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1.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797350

RESUMO

Neopterin is primarily synthesized and released by activated macrophages/monocytes upon stimulation with interferon-γ and is considered as a marker for macrophage activation. This study aimed to analyze the serum levels of neopterin in patients with dermatomyositis (DM) in association with clinical manifestations, laboratory data and patient prognosis. One hundred and eighty-two consecutive DM patients and 30 healthy controls were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Serum levels of neopterin were significantly increased in DM patients compared to healthy controls (P<0.001). High serum neopterin levels were associated with anti-MDA5 antibody, rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD), and characteristic DM cutaneous involvement. Longitudinal assessment of serum samples revealed that the serum neopterin levels were closely correlated with disease severity (ß=30.24, P<0.001). In addition, a significant increase in serum neopterin concentration of non-survivors was observed when compared to that of survivors (P<0.001). ROC curves showed that serum neopterin could distinguish non-survivors and survivors at an optimal cut-off level of 22.1 nmol/L with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.804 and 0.625 respectively (P<0.001). Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed that DM patients with serum neopterin > 22.1 nmol/L had a significantly higher mortality compared to patient group with serum neopterin <22.1 nmol/L (logrank P<0.001). Multivariate regression analysis identified high serum neopterin concentration to be an independent risk factor for poor prognosis in DM (adjusted HR=4.619, 95%CI: 2.092-10.195, P<0.001). In conclusions, increased serum levels of neopterin were significantly associated with RP-ILD and reduced survival in DM patients, suggesting it as a promising biomarker in disease evaluation of DM.

2.
J Clin Invest ; 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793911

RESUMO

Aberrant Tau inclusions in the locus coeruleus (LC) are the earliest detectable Alzheimer's disease-like (AD-like) neuropathology in the human brain. However, why LC neurons are selectively vulnerable to developing early Tau pathology and degenerating later in disease and whether the LC might seed the stereotypical spread of Tau pathology to the rest of the brain remain unclear. Here, we show that 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde, which is produced exclusively in noradrenergic neurons by monoamine oxidase A metabolism of norepinephrine, activated asparagine endopeptidase that cleaved Tau at residue N368 into aggregation- and propagation-prone forms, thus leading to LC degeneration and the spread of Tau pathology. Activation of asparagine endopeptidase-cleaved Tau aggregation in vitro and in intact cells was triggered by 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde, resulting in LC neurotoxicity and propagation of pathology to the forebrain. Thus, our findings reveal that norepinephrine metabolism and Tau cleavage represent the specific molecular mechanism underlying the selective vulnerability of LC neurons in AD.

3.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 129: 109771, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731016

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore correlations between post-treatment outcomes of non-surgical correction for cryptotia and treatment time and other influence factors. METHODS: Forty-seven consecutive patients with 64 cryptotias were treated with the adjusted external stretching device and followed up over 12 months. A subjective evaluation scale was designed for patients to collect clinical data. Pretreatment and posttreatment evaluation were conducted by two blinded investigators. The correlations between influence factors and outcomes were explored through fractional polynomial method, multiple logistic regression, and robust linear regression methods. RESULTS: Thirty-five patients with 49 cryptotias were included. Twenty-nine cryptotias (23 patients) have been successfully managed. Two of 17 unilateral cryptotias achieved nearly complete symmetry. The final optimal cutoff value for initiating treatment time is 6 months and for the duration of treatment per day is 5 h per day. Positive relationships between initiating treatment time >6 months and onset time, type II and onset time, initiating treatment time >6 months and effect stabilization time were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Initiating treatment time <6 months and duration of treatment per day >5 h benefit for the posttreatment outcomes. Patients wearing the device under 6 months old would have earlier onset time and effect stabilization time. It is hard to achieve complete bilateral symmetry in unilateral patients. The adjustable devices can used for the auricles with different sizes and removed and equipped conveniently.

4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 1018034, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772931

RESUMO

ACK1 is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase with a unique structure, which is tightly related to the biological behavior of tumors. Previous studies have demonstrated that ACK1 was involved with multiple signaling pathways of tumor progression. Its crucial role in tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and metastasis was tightly related to the prognosis and clinicopathology of cancer. ACK1 has a unique way of regulating cellular pathways, different from other nonreceptor tyrosine kinases. As an oncogenic kinase, recent studies have shown that ACK1 plays a critical regulatory role in the initiation and progression of tumors. In this review, we will be summarizing the structural characteristics, activation, and regulation of ACK1 in breast cancer, aiming to deeply understand the functional and mechanistic role of ACK1 and provide novel therapeutic strategies for breast cancer treatment.

