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1.
Insect Sci ; 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401389

RESUMO

Wings are an important flight organ of insects and their morphogenesis depends on a series of cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Integrin as a transmembrane protein receptor mediates cell-cell adhesion, cell-extracellular matrix interactions and signal transduction. In the present study, we characterized an integrin gene that encodes Integrinß-PS protein in Locusta migratoria. LmIntegrinß-PS is highly expressed in the wing pads and the middle stages of fifth instar nymphs. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the LmIntegrinß-PS protein was localized at the cell base of the two layers of wings. After suppression of LmIntegrinß-PS by RNA interference, the wing pads or wings were unable to form normally, with a blister wing appearance during nymph to nymph transition and nymph to adult transition. We further found that the dorsal and ventral epidermis of the wings after dsLmIntegrinß-PS injection were improperly connected and formed huge cavities revealed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Furthermore, the morphology and structure of the wing cuticle was significantly disturbed which affected the stable arrangement and attachments of the wing epidermis. Moreover, the expression of related cell adhesion genes was significantly decreased in LmIntegrinß-PS-suppressed L. migratoria, suggesting that LmIntegrinß-PS is required for the morphogenesis and development of wings during molting by stabilizing cell adhesion and maintaining the cytoskeleton of these cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Chem Soc Rev ; 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393930

RESUMO

Mussel-inspired chemistry, owing to its unique and versatile functions to manipulate dynamic molecular-scale interactions, has emerged as a powerful tool for the rational design and synthesis of new hydrogels. In particular, possessing a myriad of unique advantages that are otherwise impossible by conventional counterparts, mussel-inspired hydrogels have been widely explored in numerous fields such as biomedical engineering, soft electronics and actuators, and wearable sensors. Despite great excitement and vigor, a comprehensive and timely review on this emerging topic is missing. In this review, we discuss (1) the fundamental interaction mechanisms underpinning the spectacular wet adhesion in natural mussels and mussel-inspired materials; (2) the key routes to engineering hydrogels by leveraging on the interactions of mussel-inspired building blocks; (3) the emerging applications of mussel-inspired hydrogels, especially in the areas of flexible electronics and biomedical engineering; (4) the future perspectives and unsolved challenges of this multidisciplinary field. We envision that this review will provide an insightful perspective to stimulate new thinking and innovation in the development of next-generation hydrogels and beyond.

3.
Nanoscale ; 12(16): 9208-9218, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307469

RESUMO

The development of a high-performance nanoparticle (NP) additive for lubricating oil is a research hotspot for the tribology and engineering areas. In this study, the concept of a novel liquid nano-additive has been proposed based on the emergence of Ga-based liquid metals (GLMs), which display excellent extreme-pressure and high-temperature lubricity. Herein, the liquid NPs (designated as GLM-NP/C12) were prepared from a GLM droplet through the ultrasonic method, modified with 1-dodecanethiol, and are mainly distributed at 286 ± 21 nm. They have a core-shell structure with liquid-state GLM on the inside, and gallium oxide and a self-assembled alkylthiolate monolayer on the outside. In terms of the tribological performance, GLM-NP/C12s have a wonderful dispersion-stability in PAO10 oil, and provide excellent anti-adhesion, friction-reducing, and wear-resistance properties. When the additive concentration was 0.17 wt% in PAO10, the friction coefficient was reduced by 39% and the wear rate was reduced by 93% compared to those lubricated by the neat PAO10. This kind of liquid nano-additive has the advantages of easy preparation, internal composition regulation and recyclability, compared to conventional solid NPs. In addition, the liquid NPs were readily introduced into the frictional interfaces. More generally, the optimal additive concentration of the liquid NPs was much lower than that of the solid NPs. This observation has important implications for understanding the differences of the lubrication mechanisms between the solid and liquid nano-additives, and may provide a new design method and strategy of nano-additives for lubricating oil.

