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1.
Toxicology ; : 152410, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068018

RESUMO

Epidemiologic studies show that the levels of air pollutants and particulate matter are positively associated with the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases. Here we demonstrate that the intratracheal instillation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), a standard fine particle, exacerbate doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity in mice through altering gut microbiota and pulmonary and colonic macrophage phenotype. MWCNTs (25 µg/kg per day, 5 days a week for 3 weeks) promoted cardiotoxicity and apoptosis in the DOX (2 mg/kg, twice a week for 5 weeks)-treated C57BL/6 mice. MWCNTs exaggerated DOX-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis characterized by the increased abundances of Helicobacteraceae and Coriobacteriaceae. In addition, MWCNTs promoted DOX-induced M1-like polarization of colonic macrophages with an increase in TNF-α, IL-1ß and CC chemokine ligand 2 in peripheral blood. Importantly, treatment with the antibiotics attenuated MWCNTs plus DOX-induced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and M1-like polarization of colonic macrophages. The fecal microbiota transplantation demonstrated that MWCNTs exaggerated DOX-induced cardiotoxicity with M1-like polarization of colonic macrophages. The conditioned medium from MWCNTs-treated pulmonary macrophages promoted DOX-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis and colonic macrophage polarization. Furthermore, the co-culture of macrophages and fecal bacteria promoted M1-like macrophage polarization and their production of TNF-α and IL-1ß, and thereby exacerbated the effects of MWCNTs. Moreover, IL-1ß and TNF-α blockade, either alone or in combination attenuated MWCNTs-exacerbated cardiotoxicity. In summary, MWCNTs exacerbate DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in mice through gut microbiota and pulmonary and colonic macrophage interaction. Our findings identify a novel mechanism of action of inhaled particle-driven cardiotoxicity.

2.
Macromol Biosci ; : e1900370, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068950

RESUMO

Bleeding complications usually cause significant morbidity and mortality in civilian and military populations. In clinical application, hemostatic sponges, gauzes, hydrogel, and bandages are widely used as the traditional effective hemostatic products for hemorrhage. However, the traditional hemostatic devices or agents cannot meet the requirement for treatment of massive bleeding. Therefore, the excellent hemostatic performance of hemostatic products are of great significance for saving lives. Natural polysaccharides, as the main chemical component, have been widely used in the preparation of hemostasis due to their perfect biocompatibility and biodegradability. Polysaccharide based hemostatic products are available in variety of forms, such as, hydrogel, sponges, gauze and microspheres. The purpose of the present review is to report the research progress on polysaccharide hemostatic products and technology.

3.
Microbiome ; 8(1): 16, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microorganisms in activated sludge (AS) play key roles in the wastewater treatment processes. However, their ecological behaviors and differences from microorganisms in other environments have mainly been studied using the 16S rRNA gene that may not truly represent in situ functions. RESULTS: Here, we present 2045 archaeal and bacterial metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) recovered from 1.35 Tb of metagenomic data generated from 114 AS samples of 23 full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). We found that the AS MAGs have obvious plant-specific features and that few proteins are shared by different WWTPs, especially for WWTPs located in geographically distant areas. Further, we developed a novel machine learning approach that can distinguish between AS MAGs and MAGs from other environments based on the clusters of orthologous groups of proteins with an accuracy of 96%. With the aid of machine learning, we also identified some functional features (e.g., functions related to aerobic metabolism, nutrient sensing/acquisition, and biofilm formation) that are likely vital for AS bacteria to adapt themselves in wastewater treatment bioreactors. CONCLUSIONS: Our work reveals that, although the bacterial species in different municipal WWTPs could be different, they may have similar deterministic functional features that allow them to adapt to the AS systems. Also, we provide valuable genome resources and a novel approach for future investigation and better understanding of the microbiome of AS and other ecosystems. Video Abtract.

