attentive visual tracking task while presented with irrelevant auditory oddball stimuli, with their behavioral performance, event-related potentials and pupillary responses recorded. We found that although the behavioral performance and pupil sizes varied unidirectionally with the attentional load, the processing of distractors as reflected by the mismatch negativity (MMN) increased first and then decreased. In contrast to the prediction of Lavie's theory that attentional control fails to effectively suppress distractor processing under high attentional control load, our finding suggests that extremely high attentional control load may instead require suppression of distractor processing at a stage as early as possible. Besides, P3a, a positive-polarity response sometimes following the MMN, was not affected by the attentional load, but both N1 (a negative-polarity component peaking ~100 ms from sound onset) and P3a were weakened at higher reward, indicating that reward leads to attenuated early processing of distractor and thus suppresses the attentional orienting towards distractors. These findings altogether complement Lavie's load theory of selective attention, presenting a more complex picture of how attentional load and reward affects selective attention.

6.
Opt Express ; 29(14): 22761-22777, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266032

RESUMO

Lens-free microscopes can utilize holographic reconstruction techniques to recover the image of an object from the digitally recorded superposition of an unperturbed plane wave and a wave scattered by the object. Image reconstruction most commonly relies on the scalar angular spectrum method (ASM). While fast, the scalar ASM can be inaccurate for nanoscale objects, either because of the scalar approximation, or more generally, because it only models field propagation and not light-matter interaction, including inter-particle coupling. Here we evaluate the accuracy of the scalar ASM when combined with three different light-matter interaction models for computing the far-field light scattered by random arrays of gold and polystyrene nanoparticles. Among the three models-a dipole-matched transmission model, an optical path length model, and a binary amplitude model-we find that which model is most accurate depends on the nanoparticle material and packing density. For polystyrene particles at any packing density, there is always at least one model with error below 20%, while for gold nanoparticles with 40% or 50% surface coverage, there are no models that can provide errors better than 30%. The ASM error is determined in comparison to a discrete dipole approximation model, which is more computationally efficient than other full-wave modeling techniques. The knowledge of when and how the ASM fails can serve as a first step toward improved resolution in lens-free reconstruction and can also be applied to other random nanoparticle array applications such as lens-based super-resolution imaging, sub-diffraction beam focusing, and biomolecular sensing.

7.
Theranostics ; 11(14): 6668-6681, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34093846

RESUMO

Background: Newly emerging cancer immunotherapy has led to significant progress in cancer treatment; however, its efficacy is limited in solid tumors since the majority of them are "cold" tumors. Oncolytic viruses, especially when properly armed, can directly target tumor cells and indirectly modulate the tumor microenvironment (TME), resulting in "hot" tumors. These viruses can be applied as a cancer immunotherapy approach either alone or in combination with other cancer immunotherapies. Cytokines are good candidates to arm oncolytic viruses. IL-23, an IL-12 cytokine family member, plays many roles in cancer immunity. Here, we used oncolytic vaccinia viruses to deliver IL-23 variants into the tumor bed and explored their activity in cancer treatment on multiple tumor models. Methods: Oncolytic vaccinia viruses expressing IL-23 variants were generated by homologue recombination. The characteristics of these viruses were in vitro evaluated by RT-qPCR, ELISA, flow cytometry and cytotoxicity assay. The antitumor effects of these viruses were evaluated on multiple tumor models in vivo and the mechanisms were investigated by RT-qPCR and flow cytometry. Results: IL-23 prolonged viral persistence, probably mediated by up-regulated IL-10. The sustainable IL-23 expression and viral oncolysis elevated the expression of Th1 chemokines and antitumor factors such as IFN-γ, TNF-α, Perforin, IL-2, Granzyme B and activated T cells in the TME, transforming the TME to be more conducive to antitumor immunity. This leads to a systemic antitumor effect which is dependent on CD8+ and CD4+ T cells and IFN-γ. Oncolytic vaccinia viruses could not deliver stable IL-23A to the tumor, attributed to the elevated tristetraprolin which can destabilize the IL-23A mRNA after the viral treatment; whereas vaccinia viruses could deliver membrane-bound IL-23 to elicit a potent antitumor effect which might avoid the possible toxicity normally associated with systemic cytokine exposure. Conclusion: Either secreted or membrane-bound IL-23-armed vaccinia virus can induce potent antitumor effects and IL-23 is a candidate cytokine to arm oncolytic viruses for cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Neoplasias do Colo/terapia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Interleucina-23/farmacologia , Vírus Oncolíticos/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Vírus Vaccinia/genética , Adenocarcinoma/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma/virologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Vetores Genéticos , Granzimas/metabolismo , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Interleucina-23/genética , Interleucina-23/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Vírus Oncolíticos/metabolismo , Perforina/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Vírus Vaccinia/metabolismo
8.
iScience ; 24(6): 102666, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34169241