4.
Biochemistry ; 59(15): 1482-1492, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32266809

RESUMO

Aggregation of polypeptides and proteins is commonly associated with human and other vertebrate diseases. For example, amyloid plaques consisting of amyloid-ß proteins are frequently identified in Alzheimer's disease and islet amyloid formed by islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP, amylin) can be found in most patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although many fluorescent dyes have been developed to stain amyloid fibrils, very few examples have been designed for IAPP. In this study, a series of environmentally sensitive fluorescent probes using flavonoid as a scaffold design are rationally designed and synthesized. One of these probes, namely 3-HF-ene-4'-OMe, can bind to IAPP fibrils but not nonfibrillar IAPP by exhibiting a much stronger fluorescent enhancement at 535 nm. In addition, this probe shows better detection sensitivity to IAPP fibrils compared with that of conventionally used thioflavin-T. We demonstrate that 3-HF-ene-4'-OMe can be used to monitor the kinetics of IAPP fibril formation in vitro even in the presence an amyloid inhibitor. To test the specificity of the probe, we attempt to incubate this probe with amyloid fibrils formed from other amyloidogenic proteins. Interestingly, this probe shows different responses when mixed with these fibrils, suggesting the mode of binding of this probe on these fibrils could be different. Moreover, we show that this probe is not toxic to pancreatic mouse ß-cells. Further structural optimization based on the structure of 3-HF-ene-4'-OMe may yield a specific probe for imaging islet amyloid in the pancreas. That would improve our understanding of the relationship between islet amyloid and T2D.

5.
J Insect Physiol ; 123: 104052, 2020 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259526

RESUMO

Insect cuticular lipids are a complex cocktail of highly diverse cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), which form a hydrophobic surface coat to maintain water balance and to prevent desiccation and penetration of exogenous substances. Fatty acid elongases (ELOs) are key enzymes that participate in a common CHC synthesis pathway in insects. However, the importance of ELOs for CHC synthesis and function remains understudied. Using transcriptomic data, we have identified seven ELO genes (LmELO1-7) in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria. We determined their tissue-specific and temporal expression profiles in fifth instar nymphs. As we are interested in cuticle barrier formation, we performed RNA interference against LmELO7, which is mainly expressed in the integument. Suppression of LmELO7 significantly decreased its expression and caused lethality during or shortly after molting. CHC quantification by GC-MS analysis indicated that suppression of LmELO7 resulted in a decrease in total CHC amounts. By consequence, CHC deficiency reduced desiccation resistance and enhanced cuticle permeability in LmELO7-suppressed L. migratoria. Interestingly, LmELO7 expression is induced at low air humidity. Our results indicate that LmELO7 plays a vital role in the production of CHCs and, hence, cuticle permeability. Induction of LmELO7 expression in drought conditions suggests a key role of this gene in regulating desiccation resistance. This work is expected to help developing new strategies for insect pest management based on CHC function.

7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(13): 6216-6226, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181657

RESUMO

Modern photoredox catalysis has traditionally relied upon metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) excitation of metal polypyridyl complexes for the utilization of light energy for the activation of organic substrates. Here, we demonstrate the catalytic application of ligand-to-metal charge-transfer (LMCT) excitation of cerium alkoxide complexes for the facile activation of alkanes utilizing abundant and inexpensive cerium trichloride as the catalyst. As demonstrated by cerium-catalyzed C-H amination and the alkylation of hydrocarbons, this reaction manifold has enabled the facile use of abundant alcohols as practical and selective hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) agents via the direct access of energetically challenging alkoxy radicals. Furthermore, the LMCT excitation event has been investigated through a series of spectroscopic experiments, revealing a rapid bond homolysis process and an effective production of alkoxy radicals, collectively ruling out the LMCT/homolysis event as the rate-determining step of this C-H functionalization.