4.
Cells ; 9(2)2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069961

RESUMO

NADPH oxidases (NOXs), mostly known as respiratory burst oxidase homologs (RBOHs), are the key producers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants. A lot of literature has addressed ROS signaling in plant development regulation and stress responses as well as on the enzyme's structure, evolution, function, regulation and associated mechanisms, manifesting the role of NOXs/RBOHs as the vital performers and center hubs during plant growth and signaling. This review focuses on recent advances of NOXs/RBOHs on cell growth, hormone interaction, calcium signaling, abiotic stress responses, and immunity. Several primary particles, including Ca2+, CDPKs, BIK1, ROPs/RACs, CERK, FER, ANX, SnRK and SIK1-mediated regulatory mechanisms, are fully summarized to illustrate the signaling behavior of NOXs/RBOHs and their sophisticated and dexterous crosstalks. Diverse expression and activation regulation models endow NOXs/RBOHs powerful and versatile functions in plants to maintain innate immune homeostasis and development integrity. NOXs/RBOHs and their related regulatory items are the ideal targets for crop improvement in both yield and quality during agricultural practices.

5.
Neurochem Res ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052258

RESUMO

Neuroinflammation plays a vital role in the process of a variety of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) degenerative diseases including traumatic optic neuropathy (TON). Retinal microglial activation is believed as a harbinger of TON, and robust microglial activation can aggravate trauma-induced RGCs degeneration, which ultimately leads to RGCs loss. Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4)-triggered inflammation is of great importance in retinal inflammatory response after optic nerve injury. CD11b on macrophage and brain microglia can inhibit TLR4-triggered inflammation. However, the functional role of CD11b in retinal microglia is not well understood. Here, using an optic nerve crush model and CD11b gene deficient mice, we found that CD11b protein expression was mainly on retinal microglia, significantly increased after optic nerve injury, and still maintained at a high level till at least 28 days post crush. Compared with wild type mice, following acute optic nerve injury, CD11b deficient retinae exhibited more exacerbated microglial activation, accelerated RGCs degeneration, less growth associated protein-43 expression, as well as more proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor α while less anti-inflammatory factors such as arginase-1 and interleukin-10 production. We conclude that CD11b is essential in regulating retinal microglial activation and neuroinflammatory responses after acute optic nerve injury, which is critical for subsequent RGCs degeneration and loss.

7.
Molecules ; 25(4)2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075144

RESUMO

An iron-catalyzed asymmetric oxidative homo-coupling of 2-naphthols for the synthesis of 1,1'-Bi-2-naphthol (BINOL) derivatives is reported. The coupling reaction provides enantioenriched BINOLs in good yields (up to 99%) and moderate enantioselectivities (up to 81:19 er) using an iron-complex generated in situ from Fe(ClO4)2 and a bisquinolyldiamine ligand [(1R,2R)-N1,N2-di(quinolin-8-yl)cyclohexane-1,2-diamine, L1]. A number of ligands (L2-L8) and the analogs of L1, with various substituents and chiral backbones, were synthesized and examined in the oxidative coupling reactions.

8.
Cell Prolif ; : e12776, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020709

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is critical for the development of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Recently, we identified T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain 4 (TIM-4) as a new pro-growth player in NSCLC progression. However, the role of TIM-4 in IL-6-promoted NSCLC migration, invasion and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expressions of TIM-4 and IL-6 were both evaluated by immunohistochemical staining in NSCLC tissues. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), Western blot, flow cytometry and RT-PCR were performed to detect TIM-4 expression in NSCLC cells with IL-6 stimulation. The roles of TIM-4 in IL-6 promoting migration and invasion of NSCLC were detected by transwell assay. EMT-related markers were analysed by qPCR and Western blot in vitro, and metastasis was evaluated in BALB/c nude mice using lung cancer metastasis mouse model in vivo. RESULTS: High IL-6 expression was identified as an independent predictive factor for TIM-4 expression in NSCLC tissues. NSCLC patients with TIM-4 and IL-6 double high expression showed the worst prognosis. IL-6 promoted TIM-4 expression in NSCLC cells depending on NF-κB signal pathway. Both TIM-4 and IL-6 promoted migration, invasion and EMT of NSCLC cells. Interestingly, TIM-4 knockdown reversed the role of IL-6 in NSCLC and IL-6 promoted metastasis of NSCLC by up-regulating TIM-4 via NF-κB. CONCLUSIONS: TIM-4 involves in IL-6 promoted migration, invasion and EMT of NSCLC.

