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1.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 25(10): 1126-1133, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411803

RESUMO

AIMS: Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning (HBOP) attenuates brain edema, microglia activation, and inflammation after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In this present study, we investigated the role of HBOP in ICH-induced microglia polarization and the potential involved signal pathway. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: SHAM, ICH, and ICH + HBOP group. Before surgery, rats in SHAM and HBOP groups received HBO for 5 days. Rats in SHAM group received needle injection, while rats in ICH and ICH + HBOP groups received 100 µL autologous blood injection into the right basal ganglia. Rats were euthanized at 24 hours after ICH, and the brains were removed for immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Neurological deficits and brain water content were determined. RESULTS: Intracerebral hemorrhage induced brain edema, which was significantly lower in the HBOP group. The levels of MMP9 were also less in the HBOP group. HBO pretreatment resulted in less neuronal death and neurological deficits after ICH. Their immunoactivity and protein levels of M1 markers were downregulated, but the M2 markers were unchanged by HBOP. In addition, ICH-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-1ß) levels and the phosphorylation of JNK and STAT1 were also lower in the HBOP rats. CONCLUSIONS: HBO pretreatment attenuated ICH-induced brain injuries and MMP9 upregulation, which may through the inhibiting of M1 polarization of microglia and inflammatory signal pathways after ICH.

2.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 71(4): 547-554, 2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440751

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to reveal the role of cortical-striatum postsynaptic dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) in improving motor behavioral dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) mice by exercise. C57/BL6 male adult mice were randomly divided into control, PD and PD plus exercise groups. The mice were injected with 6-OHDA in striatum to establish a unilateral injury PD model. The exercise intervention program was uniform speed running (16 m/min, 40 min/d, 5 d per week for 4 weeks). Autonomic activity of mice was tested by open field test. Cortical-striatum synaptic transmission efficiency was assessed by peak amplitude of field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) recorded from in vitro brain slides. Meanwhile, the effects of D2R agonist on autonomic activity and cortical-striatal synaptic transmission were observed. The results showed that, compared with PD group, PD plus exercise group exhibited significantly increased autonomic motor distance and proportion of fast-moving (P < 0.05), as well as decreased maximum amplitude of fEPSP under increasing stimulation intensity (0.75-3.00 pA) (P < 0.05) and slope of stimulus-response curve. Compared with PD mice without D2R agonist, the movement distance and rapid movement ratio of PD mice treated with D2R agonist were increased significantly (P < 0.05), whereas fEPSP peak amplitude (P < 0.05) and the slope of stimulus-response curve were decreased. These results indicate that either early exercise intervention or D2R agonist treatment can inhibit the abnormal increase of cortical-striatum synaptic transmission and improve the autonomic motor ability in PD mice, suggesting that the cortical-striatum synaptic D2R may be an important molecular target for exercise to improve the autonomic motor ability of PD mice.


Assuntos
Corpo Estriado/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Receptores de Dopamina D2/fisiologia , Transmissão Sináptica , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Oxidopamina , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Receptores de Dopamina D2/agonistas
3.
Cancer Res ; 79(18): 4729-4743, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308046

RESUMO

Quiescent cancer stem cells (CSC) play important roles in tumorigenesis, relapse, and resistance to chemoradiotherapy. However, the determinants of CSC quiescence and how they sustain themselves to generate tumors and relapse beyond resistance to chemoradiotherapy remains unclear. Here, we found that SET domain-containing protein 4 (SETD4) epigenetically controls breast CSC (BCSC) quiescence by facilitating heterochromatin formation via H4K20me3 catalysis. H4K20me3 localized to the promoter regions and regulated the expression of a set of genes in quiescent BCSCs (qBCSC). SETD4-defined qBCSCs were resistant to chemoradiotherapy and promoted tumor relapse in a mouse model. Upon activation, a SETD4-defined qBCSC sustained itself in a quiescent state by asymmetric division and concurrently produced an active daughter cell that proliferated to produce a cancer cell population. Single-cell sequence analysis indicated that SETD4+ qBCSCs clustered together as a distinct cell type within the heterogeneous BCSC population. SETD4-defined quiescent CSCs were present in multiple cancer types including gastric, cervical, ovarian, liver, and lung cancers and were resistant to chemotherapy. SETD4-defined qBCSCs had a high tumorigenesis potential and correlated with malignancy and chemotherapy resistance in clinical breast cancer patients. Taken together, the results from our previous study and current study on six cancer types reveal an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of cellular quiescence epigenetically controlled by SETD4. Our findings provide insights into the mechanism of tumorigenesis and relapse promoted by SETD4-defined quiescent CSCs and have broad implications for clinical therapies. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings advance our knowledge on the epigenetic determinants of quiescence in cancer stem cell populations and pave the way for future pharmacologic developments aimed at targeting drug-resistant quiescent stem cells.

