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1.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(4): 2550-2557, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492275

RESUMO

In this study, pulsed laser deposition method (PLD) was employed to grow MgxZn1-xO films on quartz substrates. The optimal deposition temperature of 300 °C for MgxZn1-xO film was decided and Mg0.38Zn0.62O, Mg0.56Zn0.44O and Mg0.69Zn0.31O films were grown respectively using MgxZn1-xO targets with different Mg contents (x = 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7). As-deposited Mg0.38Zn0.62O film possessed the mixed-phase (hexagonal and cubic phase) structure, appropriate band gap of 4.68 eV and smaller surface roughness of 1.72 nm, and the solar-blind photodetector (PD) based on it was fabricated. The key features of our PD are the cutoff wavelength of 265 nm lying in solar-blind band, lower dark current (Idark) of 88 pA, higher peak responsivity of 0.10 A/W and bigger Ilight/Idark ratio of 1688, which provide the new idea for the application of solar-blind PDs based on MgxZn1-xO films.

2.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(3): 1790-1798, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492344

RESUMO

Tungsten oxide microflowers (WO3 MFs) were fabricated by a simple hydrothermal process through adjusting the pH of the solution by HCl. These MFs possess the outer diameters of about 2 µm and are composed of numerous nanoplates with the average pore size of 10.9 nm. Chemiresistive activity of as-fabricated WO3 MFs sensor was attempted towards oxidizing and reducing target gases, revealing a superior selectivity to NO2 with a maximum response of 22.95 (2 ppm NO2) @105 °C compared to other target gases. One of the key features of as-fabricatedWO3 MFs sensor is the lower detection limit of 125 ppb and operating temperature of 105 °C to NO2 with better reproducibility, signifying commercial prospective of the developed sensor materials. Finally, the gas sensing mechanism of WO3 MFs sensor has been proposed.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553150

RESUMO

Micromesoporous metal-nitrogen-doped carbons have attracted incremental attention owning to their high activities for the electrocatalyzing oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). However, scalable synthesis of micromesoporous metal-nitrogen-doped carbons having superior electrocatalytic activity and stability remains a challenge. Here, an iron-nitrogen-doped carbon with highly electrocatalytic properties was simply prepared by ZnCl2 activation of an in situ polymerized iron-containing polypyrrole (PPy@FeClx) at high temperature. High yields of polypyrrole (∼98 wt %) and iron-nitrogen-doped carbon (∼47 wt %) could be reached. The eutectic state of FeClx-ZnCl2 and its derived ZnFe2O4 maskant played important roles in making micromesopores, scattering iron atoms, and trapping nitrogen atoms, leading to numerous micromesopore defects, a larger specific surface area, a more nitrogen doping content, and active sites for the material. The electrochemical tests and Zn-air battery measurements showed that the micromesoporous iron-nitrogen-doped carbon could achieve much positive onset and half-wave potentials at 0.98 and 0.90 V, respectively, as well as a large current density (6.06 mA/cm2) and good cycling stability. The combination of the iron-nitrogen doping and micromesopore defects by the eutectic salt activation method provided an effective way to scalable synthesize iron-nitrogen-doped carbon as highly active and stable oxygen reduction electrocatalytsts.

4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(10): 1793-1801, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538560

RESUMO

Two outbreaks of epidemic polyarthritis occurred among Australian Defence Force personnel during and following short military exercises in the Shoalwater Bay Training Area, northeastern Australia, in 2016 and 2017. Ross River virus (RRV) IgM was detected in acute-phase serum samples from most patients (28/28 in 2016 and 25/31 in 2017), and RRV was recovered from 4/38 serum samples assayed (1/21 in 2016 and 3/17 in 2017). Phylogenetic analyses of RRV envelope glycoprotein E2 and nonstructural protein nsP3 nucleotide sequences segregated the RRV isolates obtained in 2016 and 2017 outbreaks into 2 distinct sublineages, suggesting that each outbreak was caused by a different strain of RRV. The spatiotemporal characteristics of the 2016 outbreak suggested that some of the infections involved human-mosquito-human transmission without any intermediate host. These outbreaks highlight the importance of personal protective measures in preventing vectorborne diseases for which no vaccine or specific prophylaxis exists.