5.
Prog Neurobiol ; : 101730, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778772

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated in some studies with clinical dementia, and neuropathological features, including amyloid plaque deposition and Tau neurofibrillary degeneration commonly identified in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the molecular mechanisms linking TBI to AD remain unclear. Here we show that TBI activates transcription factor CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Beta (C/EBPß), increasing delta-secretase (AEP) expression. Activated AEP cleaves both APP and Tau at APP N585 and Tau N368 sites, respectively, which mediate AD pathogenesis by promoting Aß production and Tau hyperphosphorylation and inducing neuroinflammation and neurotoxicity. Knockout of AEP or C/EBPß diminishes TBI-induced AD-like pathology and cognitive impairment in the 3xTg AD mouse model. Remarkably, viral expression of AEP-resistant Tau N368A in the hippocampus of 3xTg mice also ameliorates the pathological and cognitive consequences of TBI. Finally, clinical TBI activates C/EBPß and escalates AEP expression, leading to APP N585 and Tau N368 proteolytic cleavage in TBI patient brains. Hence, our findings support a potential role for AEP in linking TBI exposure with AD pathogenesis.

6.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 300(6): 1507-1520, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intramural pregnancy is an uncommon type of ectopic pregnancy, where the gestational sac is completely encircled by myometrium and unconnected with endometrial cavity, fallopian tubes or round ligament. Owing to its potentially life-threatening hemorrhage and uterine rupture, early diagnosis and management are urgently required. We present a case of a woman undergoing zigzag medical procedures, which featured non-consensus preoperative diagnosis of intramural and interstitial pregnancy and an intramural ectopic pregnancy ultimately confirmed and successfully removed by emergency laparoscopy. Additionally, we present a review of the related literature and discuss its varied clinical features, imageological characters, diagnosis, differential diagnosis and multiple treatments. METHODS: A comprehensive bibliographic search through PubMed, using keywords: intramural ectopic pregnancy. Relevant literatures published from January 2013 to April 2019 were reviewed. RESULTS: Twenty-four cases in total for intramural ectopic pregnancy including this report were reviewed. Diagnoses were mainly made by ultrasound images. Most patients had a history of uterine surgery or intrauterine operation and had been surgically resected. None of the mothers were in danger, but only one case had live birth at 37 weeks of gestation. CONCLUSION: Non-specific clinical presentation and non-uniform ultrasound criteria pose a challenge for us to make timely and accurate management. Integrated radiological examinations and communication and cooperation between sonographers and gynecologists play a vital role in diagnostic accuracy and selecting the optimal therapeutic method of an intramural pregnancy.

8.
Chin J Nat Med ; 17(10): 738-745, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703754

RESUMO

Herba Anoectochili is a commonly used medicinal material. However, its adulteration is a serious concern. Due to the similar morphological characteristics of Herba Anoectochili and its adulterants, traditional identification techniques often fail to distinguish between them accurately, which is not conducive to the circulation management and safety of the medicinal materials. To improve the distinction between Herba Anoectochili and its adulterants accurately, this study identified 41 Herba Anoectochili and its adulterant samples based on the ITS2 sequence. Sequence characteristics, Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) application, genetic distance, construction of phylogenetic tree, secondary structure prediction, and other methods showed the ITS2 sequence to accurately identify Herba Anoectochili from its adulterants. Furthermore, in this study, we designed a specific primer, based on the ITS2 sequence, and established a real-time PCR detection system for the rapid, sensitive, and specific identification of the original plant of Herba Anoectochili. Compared to DNA barcoding technology, this method has shorter detection time, stronger specificity, and higher sensitivity, which lays the foundation for the rapid identification of Herba Anoectochili.

9.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224822, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica) is a critically endangered species, and there has been limited success in restoring the population by captive breeding. This study assessed the biochemical and physiological parameters of newborn Saiga antelope to provide reference information that can be used to evaluate their health. Comparisons have been made with parameters for horses and closely related members of the Bovidae family but there are no reference values for the newborn Saiga antelope. METHODS: Biochemical and physiological parameters were measured in 61 animals. An automatic analyzer (Hitachi Ltd. 7180 Serial, Tokyo, Japan) was used to analyze the biochemical parameters, while the Coulter counter (Model ZK) was used to analyze the physiological parameters. RESULTS: The results showed that the biochemical and physiological parameters differ considerably in range. The evaluation of parameters stratified by sex showed differences. Triglyceride and LDL cholesterol concentrations among male animals were significantly higher than those in female animals, while the creatine kinase concentrations were significantly higher in females than in males. Comparing this study's results with published data for horses showed many similarities and some differences. Cholesterol, magnesium and glucose levels were similar between Saiga antelope and horses, while albumin and hematocrit levels in Saiga antelope differed from the reference values in horses. CONCLUSION: The study has shown that horses and even closely related members of the Bovidae family are not suitable references when evaluating the biochemical and physiological properties of newborn Saiga antelope. These animals have unique stressors and warrant further study to inform efforts pertaining to their care and the future sustainability of the species.