4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(25): 22703-22713, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244027

RESUMO

Because of their high magnetization and suitable biocompatibility, iron-oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been widely employed in various biomedical applications, including magnetic hyperthermia for cancer treatment. In many cases, the colloidal stability requirement will limit the usage of ferromagnetic particles that are usually associated with good magnetic response. To address this challenge, a stable carrier for better colloidal stability regardless of the size or shape of the IONPs while at the same time providing enhanced magnetic hyperthermia heating performance is required. In this work, IONPs of different sizes (4, 8, 20, 45, and 250 nm) were engineered to reside in the graphene oxide (GO) sheet carrier, which were stable in aqueous solution even in the presence of a strong magnetic field. Out of various IONPs sizes, highest specific absorption rate (SAR) value of 5020 W g-1 was obtained with 45 nm GO-IONPs nanocomposites at a frequency and alternating magnetic field of 400 kHz and 32.5 kA m-1, respectively. The calculated intrinsic loss power (ILP) was 12.21 nH m2 kg-1, which is one of the highest ILP values reported for synthesized IONPs to the best of our knowledge. To enhance the excellent colloidal stability in biological environment, the GO-IONPs nanocomposites can be further grafted with polyethylene glycol (PEG) because agglomeration of pristine GO sheets occurs because of adsorption of cations. High ILP values could be well maintained even after PEG coating. The PEGylated 45 nm GO-IONP showed excellent antitumor efficacy in 4T1-tumor model mice by inhibiting tumor progression within a safe dosage range. Overall, the novel nanocomposite in this work-PEG-GO-IONP-possesses high hyperthermia performance, excellent colloidal stability in biological environment, and availability of functional groups in GO and can be utilized for tagging in various biomedical applications.

5.
J Nutr ; 149(6): 894-901, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Selenium (Se) plays a protective role in aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced splenic immunotoxicity in chicks. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to reveal the underlying mechanism of Se-mediated protection against AFB1-induced splenic injury in broilers. METHODS: Four groups of 1-d-old Cobb male broilers (n = 5 cages/diet, 6 chicks/cage) were arranged in a 3-wk 2 × 2 factorial design trial whereby they were fed an Se-deficient, corn- and soy-based diet [base diet (BD), 36 µg Se/kg], BD plus 1.0 mg AFB1/kg, BD plus 0.3 mg Se/kg, or BD plus 1.0 mg AFB1/kg and 0.3 mg Se/kg (as 2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid). Serum and spleen were collected at week 3 to assay for cytokines, histology, redox status, selected inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes and proteins, and the selenogenome. RESULTS: Dietary AFB1 induced growth retardation and spleen injury, decreasing (P < 0.05) body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, and serum interleukin-1ß by 17.8-98.1% and increasing (P < 0.05) the spleen index and serum interleukin-6 by 37.6-113%. It also reduced the splenic lymphocyte number, the white pulp region, and histiocyte proliferation in Se-adequate groups. However, Se deficiency aggravated (P < 0.05) these AFB1-induced alterations by 16.2-103%. Moreover, Se deficiency decreased (P < 0.05) splenic glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity and glutathione-S transferase and glutathione concentrations by 35.6-89.4% in AFB1-exposed groups. Furthermore, Se deficiency upregulated (P < 0.05) the apoptotic (Caspase 3 and Caspase 9) and antimicrobial (ß defensin 1 and 2) genes, but downregulated (P < 0.05) antiapoptotic (B-cell lymphoma 2) and inflammatory (E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase CBL-B) genes at the mRNA and/or protein level in AFB1 supplementation groups. Additionally, Se deficiency downregulated (P < 0.05) GPX3, thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD 1), GPX4, and selenoprotein (SELENO) S, and upregulated (P < 0.05) SELENOT and SELENOU in spleen in AFB1 administered groups. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary Se deficiency exacerbated AFB1-induced spleen injury in chicks, partially through the regulation of oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic signaling, and 6 selenoproteins.