RESUMO

Most Li3VO4 anodes are obtained by pre-architecture methods in which Li3VO4 anode materials are prepared with more than six key processes including high-temperature annealing and long preparation time. Herein, we propose an in situ post-architecture strategy including Li3VO4-precursor solution (ink) preparation and then annealing at 250°C. The integrated Li3VO4 based electrode not only possesses good electrical conductivity and porous microstructure but also has superior stability because of Cu anchoring and inclusion by in situ catalysis. The integrated electrode demonstrates a high reversible capacity (865 mA h g-1 at 0.2 A g-1) and good cyclability (100% capacity retention after 200 cycles at 1 A g-1). More importantly, the post-architecture electrode has a high energy density of 773.8 Wh kg-1, much higher than reported Li3VO4-based materials, as well as most cathodes. Therefore, the electrode could be used to the printable cathode of low-voltage high-energy-density lithium batteries.

9.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 651142, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34084770

RESUMO

RNA m6A methylation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). RNA modifications and RNA-modifying regulators have recently emerged as critical factors involved in ß-cell function and insulin resistance, including "writers," "erasers," and "readers." However, their key roles in regulating gene expression in T2DM remain unclear. The construction of co-expression network could provide a cue to resolve this complex regulatory pathway. We collected the transcriptome datasets of ß-cell in diabetic patients, calculated the partial correlation coefficient, excluded the influence from control variables of diabetes related genes, and identified the genes significantly co-expressed with m6A regulators. A total of 985 genes co-expressed with m6A regulators (Co-m6AR) were identified, which were enriched in metabolic process, MAPK and EGFR signaling pathways. Some of them have been confirmed to play a pivotal role in T2DM, including CCNL2, CSAD, COX5A, GAB2, and MIRLET7I, etc. Further, we analyzed the m6A modification characteristics of Co-m6AR in ß-cell and identified 228 Co-m6AR containing m6A methylation sites, involving in several key signaling pathways regulating T2DM. We finally screened out 13 eQTL-SNPs localized in Co-m6ARs, and 4 have been reported strongly associated with diabetes, including GAB2, LMNB2, XAB2, and RBM39. This co-expression analysis provides important information to reveal the potential regulatory mechanism of RNA m6A methylation in T2DM.

10.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(8)2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920970

RESUMO

In this study, calcium carbonate (CaCO3) microparticles having pH-sensitive properties were loaded with sodium lignosulfonate (SLS), a corrosion inhibitor. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-VIS spectrophotometer (UV-vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and attenuated total reflection-Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) were applied to evaluate the properties of the synthetic microparticles. This material could lead to the release of corrosion inhibitor under different pH conditions of the aqueous media. However, the extent of release of the corrosion inhibitor in the acidic media was higher, leading to enhanced shielding effect of the Q235 steel. These microparticles can serve as anti-corrosion additive for epoxy resin-coated Q235 steel. Electrochemical experiments were used to assess the anti-corrosive ability of the epoxy coatings in simulated concrete pore (SCP) solution, confirming the superior corrosion inhibition of the epoxy coating via incorporation of 5 wt % calcium carbonate microparticles loaded with SLS (SLS/CaCO3). The physical properties of coating specimens were characterized by water absorption, contact angle, adhesion, and pencil hardness mechanical tests.

