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2.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 721, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) and the Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) presented technical standards for interpretation and reporting of constitutional copy-number variants in 2019 (the standards). Although ClinGen developed a web-based CNV classification calculator based on scoring metrics, it can only track and tally points that have been assigned based on observed evidence. Here, we developed AutoCNV (a semiautomatic automated CNV interpretation system) based on the standards, which can automatically generate predictions on 18 and 16 criteria for copy number loss and gain, respectively. RESULTS: We assessed the performance of AutoCNV using 72 CNVs evaluated by external independent reviewers and 20 illustrative case examples. Using AutoCNV, it showed that 100 % (72/72) and 95 % (19/20) of CNVs were consistent with the reviewers' and ClinGen-verified classifications, respectively. AutoCNV only required an average of less than 5 milliseconds to obtain the result for one CNV with automated scoring. We also applied AutoCNV for the interpretation of CNVs from the ClinVar database and the dbVar database. We also developed a web-based version of AutoCNV (wAutoCNV). CONCLUSIONS: AutoCNV may serve to assist users in conducting in-depth CNV interpretation, to accelerate and facilitate the interpretation process of CNVs and to improve the consistency and reliability of CNV interpretation.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Genômica , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
3.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 758219, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630125

RESUMO

Litchi seeds have been traditionally used in Chinese herbal formula for urologic neoplasms including prostate cancer (PCa). However, the effective components of Litchi seeds and the mechanisms of their actions on PCa cell growth and metastasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects and molecular mechanisms of the Total Flavonoid of Litchi Seed (TFLS) in PCa PC3 and DU145 cell lines. We found that TFLS significantly inhibited the PCa cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and prevented cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, we observed that TFLS upregulated the expression of epithelial biomarker E-cadherin and downregulated mesenchymal biomarker Vimentin. TFLS also increased the expression of cleaved-PRAP and Bax, and decreased the expression of Bcl-2 in both PC3 and DU145 cells. Besides, TFLS inhibited AKT signaling pathway by reducing the phosphorylation of AKT and activities of downstream signal transducers including mTOR, IκBα and NF-kB. Finally, TFLS treated mice exhibited a significant decrease in tumor size without toxicity in major organs in vivo. These results indicated that TFLS could suppress PCa cell growth in vivo and inhibit PCa cell proliferation and metastasis in vitro through induction of apoptosis and phenotypic reversal of EMT, which may be achieved by inhibiting the AKT/mTOR and NF-κB signaling pathways. Taken together, our data provide new insights into the role of TFLS as a novel potent anti-cancer agent for the treatment of PCa.

4.
Scanning ; 2021: 3839235, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630820

RESUMO

Flower-like titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanostructures are successfully synthesized using a hybrid sol-gel and a simple hydrothermal method. The sample was characterized using various techniques to study their physicochemical properties and was tested as a photocatalyst for methyl orange degradation and as an antibacterial material. Raman spectrum and X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern show that the phase structure of the synthesized TiO2 is anatase with 80-100 nm in diameter and 150-200 nm in length of flower-like nanostructures as proved by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of flower-like anatase TiO2 nanostructure found that only titanium and oxygen elements are present in the sample. The anatase phase was confirmed further by a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern analysis. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) result shows that the sample had a large surface area (108.24 m2/g) and large band gap energy (3.26 eV) due to their nanosize. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed the formation of Ti4+ and Ti3+ species which could prevent the recombination of the photogenerated electron, thus increased the electron transportation and photocatalytic activity of flower-like anatase TiO2 nanostructure to degrade the methyl orange (83.03%) in a short time (60 minutes). These properties also support the good performance of flower-like titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanostructure as an antibacterial material which is comparable with penicillin which is 13.00 ± 0.02 mm inhibition zone against Staphylococcus aureus.

