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1.
Nanotechnology ; 32(1): 015202, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043902

RESUMO

The investigation of two-dimensional (2D) nonlinear optical materials offers a promising way to construct the high-performance optical devices in fundamental and industrial applications because of their rich distinct optoelectronic properties. Herein, by utilizing the liquid exfoliation method, vanadium disulfide (VS2) nanosheets are prepared and the thickness is measured to be 3.16 nm. In addition, we have fabricated the VS2-based optical device and the nonlinear optical property is characterized with modulation depth of 23.97%. By using VS2 as saturable absorber, a high stable passively mode-locking Er-doped fiber laser is obtained with pulse duration of 169 fs and the largest average output power of 70.5 mW. The slope efficiency is up to 7.9%. In comparison to recent results of mode-locking fiber lasers with 2D materials, the VS2-based fiber laser demonstrates better performance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of using VS2 for generating femtosecond mode-locked laser pulse. Our experimental results not only reveal VS2 ultrafast photonics application, but also advance the high-performance applications for information science and nonlinear optics.

2.
J Gen Virol ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016861

RESUMO

Post-translational modification plays a critical role in viral replication. Previously we reported that neddylation of PB2 of influenza A virus (IAV) can inhibit viral replication. However, we found that NEDD8 overexpression can still inhibit the replication of PB2 K699R mutant viruses, implying that other viral protein(s) can be neddylated. In this study, we revealed that M1 of IAV can also be modified by NEDD8. We found that the E3 ligase HDM2 significantly promotes M1 neddylation. Furthermore, we identified M1 K187 as the major neddylation site. We generated an IAV M1 K187R mutant (WSN-M1 K187R) and compared the growth of wild-type and mutant viruses in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. The data showed that the replication of WSN-M1 K187R was more efficient than that of wild-type WSN. More importantly, we observed that overexpression of NEDD8 inhibited the replication of the wild-type WSN more effectively than that of WSN-M1 K187R. In addition, we found that the neddylation-deficient M1 mutant (M1 K187R) had a longer half-life than that of wild-type M1, indicating that the neddylation of M1 reduces stability. Then we performed a viral infection assay and found that WSN-M1 K187R exhibited greater virulence in mice than wild-type WSN, suggesting that the neddylation of M1 reduced IAV replication in vivo. In conclusion, we uncovered that neddylation of M1 by HDM2 negatively regulates the stability of M1, which in turn inhibits viral replication.

3.
Viruses ; 12(10)2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066222

RESUMO

The Mesoniviridae are a newly assigned family of viruses in the order Nidovirales. Unlike other nidoviruses, which include the Coronaviridae, mesoniviruses are restricted to mosquito hosts and do not infect vertebrate cells. To date there is little information on the morphological and antigenic characteristics of this new group of viruses and a dearth of mesonivirus-specific research tools. In this study we determined the genetic relationships of recent Australian isolates of Alphamesonivirus 4 (Casuarina virus-CASV) and Alphamesonivirus 1 (Nam Dinh virus-NDiV), obtained from multiple mosquito species. Australian isolates of NDiV showed high-level similarity to the prototype NDiV isolate from Vietnam (99% nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) identity). Isolates of CASV from Central Queensland were genetically very similar to the prototype virus from Darwin (95-96% nt and 91-92% aa identity). Electron microscopy studies demonstrated that virion diameter (≈80 nm) and spike length (≈10 nm) were similar for both viruses. Monoclonal antibodies specific to CASV and NDiV revealed a close antigenic relationship between the two viruses with 13/34 mAbs recognising both viruses. We also detected NDiV RNA on honey-soaked nucleic acid preservation cards fed on by wild mosquitoes supporting a possible mechanism of horizontal transmission between insects in nature.