11.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799623

RESUMO

RNA-based molecules have recently become hot candidates to be developed into therapeutic agents. However, successful applications of RNA-based therapeutics might require suitable carriers to protect the RNA from enzymatic degradation by ubiquitous RNases in vivo. Because of their better biocompatibility and biodegradability, protein-based nanoparticles are considered to be alternatives to their synthetic polymer-based counterparts for drug delivery. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein has been suggested to be able to self-assemble into nucleocapsid-like particles in vitro. In this study, the genomic RNA-binding domain of HCV core protein consisting of 116 amino acids (p116) was overexpressed with E. coli for investigation. The recombinant p116 was able to assemble into particles with an average diameter of approximately 27 nm, as visualized by electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Measurements with fluorescence spectroscopy, flow cytometry, and fluorescence quenching indicated that the p116-assembled nanoparticles were able to encapsulate small anionic molecules and structured RNA. This study demonstrates methods that exploit the self-assembly nature of a virus-derived protein for nanoparticle production. This study also suggests that the virus-derived protein-assembled particles could possibly be developed into potential carriers for anionic molecular drugs and structured RNA-based therapeutics.

12.
Neurotherapeutics ; 18(2): 1064-1080, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786807

RESUMO

Brain capillaries are crucial for cognitive functions by supplying oxygen and other nutrients to and removing metabolic wastes from the brain. Recent studies have demonstrated that constriction of brain capillaries is triggered by beta-amyloid (Aß) oligomers via endothelin-1 (ET1)-mediated action on the ET1 receptor A (ETRA), potentially exacerbating Aß plaque deposition, the primary pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, direct evidence is still lacking whether changes in brain capillaries are causally involved in the pathophysiology of AD. Using APP/PS1 mouse model of AD (AD mice) relative to age-matched negative littermates, we identified that reductions of density and diameter of hippocampal capillaries occurred from 4 to 7 months old while Aß plaque deposition and spatial memory deficit developed at 7 months old. Notably, the injection of ET1 into the hippocampus induced early Aß plaque deposition at 5 months old in AD mice. Conversely, treatment of ferulic acid against the ETRA to counteract the ET1-mediated vasoconstriction for 30 days prevented reductions of density and diameter of hippocampal capillaries as well as ameliorated Aß plaque deposition and spatial memory deficit at 7 months old in AD mice. Thus, these data suggest that reductions of density and diameter of hippocampal capillaries are crucial for initiating Aß plaque deposition and spatial memory deficit at the early stages, implicating the development of new therapies for halting or curing memory decline in AD.

13.
Brain Res Bull ; 170: 174-186, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600886

RESUMO

Chronic cerebral ischemia leads to vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) that exacerbates along with ischemia time and eventually develops into dementia. Recent advances in molecular neuroimaging contribute to understand its pathological characteristics. We previously traced the anisotropic diffusion of water molecules suggests that chronic cerebral ischemia leads to irreversible progressive damage to white matter integrity. However, the abnormalities of gray matter activity following chronic cerebral ischemia remains not entirely understood. In this study, in vivo hydrogen proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was applied to longitudinally track the neurochemical metabolic disorder of gray matter associated with working memory, and optogenetics modulation of neurochemical metabolism was performed for targeted treatment of VCI. The results showed that the concentration of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in the right hippocampus, left hippocampus, right medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and mediodorsal thalamus was decreased as early as 7 days after chronic cerebral ischemia, subsequently gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) declined whereas myo-inositol (mI) and glutamate (Glu) increased at 14 days, as well as choline (Cho) lost at 28 days, concurrently the change of Glu and GABA in the mPFC and hippocampus was ischemia time-dependent manner within 1 month. Behaviorally, working memory and object recognition memory were impaired at 14 days, 28 days that significantly correlated with neurochemical metabolic disorders. Interestingly, using optogenetics modulation of PV neurons in the mPFC, the metabolic abnormalities of NAA and GABA in working memory neural circuit could be repaired after chronic cerebral ischemia, together with behavior improvements. These findings suggested that as early as 1∼4 weeks after chronic cerebral ischemia, the metabolism of NAA, Glu, mI and Cho was synchronously impaired in neural circuit of hippocampus-mediodorsal thalamus-mPFC, and the loss of GABA delayed in the hippocampus, and optogenetics modulation of parvalbumin (PV) neurons in the mPFC can improve the neurochemical metabolism of working memory neural circuit and enhance working memory.