5.
Drug Deliv ; 28(1): 2051-2061, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595978

RESUMO

Fibrotic diseases pose significant clinical challenges due to their broadness and complexity. Thus, a better understanding of fibrogenesis and the development of more effective treatments is imperative. Recent evidence suggests a significant antifibrotic potential of an endogenous glycoprotein, endostatin. While endostatin has been widely studied for its role as an anticancer adjuvant by inhibiting tumor angiogenesis, its possible implication in fibrosis remains largely unclear. Here, we review the role of endostatin in various cellular processes and highlight its antifibrotic activity. We hypothesize that endostatin conveys a homeostatic function in the process of fibrosis by regulating (a) TGF-ß1 and its downstream signaling; (b) RhoA/ROCK pathway; (c) NF-κB signaling pathway; (d) expression of EGR-1; (e) PDGF/PDGFR pathway; (f) autophagy-related pathways; (g) pathways associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis. Finally, we propose a schematic model of the antifibrotic roles and mechanisms of endostatin; also, we outline future research directions of endostatin and aim to present a potential therapeutic approach for fibrosis.

6.
Cell Death Discov ; 7(1): 269, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599149

RESUMO

Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent cell death characterized by the accumulation of hydroperoxided phospholipids. Here, we report that the NUPR1 inhibitor ZZW-115 induces ROS accumulation followed by a ferroptotic cell death, which could be prevented by ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1) and ROS-scavenging agents. The ferroptotic activity can be improved by inhibiting antioxidant factors in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC)- and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-derived cells. In addition, ZZW-115-treatment increases the accumulation of hydroperoxided lipids in these cells. We also found that a loss of activity and strong deregulation of key enzymes involved in the GSH- and GPX-dependent antioxidant systems upon ZZW-115 treatment. These results have been validated in xenografts induced with PDAC- and HCC-derived cells in nude mice during the treatment with ZZW-115. More importantly, we demonstrate that ZZW-115-induced mitochondrial morphological changes, compatible with the ferroptotic process, as well as mitochondrial network disorganization and strong mitochondrial metabolic dysfunction, which are rescued by both Fer-1 and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Of note, the expression of TFAM, a key regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, is downregulated by ZZW-115. Forced expression of TFAM is able to rescue morphological and functional mitochondrial alterations, ROS production, and cell death induced by ZZW-115 or genetic inhibition of NUPR1. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the mitochondrial cell death mediated by NUPR1 inhibitor ZZW-115 is fully rescued by Fer-1 but also via TFAM complementation. In conclusion, TFAM could be considered as an antagonist of the ferroptotic cell death.

7.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 109: 102-113, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607659

RESUMO

Antibiotics are widely used in humans and animals, but their transformation from surface water to groundwater and the impact of land uses on them remain unclear. In this study, 14 antibiotics were systematically surveyed in a complex agricultural area in Central China. Results indicated that the selected antibiotic concentrations in surface waters were higher in winter (average: 32.7 ng/L) than in summer (average: 17.9 ng/L), while the seasonal variation in groundwaters showed an opposite trend (2.2 ng/L in dry winter vs. 8.0 ng/L in summer). Macrolides were the predominant antibiotics in this area, with a detected frequency of over 90%. A significant correlation between surface water and groundwater antibiotics was only observed in winter (R2 = 0.58). This study further confirmed the impact of land uses on these contaminants, with optimal buffer radii of 2500 m in winter and 500 m in summer. Risk assessment indicated that clarithromycin posed high risks in this area. Overall, this study identified the spatiotemporal variability of antibiotics in a typical agricultural area in Central China and revealed the impact of land uses on antibiotic pollution in aquatic environments.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Antibacterianos/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
Cancer Sci ; 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632667