4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5006, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024095

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first identified in late 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China and spread globally in months, sparking worldwide concern. However, it is unclear whether super-spreading events occurred during the early outbreak phase, as has been observed for other emerging viruses. Here, we analyse 208 publicly available SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences collected during the early outbreak phase. We combine phylogenetic analysis with Bayesian inference under an epidemiological model to trace person-to-person transmission. The dispersion parameter of the offspring distribution in the inferred transmission chain was estimated to be 0.23 (95% CI: 0.13-0.38), indicating there are individuals who directly infected a disproportionately large number of people. Our results showed that super-spreading events played an important role in the early stage of the COVID-19 outbreak.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Teorema de Bayes , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
5.
J Clin Lab Anal ; : e23518, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32864830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrin-17 (G-17) and Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) antibody are widely used in the screening of gastric diseases, especially in gastric cancer. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the value of G-17 and H pylori antibody in gastric disease screening. METHODS: Healthy males and females (1368 and 1212, respectively) aged between 21-80 years were recruited for the study. Serum G-17 value was measured using ELISA, and H pylori antibodies were measured using Western blotting. Statistical analyses were performed using the chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, and Kruskal-Wallis H tests. RESULTS: Serum G-17 level was higher in the H pylori-positive group than in the negative group. Serum G-17 level was higher in the type 1 H pylori-positive group than in the type 2 H pylori-positive group. Further, serum G-17 level was higher in females than in males and showed significant differences among different age-groups, with changes in trend proportional to the age. The positive rate of H pylori infection in all the subjects was 58.29% and did not show a significant difference between males and females. However, it showed significant differences among different age-groups, with the changing trend proportional to the age. CONCLUSION: Analysis of serum G-17 level and H pylori antibody typing is valuable in gastric disease screening. Every laboratory should establish its own reference interval for G-17 level.

6.
Org Lett ; 22(19): 7572-7576, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909760

RESUMO

Bicyclo[3.2.1]octanes and related structures are unique units that widely exist in natural products, but the rapid and stereoselective construction of this skeleton is a challenging issue. We report the stereodivergent synthesis of bicyclo[3.2.1]octenes using Nazarov reagents and alkenyl 1,2-diketones with Brønsted base catalysis under mild conditions. Both stereoisomers of the bridged products can be obtained by tuning the reaction conditions, and cyclohexene product can also be selectively formed.

7.
Plant Physiol ; 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958560

RESUMO

Drought is an important environmental factor affecting the growth and production of agricultural crops and fruits worldwide, including apple (Malus domestica). HEAT SHOCK FACTORs (HSFs) have well-documented functions in stress responses, but their roles in flavonoid synthesis and the flavonoid-mediated drought response mechanism remain elusive. In this study, we demonstrated that a drought-responsive HSF, designated MdHSFA8a, promotes the accumulation of flavonoids, scavenging of reactive oxygen species, and plant survival under drought conditions. A chaperone, HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN 90 (HSP90), interacted with MdHSFA8a to inhibit its binding activity and transcriptional activation. However, under drought stress, the MdHSP90-MdHSFA8a complex dissociated and the released MdHSFA8a further interacted with the APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE FACTOR (AP2/ERF)-family transcription factor RELATED TO AP2 12 (RAP2.12) to activate downstream gene activity. In addition, we demonstrated that MdHSFA8a participates in abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stomatal closure and promotes expression of ABA signaling-related genes. Collectively, these findings provide insight into the mechanism by which stress-inducible MdHSFA8a modulates flavonoid synthesis to regulate drought tolerance.

8.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957468

RESUMO

Influenza viruses pose a significant threat to human health. They are responsible for a large number of deaths annually and have a serious impact on the global economy. There are numerous influenza virus subtypes, antigenic variations occur continuously, and epidemic trends are difficult to predict-all of which lead to poor outcomes of routine vaccination against targeted strain subtypes. Therefore, the development of universal influenza vaccines still constitutes the ideal strategy for controlling influenza. This article reviews the progress in development of universal vaccines directed against the conserved regions of hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and other structural proteins of influenza viruses using new technologies and strategies with the goals of enhancing our understanding of universal influenza vaccines and providing a reference for research into the exploitation of natural immunity against influenza viruses.