9.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 68, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046736

RESUMO

AIM: Inflammation within the perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) in obesity plays an important role in cardiovascular disorders. C-reactive protein (CRP) level in obesity patients is significantly increased and associated with the occurrence and progression of cardiovascular disease. We tested the hypothesis CRP derived from PVAT in obesity contributes to vascular remodeling after injury. METHODS: A high-fat diet (HFD) significantly increased CRP expression in PVAT. We transplanted thoracic aortic PVAT from wild-type (WT) or transgenic CRP-expressing (CRPTG) mice to the injured femoral artery in WT mice. RESULTS: At 4 weeks after femoral artery injury, the neointimal/media ratio was increased significantly in WT mice that received PVAT from CRPTG mice compared with that in WT mice that received WT PVAT. Transplanted CRPTG PVAT also significantly accelerated adventitial macrophage infiltration and vasa vasorum proliferation. It was revealed greater macrophage infiltration in CRPTG adipose tissue than in WT adipose tissue and CRP significantly increased the adhesion rate of monocytes through receptor Fcγ RI. Proteome profiling showed CRP over-expression promoted the expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 7 (CXCL7) in adipose tissue, transwell assay showed CRP increased monocyte migration indirectly via the induction of CXCL7 expression in adipocytes. CONCLUSION: CRP derived from PVAT was significantly increased in HFD mice and promoted neointimal hyperplasia after vascular injury.

10.
Andrologia ; : e13531, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048324

RESUMO

Sox8, encoding a SRY-related HMG box transcription factor, is essential in Sertoli cells for germ cell differentiation via regulation of integrity of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) as well as Sertoli-germ cell adhesion. Inactivation of Sox8 gene in mice causes postnatal progressive spermatogenic failure, resulting in male infertility. This study aims to investigate whether variants of SOX8 contribute to pathogenesis of idiopathic non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) or oligozoospermia. A case-control genetic study was conducted in which all exons and exon-intron boundaries of SOX8 gene were screened in 190 NOA and 139 oligozoospermia cases by Sanger sequencing. The detected variants were examined in 284 normospermic controls. Nine known single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of SOX8 gene were identified, and four of them exist simultaneously in oligo/azoospermia patients. A comparison of allele/genotype frequencies of these variants showed no significant difference between oligo/azoospermia cases and controls. The results indicate that deleterious variants in SOX8 gene may not be a common cause for oligo/azoospermia in Chinese men. Considering ethnic diversity, SOX8 could not be ruled out as a candidate gene for male infertility. The role of SOX8-mediated Sertoli cell function and BTB integrity played in the pathogenesis of male infertility needs to be further explored in other populations.

11.
Antiviral Res ; : 104719, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004619

RESUMO

The progression of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In this study, we demonstrated the association between immune-related SNPs and delayed spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion in immune-active CHB patients. In addition, we investigated the impact of delayed spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion-related SNPs on HBeAg seroconversion within 3 years during antiviral treatment. We enrolled 332 CHB patients and genotyped 124 SNPs associated with HBV-infected clinical outcomes, including 32 interleukin-related genes, 62 HLA genes, 9 CD marker genes, 7 NK cell receptor genes, and 14 other genes, using ABI OpenArray as a platform. Comparing the immune-active CHB patients with delayed spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion (persistent HBeAg seropositivity, older than 40 years) to those with early inefficient HBeAg seroconversion (HBeAg seroconversion with high viremia, younger than 40 years), logistic analysis revealed that rs3820998 (TANK), rs2621377 (HLA-DOB), rs3130215 (HLA-DPB2), rs2255336 (KLRK1), and rs11614913 (MIR-196A2) were significantly associated with delayed spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion. Using multivariate analysis, we determined that high serum HBV DNA levels (OR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.33-2.08), rs3820998 (CA, OR = 3.37, 95% CI = 1.24-9.12), rs2621377 (TC, OR = 4.96, 95% CI = 1.85-13.3), rs2255336 (TT, OR = 0.09, 95% CI = 0.01-0.86), and rs11614913 (TT, OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.05-6.11) were five independent risk factors for delayed spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion. After patients received nucleos(t)ide analogue treatment, rs3820998 heterozygous CA variant conversely became the only independent favorable factor for treatment-induced HBeAg seroconversion within 3 years (OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.06-0.78). These results indicate that distinct immune-related SNPs play a vital role in regulating HBeAg status in immune-active CHB patients with or without antiviral treatment.