6.
Phytomedicine ; 62: 152930, 2019 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Asian countries seek adjuvant therapy with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This study aims to explore the benefits of TCM therapy in the long-term survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in China. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In total, 3483 patients with HCC admitted to the Beijing Ditan Hospital of Capital Medical University were enrolled in this study. We used 1:1 frequency matching by sex, age, diagnosis time, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging, and type of treatments to compare the TCM users (n = 526) and non-TCM users (n = 526). A Cox multivariate regression model was employed to evaluate the effects of TCM therapy on the HR value and Kaplan-Meier survival curve for mortality risk in HCC patients. A log-rank test was performed to analyze the effect of TCM therapy on the survival time of HCC patients. RESULTS: The Cox multivariate analysis indicated that TCM therapy was an independent protective factor for 5-year survival in patients with HCC (adjusted HR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.40-0.52, p < 0.0001). The Kaplan-Meier curve also showed that after PS matching, TCM users had a higher overall survival rate and a higher progression-free survival rate than non-TCM users. TCM users, regardless of the classification of etiology, tumor stage, liver function level, or type of treatment, all benefited significantly from TCM therapy. In addition, it was found that the most commonly used Chinese patent medications are Fufang Banmao Capsule, Huaier Granule, and Jinlong Capsule. CONCLUSION: Using traditional Chinese medications as adjuvant therapy can probably prolong median survival time and improve the overall survival among patients with HCC. Further scientific studies and clinical trials are needed to examine the efficiency and safety.

7.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 92: 1-10, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141718

RESUMO

Rimicaris exoculata (Decapoda: Bresiliidae) is one of the dominant species of hydrothermal vent communities, which inside its gill chamber harbors ectosymbioses with taxonomic invariability while compositional flexibility. Several studies have revealed that the establishment of symbiosis can be initiated and selected by innate immunity-related pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as C-type lectins (CTLs). In this research, a CTL was identified in R. exoculata (termed RCTL), which showed high expression at both mRNA and protein levels in the scaphognathite, an organ where the ectosymbionts are attached outside its setae. Linear correlationships were observed between the relative quantities of two major symbionts and the expression of RCTL based on analyzing different shrimp individuals. The recombinant protein of RCTL could recognize and agglutinate the cultivable γ-proteobacterium of Escherichia coli in a Ca2+-dependent manner, obeying a dose-dependent and time-cumulative pattern. Unlike conventional crustacean CTLs, the involvement of RCTL could not affect the bacterial growth, which is a key issue for the successful establishment of symbiosis. These results implied that RCTL might play a critical role in symbiotic recognition and attachment to R. exoculata. It also provides insights to understand how R. exoculata adapted to such a chemosynthesis-based environment.

8.
Endocrine ; 64(3): 469-485, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was to perform a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between hypertriglyceridemic-waist (HTW) phenotype and abnormal glucose metabolism. METHODS: The data sources were PubMed and EMBASE up to June 2018. Studies providing the relationship between HTW phenotype and abnormal glucose metabolism were included. RESULTS: In total, 48 eligible studies that evaluated 2,42,879 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. In the general population, the pooled odds ratios (ORs) for elevated blood glucose and diabetes related to HTW phenotype was 2.32 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.98-2.71) and 2.69 (95% CI: 2.40-3.01), respectively. In cohort studies, the pooled OR for diabetes related to HTW phenotype was 2.89 (95% CI: 1.97-4.25) in subjects without diabetes. The levels of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in the HTW population were increased with values of mean differences (MD) 1.12 (95% CI: 0.81-1.43. P < 0.00001, I2 = 99%) in the general population and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.75-1.04, P < 0.00001, I2 = 67%) in subjects without diabetes. CONCLUSION: HTW phenotype was closely associated with increased risk of abnormal glucose metabolism. There was also a significant correlation between HTW phenotype and insulin resistance.