9.
Minerva Med ; 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940430

RESUMO

Placing implants in the edentulous jaw of an individual with severe posterior mandibular atrophy is challenging due to the insufficient bone height above the inferior alveolar nerve canal. The different reconstruction techniques available cause extensive morbidity, are costly, and require prolonged treatments. In here we report a case series of patients treated with a new minimally invasive technique to facilitate implant placement in patients with severely atrophied posterior mandible.

10.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 27(Pt 5): 1430-1437, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876620

RESUMO

Measurement modalities in Bragg coherent diffraction imaging (BCDI) rely on finding a signal from a single nanoscale crystal object which satisfies the Bragg condition among a large number of arbitrarily oriented nanocrystals. However, even when the signal from a single Bragg reflection with (hkl) Miller indices is found, the crystallographic axes on the retrieved three-dimensional (3D) image of the crystal remain unknown, and thus localizing in reciprocal space other Bragg reflections becomes time-consuming or requires good knowledge of the orientation of the crystal. Here, the commissioning of a movable double-bounce Si (111) monochromator at the 34-ID-C endstation of the Advanced Photon Source is reported, which aims at delivering multi-reflection BCDI as a standard tool in a single beamline instrument. The new instrument enables, through rapid switching from monochromatic to broadband (pink) beam, the use of Laue diffraction to determine crystal orientation. With a proper orientation matrix determined for the lattice, one can measure coherent diffraction patterns near multiple Bragg peaks, thus providing sufficient information to image the full strain tensor in 3D. The design, concept of operation, the developed procedures for indexing Laue patterns, and automated measuring of Bragg coherent diffraction data from multiple reflections of the same nanocrystal are discussed.

11.
J Vet Sci ; 21(4): e68, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735103

RESUMO

A fluorescent microsphere-based immunochromatographic strip test (FICT) was developed for the rapid, sensitive, and quantitative detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) antibodies at the pen-side. The assay was based on the formation of a sandwich immune-complex (anti-pig IgG-PRRSV antibodies-NSP7/N), which was validated by a comparison with IDEXX-ELISA using 3325 clinical specimens. The diagnostic specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of FICT were 97.28, 93.41, and 94.95%, respectively. FICT showed a good correlation with the virus neutralization assay. Overall, a promising pen-side diagnostic tool was developed for the rapid and quantitative detection of PRRSV antibodies within 15 min.

12.
Opt Lett ; 45(16): 4611-4614, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797022

RESUMO

The electro-optic effect in two-dimensional (2D) MgO nanoflakes synthesized by a microwave-assisted process is demonstrated using a designed optical fiber modulator. The guiding properties of intense core modes excited by the material cavity are modulated by the external electric field. The feasibility of 2D MgO nanoflakes as an effective electro-optic modulator and switching are experimentally verified for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The proposed optical-fiber-based electro-optic modulator achieves a linear wavelength shift with a high sensitivity of 12.87 pm/V(77.22 nm/kV/mm, in the electric field). The results show that MgO, as a metal oxide 2D material, is a very promising material for electro-optic modulators and switching.

13.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(10): 8791-8795, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861486

RESUMO

Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Probio-M8 is a potential probiotic strain that was isolated from human milk. Previously, we obtained an oxygen-resistant variant (Probio-M8o) of Probio-M8 by an adaptive evolution strategy. In the present study, a comparative transcriptomic analysis of Probio-M8o and Probio-M8 was carried out to reveal the cellular mechanism of the oxygen-resistant phenotype. Using RNA-seq, 210 and 217 differentially expressed genes were identified in Probio-M8o compared with Probio-M8 after oxygen exposure for 30 and 60 min, respectively. The oxygen treatment upregulated a set of genes that encoded proteins responsible for fatty acid biosynthesis. This observation was in good agreement with the composition change in fatty acids at the biochemical level. Our study showed that the oxygen-resistant phenotype could be related to adaptation of fatty acid metabolism.

