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1.
J Virol ; : JVI0137821, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34851145

RESUMO

African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the causative agent of African swine fever (ASF), which is a devastating pig disease threatening the global pork industry. However, currently no commercial vaccines are available. During the immune response, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules select viral peptide epitopes and present them to host cytotoxic T lymphocytes, thereby playing critical roles in eliminating viral infections. Here we screened peptides derived from ASFV and determined the molecular basis of ASFV-derived peptides presented by the swine leukocyte antigen (SLA)-1*0101. We found that peptide binding in SLA-1*0101 differs from the traditional mammalian binding patterns. Unlike the typical B and F pockets used by the common MHC-I molecule, SLA-1*0101 uses the D and F pockets as major peptide anchor pockets. Furthermore, the conformationally stable Arg114 residue located in the peptide-binding groove (PBG) was highly selective for the peptides. Arg114 draws negatively charged residues at positions P5 to P7 of the peptides, which led to multiple bulged conformations of different peptides binding to SLA-1*0101 and creating diversity for T cells receptor docking. Thus, the solid Arg114 residue acts as a "mooring stone" and pulls the peptides into the PBG of SLA-1*0101. Notably, the T cells recognition and activation of p72-derived peptides were verified by SLA-1*0101 tetramer-based flow cytometry in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of the donor pigs. These results refresh our understanding of MHC I molecular anchor peptides, and provide new insights into vaccine development for the prevention and control of ASF. IMPORTANCE The spread of African swine fever virus (ASFV) has caused enormous losses to the pork industry worldwide. Here, a series of ASFV-derived peptides were identified, which could bind to swine leukocyte antigen SLA-1*0101, a prevalent SLA allele among Yorkshire pigs. The crystal structure of four ASFV-derived peptides and one foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)-derived peptide complexed with SLA-1*0101 revealed an unusual peptide anchoring mode of SLA-1*0101 with D and F pockets as anchoring pockets. Negatively-charged residues are preferred within the middle portion of SLA-1*0101-binding peptides. Notably, we determined an unexpected role of Arg114 of SLA-1*0101 as a "mooring stone" which pulls the peptide anchoring into the PBG in diverse "M" or "n" shaped conformation. Furthermore, T cells from donor pigs could activate through the recognition of ASFV-derived peptides. Our study sheds light on the uncommon presentation of ASFV peptides by swine MHC I and benefits the development of ASF vaccines.

2.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(49): 1052-1056, 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34934515
3.
Hum Immunol ; 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785098

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Great international efforts have been put into the development of prophylactic vaccines and neutralizing antibodies. However, the knowledge about the B cell immune response induced by the SARS-CoV-2 virus is still limited. Here, we report a comprehensive characterization of the dynamics of immunoglobin heavy chain (IGH) repertoire in COVID-19 patients. By using next-generation sequencing technology, we examined the temporal changes in the landscape of the patient's immunological status and found dramatic changes in the IGH within the patient's immune system after the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. Although different patients have distinct immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, by employing clonotype overlap, lineage expansion, and clonotype network analyses, we observed a higher clonotype overlap and substantial lineage expansion of B cell clones 2-3 weeks after the onset of illness, which is of great importance to B-cell immune responses. Meanwhile, for preferences of V gene usage during SARS-CoV-2 infection, IGHV3-74 and IGHV4-34, and IGHV4-39 in COVID-19 patients were more abundant than those of healthy controls. Overall, we present an immunological resource for SARS-CoV-2 that could promote both therapeutic development as well as mechanistic research.

4.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(44): 915-917, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745691
5.
Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom ; 1870(2): 140736, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774760

RESUMO

We present an integrated analysis of urine and serum proteomics and clinical measurements in asymptomatic, mild/moderate, severe and convalescent cases of COVID-19. We identify the pattern of immune response during COVID-19 infection. The immune response is activated in asymptomatic infection, but is dysregulated in mild and severe COVID-19 patients. Our data suggest that the turning point depends on the function of myeloid cells and neutrophils. In addition, immune defects persist into the recovery stage, until 12 months after diagnosis. Moreover, disorders of cholesterol metabolism span the entire progression of the disease, starting from asymptomatic infection and lasting to recovery. Our data suggest that prolonged dysregulation of the immune response and cholesterol metabolism might be the pivotal causative agent of other potential sequelae. Our study provides a comprehensive understanding of COVID-19 immunopathogenesis, which is instructive for the development of early intervention strategies to ameliorate complex disease sequelae.