11.
EMBO J ; 38(8)2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842098

RESUMO

Heteroblasty refers to a phenomenon that a plant produces morphologically or functionally different lateral organs in an age-dependent manner. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the production of trichomes (epidermal leaf hairs) on the abaxial (lower) side of leaves is a heteroblastic mark for the juvenile-to-adult transition. Here, we show that the heteroblastic development of abaxial trichomes is regulated by a spatiotemporally regulated complex comprising the leaf abaxial fate determinant (KAN1) and the developmental timer (miR172-targeted AP2-like proteins). We provide evidence that a short-distance chromatin loop brings the downstream enhancer element into close association with the promoter elements of GL1, which encodes a MYB transcription factor essential for trichome initiation. During juvenile phase, the KAN1-AP2 repressive complex binds to the downstream sequence of GL1 and represses its expression through chromatin looping. As plants age, the gradual reduction in AP2-like protein levels leads to decreased amount of the KAN1-AP2 complex, thereby licensing GL1 expression and the abaxial trichome initiation. Our results thus reveal a novel molecular mechanism by which a heteroblastic trait is governed by integrating age and leaf polarity cue in plants.

12.
Rev Neurosci ; 30(5): 485-495, 2019 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864396

RESUMO

Convergent lines of evidence indicate the critical roles of adiponectin in regulating neural functions on different levels. Because of the importance in maintaining neural plasticity including adult neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity, adiponectin has the potential to serve as the treatment targets in therapies of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Hence, systematic review is needed to summarize how adiponectin works in the brain, and how the adiponectin pathway is employed as the treatment method needs to be determined. Moreover, the benefits of adiponectin as the regulator for neural plasticity such as synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis have been supported by many literatures. In the current article, we reviewed the functions of adiponectin in different types of neural plasticity. We also demonstrated the potential value of adiponectin as the treatment target for different types of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Taken together, this review offers a new insight about adiponectin as the ideal target to develop the new treatment methods against neurodegeneration or psychiatric diseases.

13.
Biometals ; 32(2): 251-264, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30756217

RESUMO

Rimicaris exoculata (Decapoda: Bresiliidae) is one of the dominant species among hydrothermal vent communities along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. This shrimp can tolerate high concentrations of heavy metals such as iron, but the mechanisms used for detoxification and utilization of excess metals remain largely unknown. Ferritin is a major iron storage protein in most living organisms. The central heavy subunit of ferritin (H-ferritin) possesses ferroxidase activity and converts iron from Fe2+ to Fe3+, the non-toxic form used for storage. In the present study, the H-ferritin RexFrtH was identified in the hydrothermal vent shrimp R. exoculata, and found to be highly expressed in the gill, the main organ involved in bioaccumulation of metals, at both RNA and protein levels. Accumulation of RexFrtH decreased from efferent to afferent vessels, coinciding with the direction of water flow through the gills. Fe3+ was localized with RexFrtH, and in vitro iron-binding and ferroxidase assays using recombinant RexFrtH confirmed the high affinity for iron. Based on these results, we propose a model of iron metabolism in R. exoculata gills; ferrous iron from ambient hydrothermal water accumulates and is converted and stored in ferric form by RexFrtH as an iron reservoir when needed for metabolism, or excreted as an intermediate to prevent iron overload. The findings expand our understanding of the adaptation strategies used by shrimps inhabiting extreme hydrothermal vents to cope with extremely high heavy metal concentrations.


Assuntos
Apoferritinas/metabolismo , Decápodes (Crustáceos)/metabolismo , Fontes Hidrotermais , Ferro/metabolismo , Animais
14.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 29(4): 282-289, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737079

RESUMO

The congenital disorders of glycosylation are a group of clinically and biochemically heterogeneous diseases characterized by multisystem involvement due to glycosylation defect of protein and lipid. Here we report a 49-year-old man with exercise-induced fatigue and pain of muscle, tachypnea, cleft palate and bifid uvula. Exercise induced elevation of serum creatine kinase (CK), ammonia and lactic acid was recorded. The abnormal levels of myoglobin, CK-MB and LDH as well as S-T elevation in electrocardiogram were observed in repeated hospitalization recordings. Electromyography showed myopathic damage. Repetitive nerve stimulation test of low rates showed decrement in the left deltoid muscle. He was identified with a novel homozygous frameshift variant in Phosphoglucomutase type 1 gene (c.405delT p.N135Kfs*9) by whole exome sequencing. Muscle biopsy exhibited minimal variation in fiber size without abnormal glycogen accumulation. Compared with controls', the patient's sample showed no signal at ∼61 kDa using N- or C-terminus antibody of Phosphoglucomutase type 1 in western blotting. A signal at ∼20 kDa was detected in patient using N-terminus antibody. Immunofluorescence revealed trace expression of C-terminus and a much lower expression of N-terminus on the sarcolemma than normal. Our findings indicate that c.405delT encodes a truncated protein with abnormal distribution and expression in skeletal muscle. In conclusion, genes associated with congenital disorders of glycosylation should be analyzed in patients with maxillofacial dysplasia, exertional weakness, cardiac involvement and exercise-induced-ammoniemia, without glycogen storage in skeletal muscle.