8.
Ci Ji Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 32(1): 41-46, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32110519

RESUMO

Objective: Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis using electrocardiographic R-R intervals (RRIs) in either a time or a frequency domain is a useful tool for assessing cardiac autonomic dysfunction in clinical research. For convenience, pulse-pulse intervals (PPIs) acquired by photoplethysmography have been used to assess HRV. However, the compatibility of PPI with RRI is controversial. Materials and Methods: In this study, we investigated the compatibility of PPI with RRI in five groups of participants, including nonoverweight young individuals with a body mass index (BMI) <24 kg/m2 (Group 1, n = 20, aged 18-40 years), overweight young individuals with a BMI ≥24 kg/m2 (Group 2, n = 13, aged 21-38 years), nonoverweight upper middle-aged individuals with a BMI <24 kg/m2 (Group 3, n = 21, aged 45-89 years), overweight upper middle-aged individuals with a BMI ≥24 kg/m2 (Group 4, n = 14, aged 43-74 years), and diabetic patients with a BMI ≥24 kg/m2 (Group 5, n = 19, aged 35-74 years). We then used cross-approximate entropy (CAE) to assess the compatibility between RRI and PPI and analyzed HRV in the time and frequency domains derived from PPR and RRI with traditional methods. Results: The CAE values in Group 1 were significantly lower than those in Group 2 (1.68 ± 0.16 vs. 1.78 ± 0.15, P = 0.041), Group 3 (1.68 ± 0.16 vs. 2.05 ± 0.27, P < 0.001), Group 4 (1.68 ± 0.16 vs. 1.87 ± 0.23, P = 0.023), and Group 5 (1.68 ± 0.16 vs. 2.09 ± 0.23, P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in HRV acquired by PPI and RRI, except for proportion of pairs of adjacent NN intervals differing by more than 50 ms in the entire recording in Group 1. All HRVs derived from PPI were different from those acquired from RRI in the other groups. Conclusion: PPI may be an alternative parameter for effectively assessing cardiac autonomic function in nonoverweight healthy individuals. It should be used carefully in overweight, elderly, or diabetic individuals.

9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 793, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034152

RESUMO

Fluorescence-based technologies have revolutionized in vivo monitoring of biomolecules. However, significant technical hurdles in both probe chemistry and complex cellular environments have limited the accuracy of quantifying these biomolecules. Herein, we report a generalizable engineering strategy for dual-emission anti-Kasha-active fluorophores, which combine an integrated fluorescein with chromene (IFC) building block with donor-π-acceptor structural modification. These fluorophores exhibit an invariant near-infrared Kasha emission from the S1 state, while their anti-Kasha emission from the S2 state at around 520 nm can be finely regulated via a spirolactone open/closed switch. We introduce bio-recognition moieties to IFC structures, and demonstrate ratiometric quantification of cysteine and glutathione in living cells and animals, using the ratio (S2/S1) with the S1 emission as a reliable internal reference signal. This de novo strategy of tuning anti-Kasha-active properties expands the in vivo ratiometric quantification toolbox for highly accurate analysis in both basic life science research and clinical applications.


Assuntos
Bioquímica/métodos , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Células A549 , Animais , Benzopiranos/química , Cisteína/análise , Feminino , Fluoresceína/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Corantes Fluorescentes/metabolismo , Glutationa/análise , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Estrutura Molecular , Neoplasias Experimentais/diagnóstico por imagem , Piranos/química , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Espironolactona/química
10.
Reprod Sci ; 27(5): 1164-1174, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942710

RESUMO

Microarray has indicated a huge number of miRNAs exist in reproductive tissues and cells. Moreover, the expression of miRNA in the reproductive system varies under the strict monitoring of different regulations. To understand the role of miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene regulation in female reproduction, we investigated the level and function of a mir-let-7 family member in both mice and human uterine receptivity. As we observed, mir-let-7 a/g had a higher expression in mouse and human receptive uterine epithelium; the level of mir-let-7a was under the inverse regulation of estrogen and progesterone; upregulated mir-let-7a/g in mouse and human uterine epithelium increased uterine receptivity, thus improved implantation-related embryo attachment and outgrowth ability; the let-7a/g enhanced uterine receptivity through suppressing canonical Wnt signaling. In summary, our findings suggest that mir-let-7 a/g increases uterine receptivity via inhibiting Wnt signaling and under the modulation of ovarian hormones.