10.
Eur J Pharmacol ; : 172817, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756334

RESUMO

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disorder of the urinary system in aging men. 2-(1H-indol-3-yl)-N-[3-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl) piperazinyl) propyl] acetamide (HJZ-3), which is derived from naftopidil, exhibited 97.7- and 64.6-fold greater inhibitory effects for a1D adrenoceptor than for a1B- and a1A-adrenoceptors in vitro, respectively. To investigate the therapeutic potential for treating BPH, we evaluated the pharmacological activity of HJZ-3. Specifically, we evaluated through estrogen/androgen-induced rat benign prostatic hyperplasia model in vivo. HJZ-3 effectively prevented the progression of rat prostatic hyperplasia by suppressing the increase in prostate index and reducing the quantitative analysis of the relative acinus volume, relative stroma, epithelial volume and epithelial thickness and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and α-smooth muscle actin. HJZ-3 decreased α1A- and α1D-adrenoceptor protein expressions in prostate tissue. HJZ-3 is a good alternative for α1A- and α1D-adrenoceptor blocker. It may relax smooth muscle tone and relieve symptoms of BPH.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767396

RESUMO

The synthesis of environmental-friendly metal-free photocatalysts has great significance in photocatalytic technology. In this work, we firstly report the successful synthesis of in situ epitaxial growth of g-C3N4 on carbon dots through a facile thermal polymerization technique. Characterization and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were conducted to clarify the structure engineering and the electronic/chemical properties of the in-plane interconnected carbon dots/g-C3N4 (C-CN) heterostructures. With the optimal carbon dots content, the C-CN exhibited 3.2 times higher degradation rate for sulfadiazine (SDZ) than that of g-C3N4. Besides, the C-CN heterostructures displayed excellent stability and reusability in five consecutive cycles. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was related to the narrowed band gap and the local electronic density of valance band and conduction band orbitals of the unique plane heterostructures, corroborated by the spectroscopic characterizations and theoretical calculations. Photogenerated holes dominated the degradation of SDZ, while OH showed a negligible contribution. Moreover, DFT calculation succeeded to predict that the atoms with high Fukin index (f0) on SDZ molecule were more vulnerable to radicals attack. SDZ degradation pathway mainly included smiles-type rearrangement, SO2 extrusion, ring hydroxylation and SN bond cleavage processes. The eco-toxicity assessment revealed the generation of less toxic intermediates after photocatalysis. Our findings not only afford a new technique for constructing g-C3N4-based in-plane heterostructures with high and stable photocatalytic efficiency, but also highlight the feasible application of metal-free photocatalysts in environmental remediation.

12.
Atherosclerosis ; 291: 34-43, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to identify a blood-based gene expression score (GES) to predict the severity of coronary artery stenosis in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) by integrative use of gene network construction, Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm, and multi-cohort validation. METHODS: In the discovery phase, a public blood-based microarray dataset of 110 patients with known CAD was analyzed by weighted gene coexpression network analysis and protein-protein interaction network analysis to identify candidate hub genes. In the training set with 151 CAD patients, bioinformatically identified hub genes were experimentally verified by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and statistically filtered with the SVM algorithm to develop a GES. Internal and external validation of GES was performed in patients with suspected CAD from two validation cohorts (n = 209 and 206). RESULTS: The discovery phase screened 15 network-centric hub genes significantly correlated with the Duke CAD Severity Index. In the training cohort, 12 of 15 hub genes were filtered to construct a blood-based GES12, which showed good discrimination for higher modified Gensini scores (AUC: 0.798 and 0.812), higher Sullivan Extent scores (AUC: 0.776 and 0.778), and the presence of obstructive CAD (AUC: 0.834 and 0.792) in two validation cohorts. A nomogram comprising GES12, smoking status, hypertension status, low density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and body mass index further improved performance, with respect to discrimination, risk classification, and clinical utility, for prediction of coronary stenosis severity. CONCLUSIONS: GES12 is useful in predicting the severity of coronary artery stenosis in patients with known or suspected CAD.