6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The longitudinal antigen-specific immunity in COVID-19 convalescents is crucial for long-term protection upon individual re-exposure to SARS-CoV-2, and even more pivotal for ultimately achieving population-level immunity. To better understand the features of immune memory in individuals with different disease severities at one year post-disease onset we conducted this cohort study. METHODS: We conducted a systematic antigen-specific immune evaluation in 101 COVID-19 convalescents, who had asymptomatic, mild, moderate, or severe disease, through two visits at months 6 and 12 post-disease onset. The SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, comprising NAb, IgG, and IgM, were assessed by mutually corroborated assays, i.e. neutralization, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and microparticle chemiluminescence immunoassay (MCLIA). Meanwhile, the T-cell memory against SARS-CoV-2 spike, membrane and nucleocapsid proteins was tested through enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISpot), intracellular cytokine staining (ICS), and tetramer staining-based flow cytometry, respectively. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies, and also NAb can persist among over 95% COVID-19 convalescents from 6 months to 12 months after disease onset. At least 19/71 (26%) of COVID-19 convalescents (double positive in ELISA and MCLIA) had detectable circulating IgM antibody against SARS-CoV-2 at 12m post-disease onset. Notably, the percentages of convalescents with positive SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses (at least one of the SARS-CoV-2 antigen S1, S2, M and N protein) were 71/76 (93%) and 67/73 (92%) at 6m and 12m, respectively. Furthermore, both antibody and T-cell memory levels of the convalescents were positively associated with their disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2-specific cellular and humoral immunities are durable at least until one year after disease onset.

7.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(36): 751-756, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594983

RESUMO

What is known about this topic?: The emerging H5Ny lineages of the avian influenza virus (AIV) with genomic reassortments have posed a continuous threat to animals and human beings. Since the first case of avian influenza A (H5N6) virus infection in 2014, the World Health Organization has reported a total of 38 cases by August 6, 2021. What is added by this report?: A total of 5 new cases of H5N6 that occurred from May 2021 to July 2021 in Sichuan Province, China were reported in this study. Epidemiological and laboratory information of the five cases were investigated. The genomic analysis of the H5N6 genomes showed the features of AIV genomic reassortments and key residue substitutions. What are the implications for public health practice?: The emergence of human cases infected by AIV H5Ny lineages through time demonstrates a risk of the persistence and evolution of the virus to trigger sporadic outbreaks and even pandemics, which need continuous surveillance.

9.
J Virol ; : JVI0146421, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586860

RESUMO

Bats are reservoirs of important zoonotic viruses like Nipah and SARS viruses. However, whether the blood-sucking arthropods on the body surface of bats also carry these viruses, and the relationship between viruses carried by the blood-sucking arthropods and viruses carried by bats, have not been reported. This study collected 686 blood-sucking arthropods on the body surface of bats from Yunnan Province, China between 2012 and 2015, and they included wingless bat flies, bat flies, ticks, mites, and fleas. The viruses carried by these arthropods were analyzed using meta-transcriptomic approach, and 144 highly diverse positive-sense single-stranded RNA, negative-sense single-stranded RNA, and double-stranded RNA viruses were found, of which 138 were potentially new viruses. These viruses were classified into 14 different virus families or orders, including Bunyavirales, Mononegavirales, Reoviridae, and Picornavirales. Further analyses found that Bunyavirales were the most abundant virus group (84% of total virus RNA) in ticks, whereas narnaviruses were the most abundant (52-92%) in the bat flies and wingless bat flies libraries, followed by solemoviruses (1-29%) and reoviruses (0-43%). These viruses were highly structured based on the arthropod types. It is worth noting that no bat-borne zoonotic viruses were found in the virome of bat-infesting arthropod, seemly not supporting that bat surface arthropods are vectors of zoonotic viruses carried by bats. IMPORTANCE Bats are reservoir of many important viral pathogens. To evaluate whether bat-parasitic blood-sucking arthropods participate in the circulation of these important viruses, it is necessary to conduct unbiased virome studies on these arthropods. We evaluated five types of blood-sucking parasitic arthropods on the surface of bats in Yunnan, China and identified a variety of viruses, some of which had high prevalence and abundance level, although there is limited overlap in virome between distant arthropods. While most of the virome discovered here are potentially arthropod-specific viruses, we identified three possible arboviruses, including one orthobunyavirus and two vesiculoviruses (family Rhabdoviridae), suggesting bat-parasitic arthropods carry viruses with risk of spillage, which warrants further study.