11.
ChemMedChem ; 15(2): 177-181, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755659

RESUMO

Dopamine modified hypocrellin B (DAHB) derivative-loaded calcium phosphate nanorods (DAHB@CaP NRs) were prepared as a novel phototheranostic agent for effective tumor imaging and therapy. DAHB@CaP NRs were obtained through microwave treatment using DAHB, CaCl2 , NH3 ⋅H2 O, and H3 PO4 as precursors. The DAHB@CaP NRs possessed the following advantages: 1) efficient absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) region from 650 nm to 800 nm; 2) maximum NIR emission at approximately 735 nm; 3) enhanced cellular uptake efficiency in vitro and in vivo; and 4) efficient inhibition of tumor growth and low biotoxicity. These properties indicate the high capability of DAHB@CaP NRs for NIR fluorescence (FL) imaging-guided photodynamic therapy of cancer, thus offering promising new prospects for clinical applications.

12.
J Cell Biochem ; 121(4): 2927-2937, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692073

RESUMO

Bone resorption and organelle homeostasis in osteoclasts require specialized intracellular trafficking. Sorting nexin 10 (Snx10) is a member of the sorting nexin family of proteins that plays crucial roles in cargo sorting in the endosomal pathway by its binding to phosphoinositide(3)phosphate (PI3P) localized in early endosomes. We and others have shown previously that the gene encoding sorting Snx10 is required for osteoclast morphogenesis and function, as osteoclasts from humans and mice lacking functional Snx10 are dysfunctional. To better understand the role and mechanisms by which Snx10 regulates vesicular transport, the aim of the present work was to study PIKfyve, another PI3P-binding protein, which phosphorylates PI3P to PI(3,5)P2. PI(3,5)P2 is known to be required for endosome/lysosome maturation, and the inhibition of PIKfyve causes endosome enlargement. Overexpression of Snx10 also induces accumulation of early endosomes suggesting that both Snx10 and PIKfyve are required for normal endosome/lysosome transition. Apilimod is a small molecule with specific, nanomolar inhibitory activity on PIKfyve but only in the presence of key osteoclast factors CLCN7, OSTM1, and Snx10. This observation suggests that apilimod's inhibitory effects are mediated by endosome/lysosome disruption. Here we show that both Snx10 and PIKfyve colocalize to early endosomes in osteoclasts and coimmunoprecipitate in vesicle fractions. Treatment with 10 nM apilimod or genetic deletion of PIKfyve in cells resulted in the accumulation of early endosomes, and in the inhibition of osteoclast differentiation, lysosome formation, and secretion of TRAP from differentiated osteoclasts. Snx10 and PIKfyve also colocalized in gastric zymogenic cells, another cell type impacted by Snx10 mutations. Apilimod-specific inhibition of PIKfyve required Snx10 expression, as it did not inhibit lysosome biogenesis in Snx10-deficient osteoclasts. These findings suggest that Snx10 and PIKfyve are involved in the regulation of endosome/lysosome homeostasis via the synthesis of PI(3,5)P2 and may point to a new strategy to prevent bone loss.

13.
Exp Cell Res ; 388(1): 111718, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874176

RESUMO

Successful implantation happens only when the development of a competent blastocyst synchronized with the differentiation of a receptive uterus. The exact mechanism affecting embryo implantation competency is still unclear. Previous data from our laboratory showed that several members of the let-7 family were up-regulated in the implanting dormant blastocysts and prohibited embryo activation through down-regulation integrin-ß3. However, how the mir-let-7 family is regulated is still a question. In this study, the in vitro co-culture model was applied to imitate implantation. Human embryo surrogate Jeg-3 spheroids and endometrium epithelial cells Ishikawa were used. The following views were demonstrated. Firstly,Wnt/ß-catenin signaling is essential for Jeg-3 spheroids implantation. Secondly, mir-let-7a is repressed by Wnt signaling, and low let-7a is beneficial for spheroids attachment and outgrowth. Third, in contrast with let-7a, lin28a is up-regulated by Wnt and promotes attachment and outgrowth. Lastly, the function of Wnt in embryo surrogate spheroids in implantation is mediated through lin28a/let-7a axis. In summary, our findings suggest Wnt/ß-catenin signaling strength human embryo surrogate spheroids implanting potential through regulation lin28a/let-7a axis.