13.
Cell Res ; 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649329

RESUMO

Lewy pathology, composed of α-Synuclein (α-Syn) inclusions, a hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD), progressively spreads from the enteric nervous system (ENS) to the central nervous system (CNS). However, it remains unclear how this process is regulated at a molecular level. Here we show that δ-secretase (asparagine endopeptidase, AEP) cleaves both α-Syn at N103 and Tau at N368, and mediates their fibrillization and retrograde propagation from the gut to the brain, triggering nigra dopaminergic neuronal loss associated with Lewy bodies and motor dysfunction. α-Syn N103 and Tau N368 robustly interact with each other and are highly elevated in PD patients' gut and brain. Chronic oral administration of the neurotoxin rotenone induces AEP activation and α-Syn N103/Tau N368 complex formation in the gut, eliciting constipation and dopaminergic neuronal death in an AEP-dependent manner. Preformed fibrils (PFFs) of α-Syn N103/Tau N368 are more neurotoxic and compact, and aggregate more quickly along the vagus nerve than their FL/FL counterparts or the individual fragments' fibrils. Colonic injection of PFFs induces PD pathologies, motor dysfunctions, and cognitive impairments. Thus, δ-secretase plays a crucial role in initiating PD pathology progression from the ENS to the CNS.

14.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0218844, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581193

RESUMO

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc), the causal agent of bacterial leaf streak, is one of the most severe seed-borne bacterial diseases of rice. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Xoc in response to oxidative stress are still unknown. In this study, we performed a time-course RNA-seq analysis on the Xoc in response to H2O2, aiming to reveal its oxidative response network. Overall, our RNA sequence analysis of Xoc revealed a significant global gene expression profile when it was exposed to H2O2. There were 7, 177, and 246 genes that were differentially regulated at the early, middle, and late stages after exposure, respectively. Three genes (xoc_1643, xoc_1946, xoc_3249) showing significantly different expression levels had proven relationships with oxidative stress response and pathogenesis. Moreover, a hypothetical protein (XOC_2868) showed significantly differential expression, and the xoc_2868 mutants clearly displayed a greater H2O2 sensitivity and decreased pathogenicity than those of the wild-type. Gene localization and phylogeny analysis strongly suggests that this gene may have been horizontally transferred from a Burkholderiaceae ancestor. Our study not only provides a first glance of Xoc's global response against oxidative stress, but also reveals the impact of horizontal gene transfer in the evolutionary history of Xoc.

15.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223325, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between stromal types, PD-L1 status and clinicopathological characteristics in patients with different molecular subtypes of breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Protein expression levels of PD-L1 were determined by immunohistochemistry assay. Stromal type was classified based on the maturity of the tumor stroma. RESULTS: Different subtypes of breast cancer had distinct stromal types. Tumors from patients with mature stroma had lower pathological N stage and AJCC stage, more frequent high p53 expression and positive stromal PD-L1 staining. Hormone receptor negative patients had higher frequency of positive stromal PD-L1 staining. Stromal PD-L1 status was also associated with different breast cancer subtypes and EGFR expression level. Importantly, our data revealed that stromal types and stromal PD-L1 status were independent prognostic factors. CONCLUSION: This study highlighted the importance of stromal types and stromal PD-L1 status in determining clinical outcomes in patients with breast cancer, and suggested that stromal type classification might be readily incorporated into routine clinical risk assessment following curative resection or optimal therapeutic design.

16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(42): 38789-38797, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565919

RESUMO

An understanding of the impacts regarding different phases of inorganic materials on heavy metal removal is indispensable, owing to the intrinsic structure of materials that can affect its properties. In this study, the distinct adsorption behaviors of heavy metals (Pb(II) and Cu(II)) on different phases of MoS2 (metallic phase (1T) and semiconducting phase (2H)) were theoretically and experimentally investigated. According to the computational results, both Pb(II) and Cu(II) have formed more stable complexes on 1T-MoS2 compared to those on 2H-MoS2 due to the lower adsorption energy (Ead). This phenomenon indicates that Pb(II) and Cu(II) were more preferably adsorbed onto 1T-MoS2. Based on the results of the computational studies, two-dimensional (2D) MoS2 nanosheets with identical 1T and 2H phases were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal reaction. As we surmised, 1T-MoS2 achieved excellent Pb(II) and Cu(II) adsorption capacities, which were 147.09 and 82.13 mg/g at 298 K, respectively, compared to those of 2H-MoS2 (i.e., 64.16 and 50.74 mg/g at 298 K). Moreover, 1T-MoS2 has shown other superior properties, such as (i) ultrafast adsorption kinetics and (ii) great anti-interference activity toward other existing cations, compared to 2H-MoS2. Extensive computations and characterizations of MoS2-Pb and -Cu adsorption complexes illustrated that the active S sites were indispensable for heavy metal adsorption. Overall, for the first time, we provide evidence that 1T-MoS2 is more functional in heavy metal removal compared to 2H-MoS2, which can guide and expand the applications of MoS2-based adsorbents in environmental remediation.