5.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1843, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474976

RESUMO

Influenza A virus (IAV) remains a major public health threat in the world, as indicated by the severe pneumonia caused by its infection annually. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) involved excessive inflammatory response to IAV infection profoundly contributes to the virus pathogenesis. However, the precise mechanisms underlying such a response are poorly understood. Here we found from both in vivo and in vitro studies that IAV not only induced a surge of IL-6 release, but also greatly upregulated expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3), the potent suppressor of IL-6-associated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling. Interestingly, there existed a cytokine-independent mechanism of the robust induction of SOCS3 by IAV at early stages of the infection. Furthermore, we employed SOCS3-knockdown transgenic mice (TG), and surprisingly observed from virus challenge experiments using these mice that disruption of SOCS3 expression provided significant protection against IAV infection, as evidenced by attenuated acute lung injury, a higher survival rate of infected animals and lower viral load in infected tissues as compared with those of wild-type littermates under the same condition. The activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) and the expression of its target gene IL-6 were suppressed in SOCS3-knockdown A549 cells and the TG mice after infection with IAV. Moreover, we defined that enhanced STAT3 activity caused by SOCS3 silencing was important for the regulation of NFκB and IL-6. These findings establish a critical role for IL-6-STAT3-SOCS3 axis in the pathogenesis of IAV and suggest that influenza virus may have evolved a strategy to circumvent IL-6/STAT3-mediated immune response through upregulating SOCS3.

6.
Nature ; 573(7775): 558-562, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554980

RESUMO

High-pressure transitions are thought to modify hydrogen molecules to a molecular metallic solid and finally to an atomic metal1, which is predicted to have exotic physical properties and the topology of a two-component (electron and proton) superconducting superfluid condensate2,3. Therefore, understanding such transitions remains an important objective in condensed matter physics4,5. However, measurements of the crystal structure of solid hydrogen, which provides crucial information about the metallization of hydrogen under compression, are lacking for most high-pressure phases, owing to the considerable technical challenges involved in X-ray and neutron diffraction measurements under extreme conditions. Here we present a single-crystal X-ray diffraction study of solid hydrogen at pressures of up to 254 gigapascals that reveals the crystallographic nature of the transitions from phase I to phases III and IV. Under compression, hydrogen molecules remain in the hexagonal close-packed (hcp) crystal lattice structure, accompanied by a monotonic increase in anisotropy. In addition, the pressure-dependent decrease of the unit cell volume exhibits a slope change when entering phase IV, suggesting a second-order isostructural phase transition. Our results indicate that the precursor to the exotic two-component atomic hydrogen may consist of electronic transitions caused by a highly distorted hcp Brillouin zone and molecular-symmetry breaking.

7.
J Dairy Sci ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495625

RESUMO

Streptococcus thermophilus is an important bacterium used in the production of fermented dairy products. Yogurt with good flavor is preferred by consumers; thus, variation in flavor-formation characteristics among isolates is attracting attention. Here, acetaldehyde production characteristics of 30 isolates were evaluated in parallel with genotyping and multilocus sequence typing of key functional genes involved in acetaldehyde production. The results showed that isolates could be divided into 3 phenotypically distinct groups: high-acetaldehyde-yielding isolates (>10 mg/L), medium-acetaldehyde-yielding isolates (5-10 mg/L) and low-acetaldehyde-yielding (<5 mg/L) based on evaluation of acetaldehyde production during yogurt storage. These groups, distinguishable by phenotypic characteristics, were clustered in corresponding groups based on functional gene multilocus sequence typing analysis. Combining functional gene sequence analysis of 30 Strep. thermophilus isolates with phenotypic evaluation of their flavor-related characteristics (specifically acetaldehyde production) demonstrated that groups of isolates established using genotype data analysis corresponded with groups identified based on their phenotypic traits. Interestingly, the 30 isolates of Strep. thermophilus showed significant phylogenetic clustering in acetaldehyde content by functional gene and acetaldehyde content analysis. A corresponding relationship exists between functional gene phylogenetic clustering and acetaldehyde content variation.