14.
Biomed Opt Express ; 10(11): 5716-5723, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799042

RESUMO

Melanin dominates the endogenous contrasts of in vivo third harmonic generation (THG) imaging of human skin. A recent study investigated the THG in melanin solution and a linear relationship between melanin concentration and THG intensity was reported, in contrast to the expected nonlinear relationship. Since melanin hydrocolloid solution is very different from the skin tissue, here we report our study on the origin of the melanin-enhanced THG by using a live cell model. Different from the previous conclusion, our live cell study has indicated an initial nonlinear process where the THG intensity was enhanced according to the 3.5th power of melanin mass density (MMD). When the MMD is higher than 11 mg/ml, a transition from the resonance-enhanced THG to the high-order hyper-Rayleigh scattering process occurs. This saturation phenomenon of the virtual-transition-based THG nonlinear process is attributed to the multi-melanosome-induced scattering within the sub-femtoliter focal volume.

15.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 28(12): 1705-1710, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between different risk factors and the cognitive impairment of white matter lesions (WML) remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the features of cognitive impairment of patients diagnosed with WML accompanied by different risk factors of cerebrovascular diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 157 cases of WML patients were divided into no risk factor group (n = 26), hypertension group (n = 35), diabetes mellitus group (n = 27), dyslipidemia group (n = 30), and mixed factors group (n = 39). RESULTS: The severity of WML (Fazekas score) in the hypertension and mixed factors groups was higher than in the non-risk factors group. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores in the hypertension and mixed factors groups were lower than in the non-risk factors group. The scores of MoCA, immediate memory and delayed recall in the hypertension and mixed factors groups with Fazekas score ≥3 were lower than in the peer group with Fazekas score <3. The scores of MoCA and immediate memory in the hypertension and mixed factors groups with Fazekas score ≥3 were lower than in the non-risk factors group with Fazekas score ≥3. CONCLUSIONS: Hypertension aggravates the severity of WML and cognitive impairment. The severity of WML is positively correlated with the severity of cognitive impairment accompanied by these risk factors.

16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(48): 44989-44998, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755268

RESUMO

Tumor hypoxia severely limits the therapeutic efficacy of solid tumors in photodynamic therapy. One strategy is to develop photosensitizers with simultaneously high efficiency in photodynamic (PDT) and photothermal therapies (PTT) in a single natural-origin phototheranostic agent to overcome this problem. However, less attention has been paid to the natural-origin phototheranostic agent with high PDT and PTT efficiencies even though they have negligible side effects and are environmentally sustainable in comparison with many reported phototheranostic agents. In addition, almost all clinical applied photosensitizers are of natural origin so far. Herein, we synthesized a natural product-based hypocrellin derivative (AETHB), with a high singlet oxygen quantum yield of 0.64 as an efficient photosensitizer different from commercially available porphyrin-based photosensitizers. AETHB is further assembled with human serum albumin to construct nanoparticles (HSA-AETHB NPs) with a high photothermal conversion efficiency (more than 50%). As-prepared HSA-AETHB NPs have shown good water solubility and biocompatibility, pH and light stability, wide absorption (400-750 nm), and NIR emission centered at 710 nm. More importantly, HSA-AETHB NPs can be applied for fluorescent/photoacoustic dual-mode imaging and simultaneously highly efficient PDT/PTT in hypoxic solid tumors. Therefore, this natural-origin multifunctional phototheranostic agent is showing very promising for effective, precise, and safe cancer therapy in clinical applications.

