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1.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 7(10)2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682279

RESUMO

Magnaporthe oryzae, a fungal pathogen that causes rice blast, which is the most destructive disease of rice worldwide, has the potential to perform both asexual and sexual reproduction. MAT loci, consisting of MAT genes, were deemed to determine the mating types of M. oryzae strains. However, investigation was rarely performed on the development and molecular mechanisms of the sexual reproduction of the fungus. In the present work, we analyzed the roles of two MAT loci and five individual MAT genes in the sex determination, sexual development and pathogenicity of M. oryzae. Both of the MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 loci are required for sex determination and the development of sexual structures. MAT1-1-1, MAT1-1-3 and MAT1-2-1 genes are crucial for the formation of perithecium. MAT1-1-2 impacts the generation of asci and ascospores, while MAT1-2-2 is dispensable for sexual development. A GFP fusion experiment indicated that the protein of MAT1-1-3 is distributed in the nucleus. However, all of the MAT loci or MAT genes are dispensable for vegetative growth, asexual reproduction, pathogenicity and pathogenicity-related developments of the fungus, suggesting that sexual reproduction is regulated relatively independently in the development of the fungus. The data and methods of this work may be helpful to further understand the life cycle and the variation of the fungus.

2.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(10): 3733-3742, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676736

RESUMO

As a highly biotoxic element, mercury (Hg) can be enriched by the food chain and has negative effect on ecosystems. Changes of Hg flux and reserves in forest have important effects on its biogeochemical cycle in forest ecosystem. Due to limitation of temporal and spatial monitoring, there is not comprehensive understanding on Hg distribution. Widely distributed trees can be used as effective bio-monitors and Hg records in tree rings can be used to study Hg temporal and spatial distribution. Hg accumulated by root, leaf, bark, and other tissues can be detained in bole and record environmental Hg variations. Therefore, historical Hg trends can be restructured by analyzing Hg concentration in tree rings and the biogeochemical characteristics can be understood with Hg isotope ratio. We reviewed the method of measurement of Hg concentration and isotope ratio and application of reconstruction using Hg concentration in tree ring. We suggested the great application potential of Hg isotope ratio in atmospheric Hg construction and biogeochemistry cycle and raised concerns in further studies.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Ecossistema , Florestas , Isótopos
3.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(10): 3743-3752, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676737

RESUMO

Stable isotope ratios of tree ring can effectively record climate and environmental changes during tree growth and the physiological responses of trees to such changes. Intra-annual high resolution stable isotope ratios of tree ring can provide more detailed climatic and environmental information, reveal the physiological and ecological response mechanism of trees to seasonal climatic variation, and thus with great potential in the study of paleoclimate and global change ecology. Based on the intra-annual high resolution stable isotope ratios related literature since 1990, we reviewed the research progress of intra-annual high resolution tree ring stable isotope records in the aspects of sample stripping method, chemical extraction method of α-cellulose and application, and further proposed the potential and future development direction of intra-annual high resolution tree ring stable isotope records.


Assuntos
Clima , Árvores , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Estações do Ano
4.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(10): 3753-3760, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676738

RESUMO

The primary hydrogen (H) source for all organic compounds in the biosphere is from water, and then participates in biogeochemical cycles through photosynthesis and plant physiological metabolism. As a new proxy of paleoclimate and paleoenvironment, stable hydrogen isotope ratios in wood lignin methoxyl groups (δ2HLM) show great advantages in the studies of paleoclimatic change and have been used to reconstruct precipitation stable hydrogen isotope ratios and paleoclimate signals in many regions. Based on the lignin application mechanism and analysis method of δ2HLM, we evaluated the stability and effectiveness of δ2HLM-measurement method from lignin content and lignin monomer composition, and expounded the tree lignin methoxyl groups' stable isotope proxies of current research outcomes. In the middle latitudes, the tree-ring δ2HLM had great potential in recording temperature signals and precipitation stable hydrogen isotope ratios. However, the study of tree-ring δ2HLM was still in its infancy as evidenced by following reasons: 1) The study area was limited to the middle latitude of the northern hemisphere, and the study subjects were limited to conifer species; 2) To compensate for the limitation of hydrogen isotopic records of nitrocellulose, high resolution tree-ring δ2HLM would be studied; 3) The potential of tree-ring δ2HLM utilization in plant physiology and forest ecology remained to be exploited.


Assuntos
Lignina , Árvores , Humanos , Hidrogênio/análise , Isótopos , Lignina/análise , Madeira/química
5.
Environ Microbiol ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472190

RESUMO

Magnaporthe oryzae is an important plant pathogen that causes rice blast. Hse1 and Vps27 are components of ESCRT-0 involved in the multivesicular body (MVB) sorting pathway and biogenesis. To date, the biological functions of ESCRT-0 in M. oryzae have not been determined. In this study, we identified and characterized Hse1 and Vps27 in M. oryzae. Disruption of MoHse1 and MoVps27 caused pleiotropic defects in growth, conidiation, sexual development and pathogenicity, thereby resulting in loss of virulence in rice and barley leaves. Disruption of MoHse1 and MoVps27 triggered increased lipidation of MoAtg8 and degradation of GFP-MoAtg8, indicating that ESCRT-0 is involved in the regulation of autophagy. ESCRT-0 was determined to interact with coat protein complex II (COPII), a regulator functioning in homeostasis of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER homeostasis), and disruption of MoHse1 and MoVps27 also blocked activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and autophagy of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER-phagy). Overall, our results indicate that ESCRT-0 plays critical roles in regulating fungal development, virulence, autophagy and ER-phagy in M. oryzae.