12.
Virology ; 541: 63-74, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056716

RESUMO

GCNT3 (core 2ß-1,6-acetylglucosaminyltransferase) is a novel core mucin synthase. It is known that abnormal expression of GCNT3 promotes the progression of several human cancers. However, its relationship with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has not been comprehensively studied. We found GCNT3 expression in EBV-associated gastric cancer cells and tissues to be lower than in EBV-negative gastric cancer cells and tissues, and high expression was significantly associated with advanced tumor-lymph node metastasis. Luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR-BART1-5p directly targeted GCNT3. In addition, miR-BART1-5p mimics transfection was observed to reduce cell proliferation and migration, while miR-BART1-5p inhibitor increased cell proliferation and migration following transfection. In conclusion, both miR-BART1-5p and knockdown of GCNT3 inhibited cell proliferation and migration. In addition, EBV may regulate GCNT3 by affecting the NF-kB signaling pathway. E-cadherin, N-cadherin, vimentin, and p-ERK were found to be downstream molecules of the miR-BART1-5p/GCNT3 pathway.

13.
Sci Prog ; 103(1): 36850419893880, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008456

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional and cosmetic outcomes of a new modified Fox pentagon technique performed using polytetrafluoroethylene in frontalis suspension surgery for blepharophimosis syndrome. This retrospective study enrolled 40 patients diagnosed with blepharophimosis syndrome from March 2016 to October 2018. All patients underwent frontalis suspension using a new modified Fox pentagon technique. The functional and cosmetic outcomes were evaluated. After the operation, the mean palpebral fissure height increased from 2.68 to 6.93 in right eyes and from 2.73 to 6.98 in left eyes. The mean MRD1 increased from 0.53 to 3.76 in right eyes and from 0.50 to 3.78 in left eyes. While preoperative to postoperative differences were statistically significant (p < 0.01), there were no significant differences between right and left eyes either before or after the surgery (p > 0.01). All patients achieved good cosmetic results with an average score of 0.6. We have experimentally created a modified Fox pentagon technique performed using a polytetrafluoroethylene sling in a frontalis suspension to treat BPES; this approach yielded favorable cosmetic and functional outcomes.

14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2974, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076084

RESUMO

The Chinese cordyceps, a complex of the fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis and its species-specific host insects, is also called "DongChongXiaCao" in Chinese. Habitat degradation in recent decades and excessive harvesting by humans has intensified its scarcity and increased the prices of natural populations. Some counterfeits are traded as natural Chinese cordyceps for profit, causing confusion in the marketplace. To promote the safe use of Chinese cordyceps and related products, a duplex PCR method for specifically identifying raw Chinese cordyceps and its primary products was successfully established. Chinese cordyceps could be precisely identified by detecting an internal transcribed spacer amplicon from O. sinensis and a cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 amplicon from the host species, at a limit of detection as low as 32 pg. Eleven commercial samples were purchased and successfully tested to further verify that the developed duplex PCR method could be reliably used to identify Chinese cordyceps. It provides a new simple way to discern true commercial Chinese cordyceps from counterfeits in the marketplace. This is an important step toward achieving an authentication method for this Chinese medicine. The methodology and the developmental strategy can be used to authenticate other traditional Chinese medicinal materials.