RESUMO

Bladder cancer is a common tumor with a high recurrence rate and high fatality rate, and its mechanism of occurrence and development remains unclear. Many proteins and metabolites reprogram at different stages of tumor development to support tumor cell growth. The moonlighting effect happens when a protein performs multiple functions simultaneously in a cell. In this study, we identified a metabolic protein, MTHFD2, which participates in the cell cycle by binding to CDK2 in bladder cancer. MTHFD2 has been shown to affect bladder cancer cell growth, which is independent of its metabolic function. We found that MTHFD2 was involved in cell cycle regulation and could encourage cell cycle progression by activating CDK2 and sequentially affecting E2F1 activation. In addition, moonlighting MTHFD2 might be regulated by the dynamics of the mitochondria. In conclusion, MTHFD2 localizes in the nucleus to perform a distinct function of catalyzing metabolic reactions. Moreover, the nuclear MTHFD2 activates CDK2 and promotes bladder cancer cell growth by modulating the cell cycle.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632755

RESUMO

Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, as a prospective energy storage system, are still plagued by many problems that prevent them from their application, especially the low content of sulfur in the cathode. Herein, a cathode material with S up to 93 wt % is designed via a hollow donor-π-acceptor heterosystem, which combines catalytic sites, adsorption sites, and good conductivity together. Following this guidance, a hollow porous carbon sphere is prepared with CoO particles and single V atoms decorated on it (Co/V-HPCS), providing ultrahigh volumetric space for sulfur. Even the electrode made of sulfur-loaded Co/V-HPCS (Co/V-HPCS@S) has a high content of 90 wt % (sulfur content in the electrode is ∼83.5 wt %), and the cathode exhibits an excellent discharge capacity of 575.2 mAh g-1 under 0.2C after 100 cycles. With careful analysis by means of a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), the catalytic amounts of CoO particles and single V atoms loaded on the carbon shell are confirmed, which endows the material with outstanding catalytic ability to transfer sulfur and excellent adsorption of polysulfides. This concept of the cathode material increases the possibility of advanced long-life Li-S batteries with high tap density and high energy density.

10.
Orthop Surg ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596962

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and results of tibial cortex transverse distraction (TCTD) followed by open correction with internal fixation (OCIF) for foot and ankle deformity with concurrent ulcers. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted. Between 2010 and 2019, a two-stage management of TCTD followed by OCIF was performed in 13 patients (13 feet). There were five males and eight females with a mean age of 33.8 ± 14.6 years. Ten patients had a right-side lesion, and three patients had a left-side lesion. The etiology of deformity included seven cases of congenital neurological disease, one case of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, one case of trauma sequelae, and three cases of myelomeningocele. Duration of disease, size of ulcers, surgical procedures, healing time, external fixation time, and complications of these patients were recorded. The Texas wound classification and National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP) classification were used for assessing the ulcers. The modified Dimeglio score of deformity and American Orthopeadic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-hindfoot score were applied to evaluate the status before treatment and the results at final follow-up. RESULTS: The TCTD and wound debridement were performed in all patients, and an additional Ilizarov correction technique was added in two patients. All ulcers were healed in 3 months after first-stage treatment. The median patient self-report time of ulcer healing was 2.0 weeks (IQR, 1.8-3.3). The median external fixation time was 138.0 days (IQR, 134.5-141.5) days. After second-stage operative correction, the patients were followed-up for an average of 28.0 ± 2.9 months. At the final follow-up, the modified Dimeglio score of deformity was decreased from 6.7 ± 2.1 to 1 (IQR, 0.0-1.0), and the mean AOFAS score was improved from 42.9 ± 19.1 to 82.6 ± 7.7. Before the treatment, there were eight patients with severe deformity, four patients with moderate deformity, and one patient with mild deformity. Postoperatively, seven patients were classified as mild deformity and six patients had a postural foot. The results of AOFAS ankle-hindfoot score were defined as excellent in three patients, as good in five, and as fair in five. Complications include one case of mild displacement of the osteotomized cortex and one case of pin-tract infection. No delayed union, nonunion, relapse of ulcers, or deformity were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The two-stage management of TCTD followed by OCIF could be considered as an alternative treatment for foot and ankle deformities combined with chronic ulcers.