11.
J Immunol ; 207(8): 2167-2178, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535575

RESUMO

Marsupials are one of three major mammalian lineages that include the placental eutherians and the egg-laying monotremes. The marsupial brushtail possum is an important protected species in the Australian forest ecosystem. Molecules encoded by the MHC genes are essential mediators of adaptive immune responses in virus-host interactions. Yet, nothing is known about the peptide presentation features of any marsupial MHC class I (MHC I). This study identified a series of possum MHC I Trvu-UB*01:01 binding peptides derived from wobbly possum disease virus (WPDV), a lethal virus of both captive and feral possum populations, and unveiled the structure of marsupial peptide/MHC I complex. Notably, we found the two brushtail possum-specific insertions, the 3-aa Ile52Glu53Arg54 and 1-aa Arg154 insertions are located in the Trvu-UB*01:01 peptide binding groove (PBG). The 3-aa insertion plays a pivotal role in maintaining the stability of the N terminus of Trvu-UB*01:01 PBG. This aspect of marsupial PBG is unexpectedly similar to the bat MHC I Ptal-N*01:01 and is shared with lower vertebrates from elasmobranch to monotreme, indicating an evolution hotspot that may have emerged from the pathogen-host interactions. Residue Arg154 insertion, located in the α2 helix, is available for TCR recognition, and it has a particular influence on promoting the anchoring of peptide WPDV-12. These findings add significantly to our understanding of adaptive immunity in marsupials and its evolution in vertebrates. Our findings have the potential to impact the conservation of the protected species brushtail possum and other marsupial species.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/metabolismo , Quirópteros/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Infecções por Nidovirales/imunologia , Nidovirales/fisiologia , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Trichosurus/imunologia , Animais , Apresentação do Antígeno , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Austrália , Evolução Biológica , Clonagem Molecular , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Mamíferos , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica
12.
J Virol ; 95(22): e0117321, 2021 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431700

RESUMO

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has reignited global interest in animal coronaviruses and their potential for human transmission. While bats are thought to be the wildlife reservoir of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, the widespread human coronavirus OC43 is thought to have originated in rodents. Here, we sampled 297 rodents and shrews, representing eight species, from three municipalities of southern China. We report coronavirus prevalences of 23.3% and 0.7% in Guangzhou and Guilin, respectively, with samples from urban areas having significantly higher coronavirus prevalences than those from rural areas. We obtained three coronavirus genome sequences from Rattus norvegicus, including a Betacoronavirus (rat coronavirus [RCoV] GCCDC3), an Alphacoronavirus (RCoV-GCCDC5), and a novel Betacoronavirus (RCoV-GCCDC4). Recombination analysis suggests that there was a potential recombination event involving RCoV-GCCDC4, murine hepatitis virus (MHV), and Longquan Rl rat coronavirus (LRLV). Furthermore, we uncovered a polybasic cleavage site, RARR, in the spike (S) protein of RCoV-GCCDC4, which is dominant in RCoV. These findings provide further information on the potential for interspecies transmission of coronaviruses and demonstrate the value of a One Health approach to virus discovery. IMPORTANCE Surveillance of viruses among rodents in rural and urban areas of South China identified three rodent coronaviruses, RCoV-GCCDC3, RCoV-GCCDC4, and RCoV-GCCDC5, one of which was identified as a novel potentially recombinant coronavirus with a polybasic cleavage site in the spike (S) protein. Through reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) screening of coronaviruses, we found that coronavirus prevalence in urban areas is much higher than that in rural areas. Subsequently, we obtained three coronavirus genome sequences by deep sequencing. After different method-based analyses, we found that RCoV-GCCDC4 was a novel potentially recombinant coronavirus with a polybasic cleavage site in the S protein, dominant in RCoV. This newly identified coronavirus RCoV-GCCDC4 with its potentially recombinant genome and polybasic cleavage site provides a new insight into the evolution of coronaviruses. Furthermore, our results provide further information on the potential for interspecies transmission of coronaviruses and demonstrate the necessity of a One Health approach for zoonotic disease surveillance.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus/genética , Recombinação Genética , Roedores/virologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Prevalência , Musaranhos/virologia
13.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1574-1588, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289779