15.
Ann Nucl Med ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078122

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The value of salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS) in the evaluation of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of quantitative SGS in patients with xerostomia and to assess the correlation between scintigraphic parameters and pathological features of salivary glands. METHODS: Medical records of 165 patients with xerostomia who underwent [99mTc] pertechnetate SGS and labial biopsy were retrospectively reviewed. The maximum accumulation ratio (MAR), maximum secretion ratio (MSR), and time interval from stimulation to minimum count (Tmin) of the parotid glands were calculated to quantify the glandular activity. Furthermore, pre-stimulatory oral activity index (PRI) and post-stimulatory oral activity index (POI) were calculated to quantify the oral activity. RESULTS: All parameters except for Tmin were significantly lower in patients with SS than in those without SS. Among the five SGS parameters, PRI showed the highest areas under the curve value (0.9005; p < 0.001), and PRI > 32.75 was associated with a sensitivity of 78.5% and specificity of 86.4% for the diagnosis of SS. A decrease in MAR, MSR, PRI, and POI and an increase in Tmin correlate significantly with the histopathologic grade of labial gland biopsy and disease severity of SS. No significant differences in glandular parameters (MAR, MSR, and Tmin) were found between the non-SS and early-stage SS groups. CONCLUSION: Conventional scintigraphic parameters could be used as simple, reliable, and sensitive indicators for the early diagnosis of SS and determination of disease severity.

16.
Chemosphere ; 248: 126033, 2020 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004882

RESUMO

Degradation of phenols with different substituent groups (including -OCH3, -CHO, -NHCOCH3, -NO2, and -Cl) at boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes has been studied previously based on the removal efficiency and •OH detection. Innovatively, formations of CO2 gas and various inorganic ions were examined to probe the mineralization process combined with quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis. As results, all phenols were efficiently degraded within 8 h with high COD removal efficiency. Three primary intermediates (hydroquinone, 1,4-benzoquinone and catechol) were identified during electrochemical oxidation and degradation pathway was proposed. More importantly, CO2 transformation efficiency ranked as: no N or Cl contained phenols (p-CHO, p-OCH3 and Ph) > N-contained phenols (p-NHCOCH3 and p-NO2) > Cl-contained phenols (p-Cl and o,p-Cl). Carbon mass balance study suggested formation of inorganic carbon (H2CO3, CO32- and HCO3-) and CO2 after organic carbon elimination. Inorganic nitrogen species (NH4+, NO3- and NO2-) and chlorine species (Cl-, ClO3- and ClO4-) were also formed after N- and Cl-contained phenols mineralization, while no volatile nitrogen species were detected. The phenols with electron-withdrawing substituents were easier to be oxidized than those with electron-donating substituents. QSAR analysis indicated that the reaction rate constant (k1) for phenols degradation was highly related to Hammett constant (∑σo,m,p) and energy gap (ELUMO - EHOMO) of the compound (R2 = 0.908), which were key parameters on evaluating the effect of structural moieties on electronic character and the chemical stability upon radical attack for a specific compound. This study presents clear evidence on mineralization mechanisms of phenols degradation at BDD anodes.

17.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 81: 106206, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32018066

RESUMO

Cancer immunotherapy has now become a first line therapy for several kinds of tumors. However, the clinical performance of immnuocheckpoint blockade therapy is usually limited by low response rate or side effects including cytokine storm. Andrographolide, a natural diterpenoid from Andrographis paniculata, has been used in Asia for treatment of bronchitis, paristhmitis and bacillary dysentery for its unique anti-inflammatory effect. However, its effect on anti-tumor immunity remains elusive. In this study, we found that andrographolide in combination with anti-PD-1 antibody showed a higher therapeutic benefit than individual therapy in murine xenograft model of CT26 colon cancer. Consequently, andrographolide and anti-PD-1 antibody co-treatment boosted the function of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells evidenced by considerable tissue infiltration, elevated IFN-γ secretion and enhanced expression of cytotoxic T-cell related molecules including FasL, perforin and Granzyme B, which significantly decreases the tumor load. Mechanistically, andrographolide treatment inhibited COX2 activity and PGE2 release both in vivo and in vitro, which augments anti-tumor efficiency of anti-PD-1 therapy. Finally, we confirmed that COX2 level in human colon cancer sample positively correlated with tumor-promoting factors. Our study here provides a potential combination strategy for immunotherapy against colorectal cancer.