8.
J Virol ; 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434735

RESUMO

Previously, we identified a set of lncRNAs that were differentially expressed in influenza A virus (IAV)-infected cells. In this study, we focused on lnc-MxA, which is upregulated during IAV infection. We found that the overexpression of lnc-MxA facilitates the replication of IAV, while the knockdown of lnc-MxA inhibits viral replication. Further studies demonstrated that lnc-MxA is an interferon-stimulated gene. However, lnc-MxA inhibits the SeV- and IAV-induced activation of IFN-ß. The luciferase assay indicated that lnc-MxA inhibits the activation of the IFN-ß reporter upon stimulation with RIG-I, MAVS, TBK1 or active IRF3 (IRF3-5D). These data indicated that lnc-MxA negatively regulates the RIG-I-mediated antiviral immune response. The CHIP assay showed that the enrichment of IRF3 and p65 at the IFN-ß promoter in lnc-MxA-overexpressing cells was significantly lower than that in control cells, indicating that lnc-MxA interfered with the binding of IRF3 and p65 to the IFN-ß promoter. CHIRP, triplex pulldown and biolayer interferometry assays indicated that lnc-MxA can bind to the IFN-ß promoter. Furthermore, the EMSA assay showed that lnc-MxA can form complexes with the IFN-ß promoter fragment. These results demonstrated that lnc-MxA can form a triplex with the IFN-ß promoter to interfere with the activation of IFN-ß transcription. Using a VSV infection assay, we confirmed that lnc-MxA can repress the RLR-mediated antiviral immune response and influence the antiviral status of cells. In conclusion, we revealed that lnc-MxA is an interferon-stimulated gene that negatively regulates the transcription of IFN-ß by forming an RNA-DNA triplex.IMPORTANCE IAV can be recognized as a nonself molecular pattern by host immune systems and can cause immune responses. However, the intense immune response induced by influenza virus known as a "cytokine storm" can also cause widespread tissue damage (Guo XZJ, Thomas PG. 2017. Seminars in Immunopathology 39:1-10; Yokota S. 2003. Nihon Rinsho 61:1953-1958; Clark IA. 2007. Immunology & Cell Biology 85:271-273). Meanwhile, the detailed mechanisms involved in the balancing of immune responses in host cells are not well understood. Our studies reveal that, as an IFN-inducible gene, lnc-MxA functions as a negative regulator of the antiviral immune response. We uncovered the mechanism by which lnc-MxA inhibits the activation of IFN-ß transcription. Our findings demonstrate that, as an ISG, lnc-MxA plays an important role in the negative feedback loop involved in maintaining immune homeostasis.

10.
J Infect Dis ; 220(10): 1679-1687, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus suis is an emerging zoonotic agent. Its natural habitat is the tonsils, which are the main portals of S. suis entry into the bloodstream of pigs. The remarkable variability of the bacteria and complex pathogenic mechanisms make the development of a vaccine a difficult task. METHOD: Five conserved virulence factors involved in critical events of S. suis pathogenesis were combined and used as an intranasal vaccine (V5). The effect of V5 was investigated with intranasal and systemic challenge models. RESULTS: V5 induced antibody and T-cell responses at the mucosal site and systemically. The immunity promoted clearance of S. suis from the nasopharynx independent of S. suis serotypes and reduced lethality after systemic challenge with S. suis serotype 2. Moreover, mice that survived sepsis from intravenous infection developed meningitis, whereas none of these mice showed neuropathological symptoms after V5 receipt. CONCLUSION: Intranasal immunization with multiple conserved virulence factors decreases S. suis colonization at the nasopharynx across serotypes and inhibits the dissemination of the bacteria in the host. The protective mucosal immunity effects would potentially reduce the S. suis reservoir and prevent S. suis disease in pigs.