15.
Biomaterials ; 193: 12-21, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30550999

RESUMO

Nanosized drug delivery systems (nDDS) have been extensively exploited to achieve improved therapeutic performance of chemotherapeutic drugs in cancer treatment. Carrier-free nanodrugs have recently emerged as a promising generation of nDDS. In this work, a carrier-free theranostic nanodrug was fabricated by incorporating near-infrared (NIR) emission AIEgens (NPAPF) with redox responsive camptothecin-gemcitabine amphiphilic prodrug (CPT-ss-GEM) to form self-assembled nanoparticles (NCssG NPs). The introducing of AIEgens is designed to not only endow the nDDS with NIR imaging ability but also to act as transformers to modulate the geometry of the self-assembled nanostructures from nanowires to spherical nanoparticles. Interestingly, this unique geometric effect is further demonstrated to be very crucial to the anticancer performance of the nDDS in vitro and in vivo. The AIEgens-doped spherical nanoparticles NCssG NPs showed much higher cellular uptake efficiency and tumor penetration ability, therefor achieving much stronger anticancer efficacy than free CPT/GEM mixture and CPT-ss-GEM nanowires (CssG NWs). The theranostic features of NCssG NPs were fully utilized to evaluate the redox-triggered drug release process, in vivo biodistribution and tumor targeted accumulation of NCssG NPs. This work provides a novel strategy and some useful information for the optimization of the design of theranostic nDDS to benefit for the clinic application of nanodrugs in the future.

16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 109: 2145-2154, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30551472

RESUMO

Although dietary flavonoid quercetin alleviates diabetes-associated cognitive decline in rodents, the mechanisms are not clearly clarified. This study was designed to investigate whether quercetin showed neuroprotection on central neurons against chronic high glucose through the enhancement of Nrf2/ARE/glyoxalase 1 (Glo-1) pathway. SH-SY5Y cells were divided into 8 groups: normal glucose, high glucose (HG), osmotic pressure control, solvent control, HG plus low, middle, high concentrations of quercetin, or Nrf2 activator (sulforaphane). After treatment for 72 h, the associated parameters were measured. We found quercetin and sulforaphane increased cell viability, and enhanced Glo-1 functions (Glo-1 activity, the reduced glutathione and advanced glycation end-products levels) as well as Glo-1 protein and mRNA levels in SH-SY5Y cells cultured with HG. Meanwhile, quercetin and sulforaphane activated Nrf2/ARE pathway, reflected by the raised Nrf2 and p-Nrf2 levels, and the elevated protein and mRNA levels of γ-glutamycysteine synthase (γ-GCS), a known target gene of Nrf2/ARE signaling. Moreover, Nrf2/ARE pathway was activated after pretreatment with a PKC activator, p38 MAPK inhibitor, or GSK-3ß inhibitor under the condition of HG, and quercetin addition further strengthened this pathway; however, PKC inhibition or GSK-3ß activation pretreatment reversed the effects of quercetin on the protein expression of γ-GCS in the HG condition. In summary, quercetin exerts the neuroprotection by enhancing Glo-1 functions in central neurons under chronic HG condition, which may be mediated by activation of Nrf2/ARE pathway; furthermore, the increased Nrf2 phosphorylation mediated by PKC activation and/or GSK-3ß inhibition may involve in the activation of Nrf2/ARE pathway.


Assuntos
Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Glucose/toxicidade , Lactoilglutationa Liase/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Neuroproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Quercetina/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/agonistas , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neuroproteção/fisiologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
17.
Adv Mater ; : e1804922, 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30511746

RESUMO

The recent emergence of numerous nanotechnologies is expected to facilitate the development of regenerative medicine, which is a tissue regeneration technique based on the replacement/repair of diseased tissue or organs to restore the function of lost, damaged, and aging cells in the human body. In particular, the unique magnetic properties and specific dimensions of magnetic nanomaterials make them promising innovative components capable of significantly advancing the field of tissue regeneration. Their potential applications in tissue regeneration are the focus here, beginning with the fundamentals of magnetic nanomaterials. How nanomaterials-both those that are intrinsically magnetic and those that respond to an externally applied magnetic field-can enhance the efficiency of tissue regeneration is also described. Applications including magnetically controlled cargo delivery and release, real-time visualization and tracking of transplanted cells, magnetic regulation of cell proliferation/differentiation, and magnetic activation of targeted ion channels and signal pathways involved in regeneration are highlighted, and comments on the perspectives and challenges in magnetic nanomaterial-based tissue regeneration are given.