17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(43): 40022-40033, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577125

RESUMO

The Ni-rich layered oxides are considered as a candidate of next-generation cathode materials for high energy density lithium-ion batteries; however, the finite cyclic life and poor thermostability impede their practical applications. There is often a tradeoff between structure stability and high capacity because the intrinsical instability of oxygen framework will lead to the structural transformation of Ni-rich materials. Because of the strong binding energy between the Te atom and O atom, herein a new technology of surface tellurium (Te) doping in the Ni-rich layered oxide (LiNi0.88Co0.09Al0.03O2) is proposed to settle the above predicament. Based on density function theory calculations and experiment analysis, it has been confirmed that the doped Te6+ ions are positioned in the TM layer near the oxide surface, which can constrain the TM-O slabs by strong Te-O bonds and prevent oxygen release from the surface, thus enhancing the stability of the lattice framework in deep delithium (>4.3 V). Especially, 1 wt % Te doping (Te 1%-NCA) shows the superiority in performance improvement. Furthermore, the reversibility of H2-H3 phase transition is also improved to relieve effectively the capacity decline and the structural transformations at extended cycling, which can facilitate the fast Li+ diffusion kinetic. Consequently, Te 1%-NCA cathode exhibits the improved cycling stability even at high voltages (4.5 and 4.7 V), good rate capability (159.2 mA h g-1 at 10 C), and high thermal stability (the peak temperature of 258 °C). Therefore, the appropriate Te surface doping provides a significant exploration for industrial development of the high-performance Ni-rich cathode materials with high capacity and structural stability.

18.
J Immunol ; 203(11): 3054-3067, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645417

RESUMO

The pharyngeal organ is located at the crossroad of the respiratory and digestive tracts in vertebrate, and it is continuously challenged by varying Ags during breathing and feeding. In mammals, the pharyngeal mucosa (PM) is a critical first line of defense. However, the evolutionary origins and ancient roles of immune defense and microbiota homeostasis of PM are still unknown. In this study, to our knowledge, we are the first to find that diffuse MALT is present in PM of rainbow trout, an early vertebrate. Importantly, following parasitic infection, we detect that strong parasite-specific mucosal IgT and dominant proliferation of IgT+ B cell immune responses occurs in trout PM, providing, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of local mucosal Ig responses against pathogens in pharyngeal organ of a nonmammal species. Moreover, we show that the trout PM microbiota is prevalently coated with secretory IgT and, to a much lesser degree, by IgM and IgD, suggesting the key role of mucosal Igs in the immune exclusion of teleost pharyngeal bacteria. Overall, to our knowledge, our findings provide the first evidence that pharyngeal mucosal immunity appear earlier than tetrapods.

19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14456, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594987

RESUMO

Vaginitis is very common among women, especially women of childbearing age, and is associated with significantly increased risk of preterm birth and pelvic inflammatory diseases. An imbalance in the vaginal flora, the primary cause of vaginitis, promotes the initiation and progression of vaginal infections. However, the responsible mechanisms are still poorly understood. Using a murine vaginitis model of Escherichia coli infection, we demonstrated that decreased expression of microRNA1976 and increased expression of CD105 and integrin αvß6 were closely associated with the progression of vaginal infection. Importantly, we demonstrated for the first time that the microRNA1976/CD105/integrin αvß6 axis regulates E. coli-mediated vaginal infection in mice, as evidenced by the finding that E. coli-induced vaginal infection was reversed by microRNA1976 overexpression and exacerbated by CD105 overexpression. The regulation of CD105 and integrin αvß6 by microRNA1976 was further confirmed in a murine model of vaginitis with adenoviral vector treatment. Taken together, our data suggested that microRNA1976 negatively regulates E. coli-induced vaginal infection in mice at least in part by suppressing CD105 and integrin αvß6 expression. These findings may provide new insight into the mechanisms of E. coli-induced vaginitis, identify a novel diagnostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for flora imbalance-associated vaginitis.

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