11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(29): e16561, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a major burden worldwide. Several challenges remain with standard Western treatment of PUD, such as persistent weakness, fatigue, and relapse. A dietary traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, Hou Gu Mi Xi (HGMX), has been developed as a complementary treatment for PUD. AIMS: This multicenter, double-blind, randomized controlled trial will assess efficacy and safety of HGMX in patients with PUD. METHODS: Three hundred sixty eligible patients will be assigned to receive HGMX, placebo, HGMX + rabeprazole or placebo + rabeprazole for 4 weeks after 2 weeks of standard Western treatment. This first step, with a 2 × 2 factorial design, will focus on assessing the main and interaction effects of HGMX and rabeprazole on ulcer healing. Then, rabeprazole will be stopped, and HGMX will be continued for up to 1 year. The second step, with a placebo-controlled design, will compare the long-term effects of HGMX and placebo. Extended follow-up with no treatment will continue for up to 2 years. Independent and paired t tests, Pearson χ test and the rank-sum test will be used to compare between-group differences. The P value will be adjusted using the O'Brien & Fleming method for multiple comparisons. EXPECTED OUTCOMES: The primary outcomes are total efficacy rate of PUD treatment, quality of ulcer healing, and changes in spleen qi deficiency symptoms. The secondary outcomes include ulcer area, PUD recurrence, Helicobacter pylori eradication rate, gastric function, body weight, and body mass index. Adverse events (AEs), severe AEs, treatment-related AEs, and withdrawal owing to AEs will be recorded to assess treatment safety. DISCUSSION: The trial results will provide high-quality evidence for HGMX, as a complementary therapy, for the long-term management of PUD and will be valuable for the development of related guidelines and regulations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The protocol of this trial was approved in all research hospitals and was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov at October 25, 2017(No. NCT03320538).


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/efeitos adversos , Antiulcerosos/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Úlcera Péptica/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Helicobacter pylori , Humanos , Úlcera Péptica/microbiologia , Prevenção Secundária
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 8783-8793, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310107

RESUMO

Red-fleshed apples are popular as a result of their high anthocyanin content. MdMYB10 and its homologues are known to be important regulators of anthocyanin synthesis in apple, but the roles of other transcription factors are not well-understood. Here, we explored the role of MdWRKY11 in regulating anthocyanin synthesis in apple flesh. Overexpression of MdWRKY11 in apple callus could significantly promote anthocyanin accumulation, and the expression of some MYB transcription factors and structural genes increased significantly. In binding analyses, MdWRKY11 bound to W-box cis-elements in the promoters of MdMYB10, MdMYB11, and MdUFGT. However, MdWRKY11 did not interact with MdMYB10, MdbHLH3, or MdWD40 proteins, the members of the MBW complex. Sequence analyses revealed that another W-box cis-element was present in the promoter of MdHY5 (encoding a photoresponse factor), and MdWRKY11 was able to bind to the promoter of MdHY5 and promote its activity. Our findings clarify the role of MdWRKY11 in anthocyanin synthesis in red-fleshed apple and imply that other novel genes may be involved in anthocyanin synthesis.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Malus/genética , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
13.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 103: 109851, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349474

RESUMO

Favorable cytocompatibility and osteogenesis potential are critical for the development of a bone repair material. In this study, two types of surface-modified whiskers, grafted magnesia and chitin (g-MgO and g-CHN) whiskers, were synthesized and introduced into a poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) matrix singly or together to prepare PLLA/g-MgO/g-CHN composite films and bone nails via injection molding. On the account of the synergetic contribution of g-MgO and g-CHN whiskers, the enhanced cell adhesion, spreading, proliferation of mouse embryo osteoblast precursor (MC3T3-E1) cells, as well as the alteration of cell-cycle and inhibition of cell apoptosis, were observed on PLLA/g-MgO/g-CHN film as compared to pure PLLA, PLLA/g-MgO and PLLA/g-CHN films. More importantly, the highest level of the secretion of ALP and the formation of calcium deposition, accompanied with expression of osteogenesis genes (ALP, Runx-2, COL I, OCN) in vitro were obtained for the PLLA/g-MgO/g-CHN film among all of the material groups. Additionally, the PLLA and PLLA composite bone nails were implanted in rabbits' femurs and new bone formation was detected on PLLA/g-MgO/g-CHN group after 16 weeks of implantation by 3D reconstruction of micro-CT and histological analyses. Besides, the bending strength of defected bone repaired by PLLA/g-MgO/g-CHN bone nail was high to 48 MPa, which was far stronger than other bone nail groups. Overall, this study demonstrated the addition of g-MgO and g-CHN whiskers together in PLLA matrix played a synergistic promoting role in cell affinity and osteogenic differentiation, and the developed PLLA/g-MgO/g-CHN composites hold great potential in fields of bone repair.