RESUMO

A safe and effective vaccine is urgently needed to control the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic. Four adenovirus-vectored vaccines expressing spike (S) protein have been approved for use. Here, we generated several recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus (AdC7) vaccines expressing S, receptor-binding domain (RBD), or tandem-repeat dimeric RBD (RBD-tr2). We found vaccination via either intramuscular or intranasal route was highly immunogenic in mice to elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses. AdC7-RBD-tr2 showed higher antibody responses compared to either AdC7-S or AdC7-RBD. Intranasal administration of AdC7-RBD-tr2 additionally induced mucosal immunity with neutralizing activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Either single-dose or two-dose mucosal administration of AdC7-RBD-tr2 protected mice against SARS-CoV-2 challenge, with undetectable subgenomic RNA in lung and relieved lung injury. AdC7-RBD-tr2-elicted sera preserved the neutralizing activity against the circulating variants, especially the Delta variant. These results support AdC7-RBD-tr2 as a promising COVID-19 vaccine candidate.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae/genética , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , COVID-19 , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra COVID-19/genética , Chlorocebus aethiops , Feminino , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Injeções Intramusculares , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pan troglodytes/virologia , Ligação Proteica , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/administração & dosagem , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Vacinação , Células Vero
14.
Front Med ; 15(4): 507-527, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860875

RESUMO

The avian influenza A (H7N9) virus is a zoonotic virus that is closely associated with live poultry markets. It has caused infections in humans in China since 2013. Five waves of the H7N9 influenza epidemic occurred in China between March 2013 and September 2017. H7N9 with low-pathogenicity dominated in the first four waves, whereas highly pathogenic H7N9 influenza emerged in poultry and spread to humans during the fifth wave, causing wide concern. Specialists and officials from China and other countries responded quickly, controlled the epidemic well thus far, and characterized the virus by using new technologies and surveillance tools that were made possible by their preparedness efforts. Here, we review the characteristics of the H7N9 viruses that were identified while controlling the spread of the disease. It was summarized and discussed from the perspectives of molecular epidemiology, clinical features, virulence and pathogenesis, receptor binding, T-cell responses, monoclonal antibody development, vaccine development, and disease burden. These data provide tools for minimizing the future threat of H7N9 and other emerging and re-emerging viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Aviária , Influenza Humana , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Aves Domésticas , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Environ Int ; 153: 106534, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poultry farms and LPMs are a reservoir of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and resistance genes from feces. The LPM is an important interface between humans, farm animals, and environments in a typical urban environment, and it is considered a reservoir for ARGs and viruses. However, the antibiotic resistomes shared between chicken farms and LPMs, and that of LPM workers and people who have no contact with the LPMs remains unknown. METHODS: We characterized the resistome and bacterial microbiome of farm chickens and LPMs and LPM workers and control subjects. The mobile ARGs identified in chickens and the distribution of the mcr-family genes in publicly bacterial genomes and chicken gut metagenomes was analyzed, respectively. In addition, the prevalence of mcr-1 in LPMs following the ban on colistin-positive additives in China was explored. RESULTS: By profiling the microbiomes and resistomes in chicken farms, LPMs, LPM workers, and LPM environments, we found that the bacterial community composition and resistomes were significantly different between the farms and the LPMs, and the LPM samples possessed more diversified ARGs (59 types) than the farms. Some mobile ARGs, such as mcr-1 and tet(X3), identified in chicken farms, LPMs, LPM workers, and LPM environments were also harbored by human clinical pathogens. Moreover, we found that the resistomes were significantly different between the LPM workers and those who have no contact with the LPMs, and more diversified ARGs (188 types) were observed in the LPM workers. It is also worth noting that mcr-10 was identified in both human (5.2%, 96/1,859) and chicken (1.5%, 14/910) gut microbiomes. Although mcr-1 prevalence decreased significantly in the LPMs across the eight provinces in China, from 190/333 (57.1%) samples in September 2016-March 2017 to 208/544 (38.2%) samples in August 2018-May 2019, it is widespread and continuous in the LPMs. CONCLUSION: Live poultry trade has a significant effect on the diversity of ARGs in LPM workers, chickens, and environments in China, driven by human selection with the live poultry trade. Our findings highlight the live poultry trade as ARG disseminators into LPMs, which serve as an interface of LPM environments even LPM workers, and that could urge Government to have better control of LPMs in China. Further studies on the factors that promote antibiotic resistance exchange between LPM environments, human commensals, and pathogens, are warranted.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Galinhas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , China , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Fazendeiros , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional , Aves Domésticas
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(17)2021 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875594