11.
Front Oncol ; 11: 724415, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595116

RESUMO

The roles of serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) in multiple types of cancers have been significantly documented. However, its specific roles in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain to be investigated. This study found that SPINK1 is upregulated in HCC and its upregulation correlates with poor prognosis. Besides, functional assays revealed that SPINK1 promotes cell proliferation, cell cycle, and invasion in vitro. Through bioinformatics analysis, we speculate that circRPS16 regulates SPINK1 expression by sponging miR-876-5p. This was further verified by the dual-luciferase reporter and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) assays. Subsequently, rescue assays verified that circRPS16 promotes cell proliferation, cell cycle, and invasion through miR-876-5p. Importantly, silencing circRPS16 inhibited tumor growth by downregulating SPINK1 expression in vivo. Collectively, our results confirm that SPINK1 is a downstream target of circRPS16. Besides, circRPS16 and SPINK1 are oncogenic factors in HCC progression; they provide novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets for HCC patients.

12.
Cancer Lett ; 523: 121-134, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626691

RESUMO

Sunitinib resistance is a major challenge in systemic therapy for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The role of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in regulating sunitinib resistance of RCC is largely unknown. We established sunitinib-resistant RCC cell lines in vivo. Through RNA-sequencing, we identified circSNX6, whose expression is upregulated in sunitinib-resistant cells compared with their parental cells. High circSNX6 expression was correlated with sunitinib resistance and worse oncologic outcomes in a cohort of 81 RCC patients. In vitro and in vivo experiments confirmed that circSNX6 could promote sunitinib resistance in RCC. circSNX6 acts as a molecular "sponge" to relieve the suppressive effect of microRNA (miR)-1184 on its target gene, glycerophosphocholine phosphodiesterase 1 (GPCPD1), which increases intracellular lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) levels and, ultimately, promotes sunitinib resistance in RCC cells. Our findings demonstrated that the circSNX6/miR-1184/GPCPD1 axis had a critical role in regulation of intracellular LPA levels and sunitinib resistance in RCC; they also provide a novel prognostic indicator and promising therapeutic targets.

13.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(10): 936, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642320

RESUMO

Although many studies have explored the mechanism of epilepsy, it remains unclear and deserves further investigation. Vezatin has been reported to be a synaptic regulatory protein involved in regulating neuronal synaptic transmission (NST). However, the role of vezatin in epilepsy remains unknown. Therefore, the aims of this study are to investigate the underlying roles of vezatin in epilepsy. In this study, vezatin expression was increased in hippocampal tissues from pilocarpine (PILO)-induced epileptic mice and a Mg2+-free medium-induced in vitro seizure-like model. Vezatin knockdown suppressed seizure activity in PILO-induced epileptic mice. Mechanistically, vezatin knockdown suppressed AMPAR-mediated synaptic events in epileptic mice and downregulated the surface expression of the AMPAR GluA1 subunit (GluA1). Interestingly, vezatin knockdown decreased the phosphorylation of GluA1 at serine 845 and reduced protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation; when PKA phosphorylation was suppressed by H-89 (a selective inhibitor of PKA phosphorylation) in vitro, the effects of vezatin knockdown on reducing the phosphorylation of GluA1 at serine 845 and the surface expression of GluA1 were blocked. Finally, we investigated the pattern of vezatin in brain tissues from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and we found that vezatin expression was also increased in patients with TLE. In summary, the vezatin expression pattern is abnormal in individuals with epilepsy, and vezatin regulates seizure activity by affecting AMPAR-mediated NST and the surface expression of GluA1, which is involved in PKA-mediated phosphorylation of GluA1 at serine 845, indicating that vezatin-mediated regulation of epileptic seizures represents a novel target for epilepsy.