14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(32): 29078-29085, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334628

RESUMO

We report the fabrication of gallium oxide (GaOx) thin films by a novel polymer-assisted deposition (PAD) method. The influence and mechanism of postannealing temperature (200-800 °C) on the formation and properties of GaOx thin films are investigated by complementary characterization analyses. The results indicate that solution-deposited GaOx experiences the elimination of organic residuals as well as the transformation of amorphous GaOx to crystalline GaOx with the increase in annealing temperature. High-quality GaOx could be achieved with a smooth surface, wide band gap, and decent dielectric performance. Moreover, the solution-processed In2O3 thin-film transistors based on optimized GaOx dielectrics demonstrate outstanding electrical performance, including a low operating voltage of 5 V, a mobility of 3.09 cm2 V-1 s-1, an on/off current ratio of 1.8 × 105, and a subthreshold swing of 0.18 V dec-1. Our study suggests that GaOx achieved by PAD shows great potential for further low-cost and high-performance optoelectronic applications.

15.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 35(6): 1029-1040, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231999

RESUMO

To evaluate the optimal administration frequency for interferon-α (IFN-α) and the effect of its combined use with inactive virus on chicken flocks, the prokaryotic expression plasmid pET-22b-ChIFN-α was constructed and transferred into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) host bacteria to induce the expression of chicken IFN-α and to harvest recombinant proteins inclusion bodies. The expression of recombinant chicken IFN-α was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, and the results demonstrated that the chicken IFN-α (20 kDa) was highly expressed using the prokaryotic expression vector with a concentration of 0.2 mg/mL in the medium. Chicken IFN-α was diluted to 2.5×104 U/fowls and administered to immunized specific-pathogen-free chickens orally in combination with inactivated H9N2 subtype influenza virus. Chicken that received chicken IFN-α were safe after three repeated immunizations (96 h). In addition, chicken IFN-α could induce higher levels of antiviral-related inducible genes in peripheral blood, spleen, and thymus of chicken flocks. The results of a challenge assay revealed that the lowest detoxification rates of chicken IFN-α ranged from three to five days, suggesting a higher capacity to resist H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus. The present study obtained the optimal immune frequency and immunization period for chicken IFN-α to provide theoretical support for the optimal clinical application of IFN-α.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2 , Administração Oral , Animais , Galinhas , Humanos , Interferon-alfa , Replicação Viral
16.
Trials ; 20(1): 343, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spleen qi deficiency (SQD), a syndrome based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory, is common in patients after radical gastrectomy. SQD manifests with chronic gastrointestinal disorders and systemic symptoms and is challenging to manage. Hou Gu Mi Xi (HGMX) is a dietary TCM formula for SQD. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of HGMX in patients with SQD who have undergone radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer. METHODS AND DESIGN: This study is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. One hundred thirty patients with SQD who have undergone radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer will be assigned to receive either HGMX or placebo for 2 years. The main outcome will be changes in SQD symptoms assessed by the Spleen Qi Deficiency Symptoms Grading and Quantifying Scale. The secondary outcomes will be changes in quality of life assessed by the Short Form 36 scale, performance status as assessed by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status scale, body weight, and body mass index. Progression-free survival will also be assessed as a secondary outcome. Adverse events (AEs), severe AEs, and study withdrawal due to AEs will be recorded to evaluate the safety of HGMX. DISCUSSION: The results of this trial will provide initial evidence for the use of HGMX as an alternative and complementary intervention to manage chronic postoperative complications in patients who have undergone radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03025152 . Registered on 17 January 2017.

17.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 19(12): 8135-8142, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196336

RESUMO

Precisely controlled dimensions of heterostructured ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on micropatterned Au films supported by Si substrate using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The field emission properties were attributed to pointed nanorods, thickness of catalyst, preferential growth, density, morphology of ZnO and Molybdenum (Mo) decorated ZnO nanorod arrays (Mo/ZnO). The selective restrained heterostructure approach resulted in excellent control over periodicity, location and density of ZnO nanorod arrays. Overall, field emission properties of bare ZnO nanorod arrays showed a low turn-on field of ~4.7 V/µm and a high field enhancement factor (ß) ~1686 to 7.3 V/µm and (ß) ~807 for Mo/ZnO. It was also found that the field emission properties were significantly influenced by densely decorated Mo nanoparticles on as-grown ZnO nanorod arrays.