17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758989

RESUMO

The development of insect wings is a complex process controlled by a series of genes, whereas the mechanism of wing development of orthoptera insects is less frequently reported. In the present study, a BTB domain-containing protein 6 (LmBTBD6) gene was identified from Locusta migratoria. Its encoded protein belongs to the BTB-BACK-PHR subfamily, and is highly conserved among insect species. LmBTBD6 was mainly expressed in the wing pads and showed high expression on day 7 of fifth-instar nymphs. LmBTBD6 responded to induction by 20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E) in vivo, and its expression was significantly suppressed after knocking down the ecdysone receptor gene LmEcR and nuclear receptor gene LmHR39. Deficiency of LmBTBD6 did not show visible phenotype in the wing pads transition from nymph to nymph of L. migratoria, but caused wing defects in the transition from nymph to adult. After silencing of LmBTBD6, the transcription of wing development-related genes (LmSal411, LmSal468, and LmHth) and the wing-specific cuticle protein genes (LmACP7 and LmACP8) of L. migratoria were significantly suppressed. Thus, LmBTBD6 that regulated by the LmEcR-LmHR39-mediated 20E signaling pathway is involved in wing development during the nymph to adult transition by regulating the expression of wing development-related genes and wing-specific cuticle protein genes.

18.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 58(6): 885-887, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759549

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report a case with benign bilateral ovarian tumor during pregnancy mimicking malignancy. CASE REPORT: A 32-year-old women at 20 weeks gestation with large bilateral adnexal masses found on prenatal ultrasound. The cysts had been growing gradually over the course of the pregnancy. MRI show huge multiple cysts in both ovaries. CA-125 was elevated at 260 U/mL. Due to initial impression was malignancy, an excisional surgery was done. Pathology revealed multiple luteinized granulosa cells with benign nature. CONCLUSION: Hyperreactio luteinalis (HL) is often asymptomatic and discovered incidentally on ultrasound or at the time of cesarean section. As the lesions are self-resolving, management is conservative and surgical intervention is required only in cases with severe complications. HL can be mistaken for malignancy, especially in cases in which the tumor marker CA-125 is elevated, leading to inadvertent surgery.

19.
Appl Opt ; 58(30): 8200-8206, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674490

RESUMO

The speed of optical modulation on a terahertz (THz) pulse is mainly dominated by the optical response of the photocarrier. In order to achieve ultrafast THz modulation, the effective method is to reduce the lifetime of the photocarrier by introducing defects that can trap the photocarriers efficiently. In this paper, we reported the ultrafast optical modulation of THz switching in a 10 nm CdTe nanostructure film. After photoexcitation at 800/400 nm, the THz response of the film is extremely fast with a lifetime of ${\sim}{1.3}\;{\rm ps}$∼1.3ps. Further, the ultrafast transient THz transmission shows almost temperature independence down to 100 K. On the other hand, the transient absorption spectroscopy reveals that the lifetime of photocarriers in CdTe nanostructure film lasts as long as several ns. The 1.3 ps THz photoconductivity response is due to the substantial decrease of photocarrier mobility in a CdTe nanostructure, which comes from the increase of the photocarrier scattering between the photocarrier and the surface states of CdTe nanostructural film. Our experimental results provide a new method to design optically driven ultrafast THz response devices, such as THz switch and THz modulator.

20.
Genome Biol Evol ; 11(11): 3269-3274, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697367

RESUMO

The Laverania clade comprises the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum as well as at least seven additional parasite species that infect wild African apes. A recent analysis of Laverania genome sequences (Otto TD, et al. 2018. Genomes of all known members of a Plasmodium subgenus reveal paths to virulent human malaria. Nat Microbiol. 3: 687-697) reported three instances of interspecies gene transfer, one of which had previously been described. Generating gene sequences from additional ape parasites and re-examining sequencing reads generated in the Otto et al. study, we identified one of the newly described gene transfers as an assembly artifact of sequences derived from a sample coinfected by two parasite species. The second gene transfer between ancestors of two divergent chimpanzee parasite lineages was confirmed, but involved a much larger number of genes than originally described, many of which encode exported proteins that remodel, or bind to, erythrocytes. Because successful hybridization between Laverania species is very rare, it will be important to determine to what extent these gene transfers have shaped their host interactions.

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