14.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0135221, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643438

RESUMO

The emerging new lineages of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) have marked a new phase of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Understanding the recognition mechanisms of potent neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (NAbs) against the spike protein is pivotal for developing new vaccines and antibody drugs. Here, we isolated several monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor-binding domain (S-RBD) from the B cell receptor repertoires of a SARS-CoV-2 convalescent. Among these MAbs, the antibody nCoV617 demonstrates the most potent neutralizing activity against authentic SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as prophylactic and therapeutic efficacies against the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) transgenic mouse model in vivo. The crystal structure of S-RBD in complex with nCoV617 reveals that nCoV617 mainly binds to the back of the "ridge" of RBD and shares limited binding residues with ACE2. Under the background of the S-trimer model, it potentially binds to both "up" and "down" conformations of S-RBD. In vitro mutagenesis assays show that mutant residues found in the emerging new lineage B.1.1.7 of SARS-CoV-2 do not affect nCoV617 binding to the S-RBD. These results provide a new human-sourced neutralizing antibody against the S-RBD and assist vaccine development. IMPORTANCE COVID-19 is a respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The COVID-19 pandemic has posed a serious threat to global health and the economy, so it is necessary to find safe and effective antibody drugs and treatments. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is responsible for binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. It contains a variety of dominant neutralizing epitopes and is an important antigen for the development of new coronavirus antibodies. The significance of our research lies in the determination of new epitopes, the discovery of antibodies against RBD, and the evaluation of the antibodies' neutralizing effect. The identified antibodies here may be drug candidates for the development of clinical interventions for SARS-CoV-2.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612620

RESUMO

Exploring efficient and robust antibacterial materials is crucially important for human health and ecological security. Compared with intrinsically antibacterial materials, materials modified with antibacterial agents either by chemical or physical modification can simultaneously maintain basic functions and antibacterial properties. In particular, physical modification with antiseptic sprays is quite suitable for large-size objects in our daily life but restricted by high volatility of the antibacterial agents or poor adhesion strength between the antibacterial agents and the targeted objects. In this paper, we report a poly(ionic liquid) (PIL-Cn)-based efficient and robust antiseptic spray that exhibits long-term antibacterial properties against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria on diverse substrates, including glass, PE, and cotton. It is believed that this work will provide an alternative for current antiseptic sprays for usage in our daily life and hospitals.

16.
J Oncol ; 2021: 8820691, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603450

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of the mRNA expression of RRM1, TUBB3, and ERCC1 in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues for the selection of adjuvant/postoperative chemotherapy regimens. Methods: Patients diagnosed with stage Ib-IIIa NSCLC were enrolled and randomly divided into a control group (undetected group) and an experimental group (detected group) after radical operation. The control group randomly received chemotherapy with gemcitabine plus cisplatin or paclitaxel plus cisplatin. The mRNA expression of RRM1, TUBB3, and ERCC1 was detected in the experimental group before chemotherapy, and based on the detected expression, the chemotherapy regimen of cisplatin plus gemcitabine or cisplatin plus paclitaxel was chosen. The disease-free survival (DFS) of the control group and experimental group was compared. Results: Pathological type, stage, gene expression detection, and treatment method were not significantly correlated with DFS (P > 0.05). In the subgroups treated with gemcitabine, the median DFS was 17 months in the detected group and 10.5 months in the undetected group (hazard ratio = 0.2147, 95% confidence interval: 0.07909-0.5827, P=0.0025). Multivariate regression analysis was performed to analyse whether gene expression detection was independently correlated with DFS in the subgroups treated with gemcitabine (P=0.025). In the detected group, the prognosis of patients with low expression of RRM1 was better than that of patients with high expression of RRM1 after paclitaxel treatment (P=0.0039). Conclusions: The selection of chemotherapy regimen based on mRNA expression of the RRM1, TUBB3, and ERCC1 genes may improve selection of candidate patients to receive clinical chemotherapy. However, large-scale prospective clinical studies are needed for in-depth investigation.