14.
Anticancer Res ; 41(1): 123-130, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a serious disease and the leading cause of death globally. Overexpression of protein kinase B/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling transduction of NSCLC cells was recognized as a potential therapeutic target. Lenvatinib is a multiple kinase inhibitor against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor family. However, whether lenvatinib may affect AKT/NF-κB in NSCLC remains unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MTT assay, NF-κB reporter gene assay, flow cytometry, tranwell migration/invasion analysis and western blotting were used to identify the alteration of cell viability, NF-κB activation, apoptosis effect, migration/invasion potential and AKT/NF-κB related protein expression, respectively, in CL-1-5-F4 cells after lenvatinib treatment. RESULTS: The cell viability and NF-κB activity were suppressed by lenvatinib. Extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis were activated by lenvatinib. Additionally, the metastatic potential of CL-1-5-F4 cells was also suppressed by lenvatinib. CONCLUSION: Altogether, lenvatinib induced extrinsic/intrinsic apoptosis and suppressed migration/invasion ability of NSCLC cells that was associated with AKT/NF-κB signaling inactivation.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia
15.
Acupunct Med ; 39(2): 146-155, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate whether electroacupuncture (EA) treatment at LI11 and ST36 could reduce motor impairments and enhance brain functional recovery in a rat model of ischemic stroke. METHODS: A rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was established. EA at LI11 and ST36 was started at 24 h (MCAO + EA group) after ischemic stroke modeling. Untreated model (MCAO) and sham-operated (Sham) groups were included as controls. The neurological deficits of all groups were assessed using modified neurologic severity scores (mNSS) at 24 h and 14 days after MCAO. To further investigate the effect of EA on infarct volume and brain function, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to estimate the size of the brain lesions and neural activities of each group at 14 days after ischemic stroke. RESULTS: EA treatment of MCAO rats led to a significant reduction in the infarct volumes accompanied by functional recovery, reflected in improved mNSS outcomes and motor functional performances. Furthermore, functional connectivity between the left motor cortex and left cerebellum posterior lobe, right motor cortex, left striatum and bilateral sensory cortex were decreased in MCAO group but increased after EA treatment. CONCLUSION: EA at LI11 and ST36 could enhance the functional connectivity between the left motor cortex and the motor function-related brain regions, including the motor cortex, sensory cortex and striatum, in rats. EA exhibits potential as a treatment for ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , AVC Isquêmico/terapia , Pontos de Acupuntura , Animais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico por imagem , AVC Isquêmico/fisiopatologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Atividade Motora , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Acupunct Med ; 39(3): 200-207, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the central mechanism underlying the putative beneficial effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on learning and memory ability of rats with ischemic stroke-induced cognitive deficits by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). METHODS: A rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced cognitive deficit (MICD) was established. Rats were randomly assigned into a sham-operated control group (SC group, n = 12), untreated MICD model group (MICD group, n = 12), and MICD group receiving EA treatment at GV20 and GV24 (MICD + EA group, n = 12). RESULTS: Compared to the MICD group, rats in the MICD + EA group receiving EA at GV20 and GV24 exhibited significantly shortened escape latency times and crossed the position of the platform a significantly increased number of times during the Morris water maze test on the 14th day after EA, which suggested EA could significantly improve spatial learning and memory ability. Furthermore, compared to the MICD group, functional connectivity of the left retrosplenial cortex (RSC) with the left hippocampus, left RSC, right RSC, left cingulate gyrus, right cingulate gyrus, right tegmentum of midbrain, and right visual cortex was increased in the MICD + EA group; the MICD group showed decreased functional connectivity of the left RSC with the left hippocampus, right hippocampus, left RSC, right RSC, right amygdaloid body, left visual cortex, and right visual cortex. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that EA at GV20 and GV24 might improve the learning and memory ability of MICD rats by increasing the functional connectivity between the RSC and hippocampus, cingulate gyrus and midbrain, which is encouraging for the potential treatment for cognitive impairment secondary to ischemia stroke.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Eletroacupuntura , AVC Isquêmico/terapia , Pontos de Acupuntura , Animais , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Cognição , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico por imagem , AVC Isquêmico/fisiopatologia , AVC Isquêmico/psicologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
17.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 61(16): 2742-2755, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602780

RESUMO

Gastric emptying refers to a process in which the stomach discharges its contents into the small intestine to further digest and absorb nutrients. Understanding the mechanisms of gastric emptying and relationships between food and individuals is of paramount importance for the design and manufacture of novel and healthy foods. For ethical and cost reasons, in vivo tests are not always possible. In vitro digestion models therefore play a key role in current exploration of gastric emptying. This review outlines the mechanisms and physiology of gastric emptying, including calories, viscosity, composition of the food, age and gender of the individual. In addition, recent progress on in vitro static and dynamic gastric digestion models and future research trends are included in this review.