18.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 26(6): 1872-1875, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30501737

RESUMO

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF), as one of the most important components of tumor microenvironment, which plays important role in tumorigenesis, development, infiltration and metastasis of cancers. In a variety of solid tumors, CAF can even determine the fate of tumor cells. In view of its pivotal role in promoting tumor progression, CAF has recently become a therapeutic target for a variety of tumors. However, there are a few studies on CAF in hematological malignancies. Recent studies have found that the resistance, relapse of AML, MM, CLL and myelofibrosis of MPN closely relate with CAF, so targeting CAF can effectively enhance the killing effect of chemotherapy drugs on tumor cells, thus improve the efficacy, CAF is expected to become a new target for the treatment of hematological malignancies. This review summarizes recent advances in cancer-associated fibroblasts in hematological malignancies.

19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 43(21): 4220-4225, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30583621

RESUMO

Psammosilene tunicoides is one of the main ingredients of the "Yunnan Baiyao". P. tunicoides is an endangered species included in the secondary protection list in China Plant Red Data Book as well as the endemic species in Southwest China. Its natural resources could not meet the needs of pharmaceutical production. Construction of core collection of P. tunicoides will lay the foundation for germplasm improvement and molecular breeding. The sequence variation of the key enzymes gene locus (ß-AS) were carried out to survey the population structure and population history of the species. Among the 11 populations across its geographical range, 36 haplotypes were identified. The levels of haplotype diversity (Hd=0.905) were high, while the levels of population differentiation (GST=0.280) were low. Analysisof molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that a significantly greater proportion of total genetic variationpartitioned among populations thanwithin populations (values of 77.43% and 22.57%, respectively). These results in combination with the star-like phylogenetic network analysis indicate that Hap1 as an ancestral haplotypewas shared in four populations, Hap2, Hap4, Hap15 and Hap16 are occurred in two populations, the remains as private haplotype only distributed in single population. The strategy of core collection was constructed in order to maximumpreserve genetic diversity of P. tunicoides.


Assuntos
Caryophyllaceae/genética , Variação Genética , China , Genética Populacional , Haplótipos , Filogenia , Plantas Medicinais/genética
20.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 506(4): 874-882, 2018 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30392910

RESUMO

Serum transferrin (tf), encoding an iron-binding glycoprotein, has been revealed to play important roles in iron transportation and immune response, and it also has been demonstrated to be valuable for phylogenetic analysis in vertebrates. However, the evolutionary conservation, expression profiles and positive selection of transferrin genes among freshwater turtle species remain largely unclear. Here, the genomic DNA and coding sequences of transferrin genes were cloned and characterized in seven freshwater turtles including Mauremys mutica, Mauremys sinensis, Cyclemys dentate, Mauremyssi reevesi, Heosemys grandis, Trachemys scripta and Chrysemys picta. The isolated coding sequences of turtles' tf genes were 2118 bp or 2121 bp, encoding 706 or 707 amino acids. The predicted Tf proteins of turtles share high identities with M. mutica Tf, up to 91%-98% and the M. mutica Tf has the highest identity (91%) in amino acid with the Chelomia mydas Tf, the moderate with other reptiles' Tfs (65%-59%), chicken (58%), and Human Tf (∼55%), and the lowest with zebrafish Tf (41%). Additionally, tf genes were consistently composed of 17 exons and 16 introns with the same splicing sites in introns in all the turtles examined. Moreover, 12 positive selected sites were detected in these turtles' Tf and mainly distributed on the surface of transferrin protein. Importantly, it was found that transferrin genes in all turtles examined were predominantly expressed in adult liver via real-time quantitative PCR. The molecular characterizations and expression profiles of transferrin would shed new insights into understanding the conversations and divergences of transferrin genes in turtles, even in vertebrates.

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