18.
Sleep Med ; 69: 34-40, 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045852

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Brain iron deposition in hemodialysis (HD) patients increases over time. Iron deficiency in gray matter nuclei has been reported to lead to idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS) symptoms. Regardless of unpleasant RLS sensations, the patterns of iron deposition between hemodialysis patients with RLS (HD-RLS) and hemodialysis patients without RLS (HD-nRLS) are still unclear. To evaluate the differences in iron deposition patterns between HD-RLS and HD-nRLS patients, we utilized quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). METHODS: In sum, 24 HD-RLS patients, 25 HD-nRLS patients and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled. The QSM was used to assess susceptibility values of the regions of interest (ROIs), including the caudate nucleus (CN), putamen (PUT), globus pallidus (GP), thalamus (THA), substantia nigra (SN), red nucleus (RN) and dentate nucleus (DN). RESULTS: HD duration was significantly longer in HD-RLS patients than in HD-nRLS patients (P < 0.05). The susceptibility of HD-RLS and HD-nRLS patients in PUT was higher than that in HCs (P < 0.05), illustrating elevated iron content in the nucleus. Compared with HD-nRLS patients, HD-RLS patients demonstrated reduced susceptibility in CN and PUT (both P < 0.05). Compared with HCs, HD-RLS patients displayed decreased susceptibility in DN (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Different iron deposition patterns between HD-RLS and HD-nRLS patients in PUT and DN, which further support disturbed sensory processing in RLS, may be involved in RLS pathogenesis in HD patients.

19.
Sci Total Environ ; 717: 137261, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065894

RESUMO

During a harvest period, a set of field samples, including ambient air (gaseous and particulate phases), dust fall, surface soil and peel-surrounding soil, and yellow carrot tissues (leaf, peel, and core), were collected in a vegetable bases near a large coking manufacturer in Shanxi Province, Northern China. Based on the determinations of the concentrations and compositions of 15 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the statistical results determined by a factor analysis (FA), combined with the isomeric ratios of paired species and the local emission inventory, indicated that coal combustion and vehicular exhaust served as the main emission sources of PAHs in the local environment and in yellow carrot tissues and that the coking industry was a secondary source. In terms of the transport pathways of PAHs in the surrounding media and yellow carrot tissues, the simulation results of a structural equation model (SEM) showed that the PAHs in ambient air were closely associated with those in dust fall, and these in turn had a positive correlation with the PAHs in surface soil, due to air-soil exchange. Furthermore, the PAHs in yellow carrot leaf were mainly derived from those in dust fall via leaf surface absorption, while peel uptake played a dominant role in the accumulation of PAHs in the edible core of yellow carrot. This was different from the case of cabbage, which was characterized by the prevailing contribution from leaf surface absorption. The current study supplied additional evidence to explore the transport pathways of PAHs from environmental media to tissues of different vegetables (leafy vegetables and root vegetables). CAPSULE: A combination of structural equation modeling with factor analysis was employed to quantitatively identify the dominant transport pathways of PAHs among multiple surrounding media and the different tissues of yellow carrot.

20.
Food Chem ; 316: 126378, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066074

RESUMO

Rhodamine B (RhB), which is vividly colored, although illegal and potentially carcinogenic, has been reported widely as present in various foods, including chili powder, preserved plums, sausage and sweets, presenting a significant health risk. In this work, solid-phase extraction (SPE), coupled with direct fluorescence detection on the same extraction medium, is proposed for rapid onsite screening for RhB in food without sample pretreatment. Parameters that affected extraction of RhB were explored. The lowest amount of RhB, detected on glass, was 2 ng and the lowest detectable concentration in food samples was 0.5 mg/kg, as verified by HPLC. The analysis time was less than 5 min, including sampling. In addition, the recovery rate of this method was found to be triple of that from the cotton gauze reported in literature. The proposed method has promise as a rapid, onsite screening protocol for food safety.

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