Assuntos
Esvaziamento Gástrico , Estômago , Alimentos , Humanos , Intestino Delgado , Viscosidade
18.
Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen ; 35: 1533317520951686, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive diagnostic biomarkers of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) facilitate patient selection and cognitive progressive decline monitoring. However, the diagnostic value of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) for early cognitive impairment and progression to dementia is currently under debate. Thus, this study aimed to assess the diagnostic performance of circulating, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and exosomal miRNAs in the detection of clinical cognitive impairment in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), AD, and MCI-AD. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP Chinese Science and Technology Journals Database (CQVIP), and Chinese Medicine Premier (Wanfang) to identify potentially eligible studies related to noncoding RNAs and cognitive dysfunction biomarkers published before November 2018. The quality assessment of the studies was performed according to the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) checklist. Meta-analysis of the literature data was performed using Stata/MP 14.0 software. The corresponding effects models were selected to calculate the summary sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios (PLR and NLR), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and to plot the summary receiver operating characteristic curves (SROCs) and calculate the areas under the curves (AUCs). RESULTS: A total of 18 studies involving 729 patients with AD, 283 patients with MCI, and 15 patients with MCI-AD were pooled. The results revealed that the sensitivity and specificity of miRNAs in the diagnosis of AD were 0.78 and 0.79, respectively, and the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve (AUSROC) was 0.90. The sensitivity and specificity of miRNAs in the diagnosis of MCI were 0.89 and 0.85, respectively, and the AUSROC was 0.94. The sensitivity and specificity of microRNAs in the diagnosis of MCI-AD were 0.87 and 0.84, respectively, and the AUSROC was 0.92. CONCLUSION: Our study found that miRNAs have certain diagnostic value for cognitive impairment, with high sensitivity and specificity, especially in diagnostics with multiple miRNAs and serum-based miRNA assays.


Assuntos
MicroRNA Circulante , Disfunção Cognitiva , MicroRNAs , Biomarcadores , MicroRNA Circulante/análise , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Humanos
19.
Neural Plast ; 2020: 8836173, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908486

RESUMO

Microglia are the primary cells that exert immune function in the central nervous system, and accumulating evidence suggests that microglia act as critical players in the initiation of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Microglia seemingly demonstrate two contradictory phenotypes in response to different microenvironmental cues, the M1 phenotype and the M2 phenotype, which are detrimental and beneficial to pathogenesis, respectively. Inhibiting the M1 phenotype with simultaneous promoting the M2 phenotype has been suggested as a potential therapeutic approach for cure AD. In this study, we demonstrated that electroacupuncture at the Shenting and Baihui acupoints for 16 weeks could improve learning and memory in the Morris water maze test and reduce amyloid ß-protein in the parietal association cortex and entorhinal cortex in mice with mild and moderate AD. Besides, electroacupuncture at the Shenting and Baihui acupoints not only suppressed M1 marker (iNOS/IL-1ß) expression but also increased the M2 marker (CD206/Arg1) expression in those regions. We propose that electroacupuncture at the Shenting and Baihui acupoints could regulate microglial polarization and decrease Aß plaques to improve learning and memory in mild AD mice.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Polaridade Celular , Eletroacupuntura , Córtex Entorrinal/fisiologia , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Microglia/metabolismo , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos
20.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(81): 12206-12209, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926055

RESUMO

Amorphous Zn-rich nitrogen-doped carbon-based microstars are synthesized using an ionic liquid-assisted method and annealing process. The microstars exhibit a high reversible capacity of 756 mA h g-1 and a capacity retention of 98% after 120 cycles at 0.5 A g-1 due to their large surface area, hierarchical nanopores, and uniform distribution of zinc and nitrogen.

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