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccines are composed of surface antigen HBsAg that spontaneously assembles into subviral particles. Factors that impede its humoral immunity in 5% to 10% of vaccinees remain elusive. Here, we showed that the low-level interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) can predict antibody protection both in mice and humans. Mechanistically, murine IL-1Ra-inhibited T follicular helper (Tfh) cell expansion and subsequent germinal center (GC)-dependent humoral immunity, resulting in significantly weakened protection against the HBV challenge. Compared to soluble antigens, HBsAg particle antigen displayed a unique capture/uptake and innate immune activation, including IL-1Ra expression, preferably of medullary sinus macrophages. In humans, a unique polymorphism in the RelA/p65 binding site of IL-1Ra enhancer associated IL-1Ra levels with ethnicity-dependent vaccination outcome. Therefore, the differential IL-1Ra response to particle antigens probably creates a suppressive milieu for Tfh/GC development, and neutralization of IL-1Ra would resurrect antibody response in HBV vaccine nonresponders.

17.
J Vis Exp ; (169)2021 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779591

RESUMO

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a pivotal role in antigen peptide presentation and T cell immune responses against infectious disease and tumor development. The hybrid MHC I complexed with heterologous ß2-microglobulin (ß2m) substitution from different species can be stabilized in vitro. This is a feasible means to study MHC I of mammals, when the homologous ß2m is not available. Meanwhile, it is indicated that mammalian ß2m substitution does not significantly affect peptide presentation. However, there is limited summarization regarding the methodology and the technology for the hybrid MHC I complexed with heterologous ß2-microglobulin (ß2m). Herein, methods to evaluate the feasibility of heterologous ß2m substitution in MHC I study are presented. These methods include preparation of expression constructs; purification of inclusion bodies and refolding of the MHC complex; determination of protein thermostability; crystal screening and structure determination. This study provides a recommendation for understanding function and structure of MHC I, and is also significant for T cell response evaluation during infectious disease and tumor immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Microglobulina beta-2/metabolismo , Animais , Quirópteros
19.
JCI Insight ; 6(4)2021 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476301

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become the worst public health crisis in a century. However, knowledge about the dynamics of antibody responses in patients with COVID-19 is still poorly understood. In this study, we performed a serological study with serum specimens collected at the acute and the convalescent phases from 104 patients with severe COVID-19 who were part of the first wave of COVID-19 cases in Wuhan, China. Our findings revealed that neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 are persistent for at least 6 months in patients with severe COVID-19, despite that IgG levels against the receptor binding domain (RBD) and nucleocapsid protein (N) IgG declined from the acute to the convalescent phase. Moreover, we demonstrate that the level of RBD-IgG is capable of correlating with SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing activities in COVID-19 serum. In summary, our findings identify the magnitude, functionality, and longevity of antibody responses in patients with COVID-19, which sheds light on the humoral immune response to COVID-19 and would be beneficial for developing vaccines.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virologia , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Soros Imunes , Imunidade Humoral , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobreviventes , Fatores de Tempo
20.
ACS Infect Dis ; 7(6): 1369-1388, 2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296169

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak that emerged at the end of 2019 has affected more than 58 million people with more than 1.38 million deaths and has had an incalculable impact on the world . Extensive prevention and treatment measures have been implemented since the pandemic. In this Review, we summarize current understanding on the source, transmission characteristics, and pathogenic mechanism of SARS-CoV-2. We also detail the recent development of diagnostic methods and potential treatment strategies of COVID-19 with focus on the ongoing clinical trials of antibodies, vaccines, and inhibitors for combating the emerging coronavirus.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
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