18.
Pediatrics ; 144(1)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253739

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although it is widely believed that China is facing a major shortage of pediatricians, the real situation of the current national status of pediatric human resources and their working conditions has not been evaluated to date. METHODS: We administered a survey to 54 214 hospitals from all 31 provinces in mainland China from 2015 to 2016. Hospital directors of all secondary and tertiary hospitals with pediatric services and a random sample (10%) of primary hospitals provided information on number of pediatricians and their educational levels, specialties, workloads, dropout rates, and other hospital characteristics. A data set of medical resources and socioeconomic information regarding each region (1997-2016) was constructed from the Chinese National Statistics Bureau. The Gini coefficient was used to describe the geographical distributions of pediatricians and hospitals. RESULTS: There were 135 524 pediatricians in China or ∼4 pediatricians per 10 000 children. Pediatricians' average educational level was low, with ∼32% having only 3 years of junior college training after high school. The distribution of pediatricians was extremely skewed (Gini coefficient 0.61), and the imbalance of highly educated pediatricians was even more skewed (Gini coefficient 0.68). The dropout rate of pediatricians was 12.6%. Despite an increase in the Chinese government's financial investment in health over the last decade, physicians have been burdened with a greater workload. CONCLUSIONS: Uneven development of the pediatric care system, inadequately trained pediatricians, low job satisfaction, and unmet demand for pediatric care are the major challenges facing China's pediatric health care system.

19.
Orthop Traumatol Surg Res ; 105(6): 1193-1198, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic elbow stiffness and heterotopic ossification (HO) affects long-term life quality, as commonly in children and teenagers as in grownups. Childhood obesity considerably influences public health because it causes stroke, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Previous research discussed its clinical complications in orthopedic diseases. However, no clinical research reveals the interaction between childhood obesity and HO after elbow injuries. HYPOTHESIS: Obesity might be a risk factor of recurrent HO after elbow arthrolysis in children and teenagers, correlated with the severity of postoperative HO. METHODS: Fifty seven post-traumatic children and teenagers undergoing elbow arthrolysis were retrospectively reviewed and divided into underweight/normal-weight group (n=28) and overweight/obese group (n=29) according to the gender-specific body mass index (BMI)-for-age growth chart. The Hastings and Graham classification was used to evaluate HO recurrence. We also assessed Mayo elbow performance scores and range of motion. RESULTS: The mean age, gender, pathogenesis, side of injury, time of injury, follow-up duration were analyzed. Overweight/obese children and teenagers were more likely to develop recurrent HO (p=0.005) than underweight/normal-weight children and teenagers. A significant difference in the severity of recurrent HO between two groups was confirmed (p=0.028). The range of motion was improved greatly in underweight/normal-weight group compared with that in overweight/obese group (p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The HO recurrence difference between two groups confirmed the hypothesis. Although underlying mechanisms are unclear, weight control might promote postoperative and long-term rehabilitation of the elbow joint for children and teenagers. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III, retrospective cohort study, treatment study.

20.
Cell Microbiol ; 21(8): e13038, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050118

RESUMO

Influenza virus matrix 1 protein (M1) is highly conserved and plays essential roles at many stages of virus life cycle. Here, we used a yeast two-hybrid system to identify the host protein SLD5, a component of the GINS complex, which is essential for the initiation of DNA replication in eukaryotic cells, as a new M1 interacting protein. M1 from several different influenza virus strains all interacted with SLD5. Overexpression of SLD5 suppressed influenza virus replication. Transient, stable, or inducible expression of M1 induced host cell cycle blockade at G0/G1 phase. Moreover, SLD5 partially rescued M1 expression- or influenza virus infection-induced G0/G1 phase accumulation in cell lines and primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Importantly, SLD5 transgenic mice exhibited higher resistance and improved lung epithelial regeneration after virus infection compared with wild-type mice. Therefore, influenza virus M1 blocks host cell cycle process by interacting with SLD5. Our finding reveals the multifunctional nature of M1 and provides new insight for understanding influenza virus-host interaction.

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