14.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(20): 11742-11754, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860495

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs)-based therapies have shown a promised result for intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) treatment. However, its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Exosomes involve cell-cell communication via transference of its contents among different cells, and the present potential effect on cell death regulation. This study aimed to investigate the role of MSCs-derived exosomes on IVDD formation. Here, we first found the NLRP3-mediated nucleus pulposus cell (NP cell) pyroptosis was activated in the IVDD mice model and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced model. However, MSCs treatment could inhibit NP cell pyroptosis in vitro. We then isolated MSCs-derived exosomes by differential centrifugation and identified the characteristics. Secondly, we investigated the function of MSCs-derived exosomes on LPS-induced NP cell pyroptosis. Finally, we presented evidence that MSCs-derived exosomal miR-410 was a crucial regulator of pyroptosis. Results showed that MSCs-derived exosomes play an anti-pyroptosis role by suppressing the NLRP3 pathway. Moreover, it suggested that this effect was attributed to miR-410, which was derived from MSCs-exosomes and could directly bind to NLRP3mRNA. In conclusion, for the first time, we demonstrated that MSCs-exosome treatment may inhibit pyroptosis and could be a promising therapeutic strategy for IVDD.

15.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 155: 464-471, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823247

RESUMO

Salt stress is an important environmental factor affecting the growth and production of agricultural crops and fruits worldwide, including apple (Malus × domestica). In this study, we demonstrate that a salt-responsive MYB transcription factor (TF), designated as MdMYB63, promotes survival under salt stress. Overexpression of MdMYB63 in apple calli significantly enhanced salt tolerance. Screening of the AP2/ERF family of TFs identified MdERF106 as an interaction partner of MdMYB63. Further analyses showed that the MdMYB63-MdERF106 complex significantly promotes the expression of downstream MdSOS1, thereby improving the Na+ expulsion and salt tolerance of apple. These functional analyses of MdMYB63 have provided valuable insights into the regulatory network of salt tolerance, and lay a theoretical foundation for the cultivation of new salt-tolerant apple varieties.

16.
Adv Mater ; 32(37): e2003417, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761698

RESUMO

Crystallographic defects exist in many redox active energy materials, e.g., battery and catalyst materials, which significantly alter their chemical properties for energy storage and conversion. However, there is lack of quantitative understanding of the interrelationship between crystallographic defects and redox reactions. Herein, crystallographic defects, such as geometrically necessary dislocations, are reported to influence the redox reactions in battery particles through single-particle, multimodal, and in situ synchrotron measurements. Through Laue X-ray microdiffraction, many crystallographic defects are spatially identified and statistically quantified from a large quantity of diffraction patterns in many layered oxide particles, including geometrically necessary dislocations, tilt boundaries, and mixed defects. The in situ and ex situ measurements, combining microdiffraction and X-ray spectroscopy imaging, reveal that LiCoO2 particles with a higher concentration of geometrically necessary dislocations provide deeper charging reactions, indicating that dislocations may facilitate redox reactions in layered oxides during initial charging. The present study illustrates that a precise control of crystallographic defects and their distribution can potentially promote and homogenize redox reactions in battery materials.

17.
Sci China Life Sci ; 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803713

RESUMO

Mutations in viral proteins can lead to the cold adaption of influenza A virus and the cold-adapted virus is an important vaccination instrument. Here, we identify a novel strain of influenza A virus with cold sensitivity conferred by a mutation at a phosphorylation site within the nucleoprotein (NP). The highly conserved tyrosine 385 residue (Y385) of NP was identified as a phosphorylation site by mass spectrometry. The constructive NP phosphorylation mimicked by Y385E mutation was fatal for virus replication, while the continuous Y385 dephosphorylation mimicked by Y385F mutation had little impact on virus replication in vitro. Notably, the Y385F virus showed much lower replicative capacity in turbinates of mice compared with the wild type virus. Moreover, the replication of Y385F virus was significantly reduced in both A549 and MDCK cells grown at 33°C, when compared to that at 37°C. These results indicated that the Y385F mutation led to cold sensitivity of virus. We further found that the cold sensitivity of Y385F virus could be attributed to diminished NP oligomerization rather than any changes in intracellular localization. Taken together, these findings suggest that the phosphorylation of NP may be a critical factor that regulates the temperature sensitivity of influenza A virus.