17.
Front Chem ; 9: 756993, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646815

RESUMO

On the origin of photoluminescence of noble metal NCs, there are always hot debates: metal-centered quantum-size confinement effect VS ligand-centered surface state mechanism. Herein, we provided solid evidence that structural water molecules (SWs) confined in the nanocavity formed by surface-protective-ligand packing on the metal NCs are the real luminescent emitters of Au-Ag bimetal NCs. The Ag cation mediated Au-Ag bimetal NCs exhibit the unique pH-dependent dual-emission characteristic with larger Stokes shift up to 200 nm, which could be used as potential ratiometric nanosensors for pH detection. Our results provide a completely new insight on the understanding of the origin of photoluminescence of metal NCs, which elucidates the abnormal PL emission phenomena, including solvent effect, pH-dependent behavior, surface ligand effect, multiple emitter centers, and large-Stoke's shift.

18.
Chemosphere ; 288(Pt 2): 132483, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624344

RESUMO

Globally, 80% of wastewater, among which 28% came from industry, returned to the ecosystem without treatment or reuse. The discharge of industrial wastewater poses public health and environmental concerns. The necessity and urgency of industrial wastewater treatment (IWT) will bring great challenges to most countries. This paper conducted the patent analysis combined with text mining to quantitatively analyze 11,840 patents related to IWT in the Derwent Innovations Index database. The results showed that: From 1973 to 2020, the number of patents related to IWT annually was increasing consistently. China ranked first in the number of patent publications. In contrast, the United States and some patent organizations, such as World Intellectual Property Organization, produced fewer patents, while they played more important roles in knowledge transfer. The core technology analysis suggested that method, device, material and related industry were hot topics. From activated sludge treatment technology, industrial wastewater treatment technology had gone through a development process from single technology treatment to combined technologies treatment. In the foreseeable future, research on devices for physical treatment, advanced oxidation processes, automated and energy-saving treatment systems were the promising directions.

19.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655511

RESUMO

Starch accounts for over 80% of the total dry weight in cereal endosperm and determines the kernel texture and nutritional quality. Amyloplasts, terminally differentiated plastids, are responsible for starch biosynthesis and storage. We screened a series of rice mutants with floury endosperm to clarify the mechanism underlying amyloplast development and starch synthesis. We identified the floury endosperm19 (flo19) mutant which shows opaque of the interior endosperm. Abnormal compound starch grains (SGs) were present in the endosperm cells of the mutant. Molecular cloning revealed that the FLO19 allele encodes a plastid-localized pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E1 component subunit α1 (ptPDC-E1-α1) that is expressed in all rice tissues. In vivo enzyme assays demonstrated that the flo19 mutant showed decreased activity of the plastidic pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. In addition, the amounts of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) were much lower in the developing flo19 mutant endosperm, suggesting that FLO19 participates in fatty acid supply for galactolipid biosynthesis in amyloplasts. FLO19 overexpression significantly increased seed size and weight, but did not affect other important agronomic traits, such as panicle length, tiller number and seed setting rate. An analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphism data from a panel of rice accessions identified that the pFLO19L haplotype was positively associated with grain length, implying a potential application in rice breeding. In summary, our study demonstrates that FLO19 is involved in galactolipid biosynthesis which is essential for amyloplast development and starch biosynthesis in rice.

20.
Children (Basel) ; 8(9)2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572257

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to establish a model to distinguish Kawasaki disease (KD) from other fever illness using the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) and immunological factors. METHOD: We enrolled a total of 692 patients (including 198 with KD and 494 children with febrile diseases). Of those, 415 patients were selected to be the training group and 277 patients to be the validation group. Laboratory data, including the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), the prognostic nutritional index (PNI), and immunological factors, were retrospectively collected for an analysis after admission. We used univariate and multivariate logistic regressions and nomograms for the analysis. RESULT: Patients with KD showed significantly higher C3 and a lower PNI. After a multivariate logistic regression, the total leukocyte count, PNI, C3, and NLR showed a significance (p < 0.05) and then performed well with the nomogram model. The areas under the ROC in the training group and the validation group were 0.858 and 0.825, respectively. The calibration curves of the two groups for the probability of KD showed a near agreement to the actual probability. CONCLUSIONS:  Compared with children with febrile diseases, patients with KD showed increased C3 and a decreased nutritional index of the PNI. The nomogram established with these factors could effectively identify KD from febrile illness in children.

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