18.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32808060

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the leading cause of chronic liver disease in developing countries. The pathogenesis is complex, and there is currently no effective treatment. Betaine is an essential intermediate in choline catabolism and an important component of the methionine cycle. Betaine deficiency is associated with NAFLD severity, and its mechanism needs to be further elaborated. METHODS: In this study, an NAFLD mouse model was established by feeding ApoE-/- mice a high-fat diet. The effects of betaine on NAFLD were investigated, including its mechanism. RESULTS: In this study, after treatment with betaine, blood lipid levels and liver damage were significantly decreased in the NAFLD mouse model. The fat infiltration of the liver tissues of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice after betaine administration was significantly improved. Betaine treatment significantly upregulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10), and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) protein levels both in vivo and in vitro and suppressed lipid metabolism-related genes. Furthermore, the overexpression of FGF10 increased the protein level of AMPK and decreased lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. CONCLUSION: Taken together, the data strongly suggest that betaine significantly prevents high-fat diet-induced NAFLD through the FGF10/AMPK signaling pathway in ApoE-/- mice.

19.
Virus Genes ; 56(5): 600-609, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676956

RESUMO

Outbreaks of short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS), caused by a novel goose parvovirus (NGPV), have occurred in China since 2015. This rapidly spreading, infectious disease affects ducks in particular, with a high morbidity and low mortality rate, causing huge economic losses. This study analyzed the evolution of NGPV isolated from Jing-Xi partridge duck with SBDS in South China. Complete genome sequences of the NGPV strains GDQY1802 and GDSG1901 were homologous with other GPV/NGPV and Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) strains. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the NGPV isolated from mainland China was related to the Taiwan 82-0321v strain of GPV. In contrast to 82-0321v and the SDLC01 strain, which was first isolated from China, the two isolates showed no deletions in the inverted terminal repeat (ITR) region. Further, in these isolates, 24 amino acid sites of the replication protein were different compared to that of GPV live vaccine strain 82-0321v, and 12 sites were unique across all NGPV isolates. These isolates also showed differences in 17 amino acid sites of the capsid protein from that of 82-0321v, two of which were the same as those in MDPV. Recombination analysis identified the major parents of GDSG1901 and GDQY1802 as the NGPV-GD and NGPV-Hun18 strains, and the minor parents as the classical GPV 06-0329 and GPV LH strains, respectively. GDQY1802 and GDSG1901 are recombinant GPV-related parvovirus isolated from domesticated partridge duck. Recombination is evident in the evolution of NGPV, and as such, the use of live attenuated vaccines for NGPV requires further study.

20.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706427

RESUMO

The genome composition of a given avian influenza virus is the primary determinant of its potential for cross-species transmission from birds to humans. Here we introduce a viral genome-based computational tool that can be used to evaluate the human infectivity of avian isolates of influenza A H7N9 viruses, which can enable prediction of the potential risk of these isolates infecting humans. This tool, which is based on a novel class weight-biased logistic regression (CWBLR) algorithm, uses the sequences of the eight genome segments of an H7N9 strain as the input and gives the probability of this strain infecting humans (reflecting its human infectivity). We used the CWBLR model to examine the replication efficiency and pathogenicity of several H7N9 avian isolates that were predicted to have very low or high human infectivity in cell culture and in mice, and found that the strains with high predicted human infectivity replicated more efficiently in mammalian cells and were more infective in mice than those that were predicted to have low human infectivity. These results demonstrate that our CWBLR model can serve as a powerful tool for predicting the human infectivity and cross-species transmission risks of H7N9 avian strains.

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