6.
Biotechnol Lett ; 43(10): 2045-2052, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390483

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protoplast preparation and transformation system of endophytic fungus Falciphora oryzae. RESULTS: F. oryzae strain obtained higher protoplast yield and effective transformation when treated with enzyme digestion solution containing 0.9 M KCl solution and 10 mg mL-1 glucanase at 30 °C with shaking at 80 rpm for 2-3 h. When the protoplasts were plated on a regenerations-agar medium containing 1 M sucrose, the re-growth rate of protoplasts was the highest. We successfully acquired green fluorescent protein-expressing transformants by transforming the pKD6-GFP vector into protoplasts. Further, the GFP expression in fungal hyphae possessed good stability and intensity during symbiosis in rice roots. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided a protoplast transformation system of F. oryzae, creating opportunities for future genetic research in other endophytic fungi.

7.
Br J Haematol ; 195(5): 722-730, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405393

RESUMO

Despite the high cure probability for acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL), a minority of patients will relapse and the risk factors for relapse are unclear. We retrospectively analysed 212 patients who were diagnosed with non-high-risk APL and received all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) plus arsenic as front-line therapy at Peking University Institute of Hematology from February 2014 to December 2018. A total of 176 patients (83%) received oral arsenic (realgar-indigo naturalis formula) plus ATRA, 36 patients (17%) received arsenic trioxide plus ATRA and 203 patients were evaluable for relapse. After a median (range) follow-up of 53·6 (24·3-85·4) months, two patients had molecular relapse and eight had haematological relapse. A promyelocytic leukaemia/retinoic acid receptor alpha (PML-RARA) transcript level of ≥6·5% at the end of induction therapy was associated with relapse (P = 0·031). The 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse, event-free survival and overall survival were 5·5%, 92·3% and 96·3% respectively. In conclusion, the present long-term follow-up study further confirmed the high cure probability of ATRA plus oral arsenic as front-line therapy for non-high-risk APL and showed that the PML-RARA transcript level at the end of induction therapy was associated with relapse.

8.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(4): 712-721, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403096

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerosis (AS), a chronic inflammatory disease, is the basis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although the treatment has been greatly improved, AS still imposes a large burden on human health and the medical system, and we still need to further study its pathogenesis. As a novel biomolecule, transfer RNA-derived fragments (tRFs) play a key role in the progression of various disease. However, whether tRFs contribute to atherosclerosis pathogenesis remains unexplored. METHODS: With deep sequencing technology, the change of tRFs expression profiles in patients with AS compared to healthy control group was identified. The accuracy of the sequencing data was validated using RT qPCR. Subsequently, we predicted the potential target genes of tRFs by online miRNA target prediction algorithms. The potential functions of tRFs were evaluated with Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses. RESULTS: There were 13 tRFs differentially expressed between patients with AS and healthy controls, of which 2 were up-regulated and 11 were down-regulated. Validation by RT-qPCR analysis confirmed the sequencing results, and tRF-Gly-GCC-009 was highly up-regulated in the AS group based on the results of sequencing which was confirmed by RT-qPCR analysis. Furthermore, GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analyses indicated that 10 signaling pathways were related to tRF-Gly-GCC-009. These pathways might be physiopathological fundamentals of AS, mainly involving in Apelin signaling, Notch signaling and calcium signaling. CONCLUSION: The results of our study provide important novel insight into the underlying pathogenesis and demonstrate that tRFs might be potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for AS in the future.

9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2356: 173-185, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236686

RESUMO

Autophagy is an evolutionarily conservative biological process in eukaryotes. Since the lysosomes were discovered by De Duve in the 1950s, autophagy has been studied for more than half a century and the mechanism of autophagy process has been discovered in many model organisms. In the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, autophagy relative proteins are essential for appressorium formation, penetration, and invasive growth. The null mutants for the expression of autophagy gene homologs in M. oryzae lose their pathogenicity for infection of host plants. In this chapter, we provide some methods for monitoring autophagy process using physics and biochemistry assays in M. oryzae. Moreover, similar approaches can be used to monitor autophagy in other plant filamentous pathogenic fungi.

10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2356: 199-209, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236688

RESUMO

In nature, plants have evolved a myriad of preformed and induced defenses to protect themselves from microbes. Upon microbial infection, the recognition of the microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) by the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) triggers the first stage of defense response (Dodds and Rathjen, Nat Rev Genet 11:539-548, 2010). However, in order to develop microbial delivery, effectors target PRRs for deregulating immune responses and facilitating host colonization (Thomma et al., Plant Cell 23:4-15, 2011). Here, we contribute a protocol for the screening system of Magnaporthe oryzae effectors and construct a fluorescent system to trace secretory proteins in the sheath infection samples. Using the tobacco rattle virus (TRV) system, the proteins including LysM, Chitin, Cutinase, and CFEM domains were selected and divided into two kinds according to the results of cell death induced or inhibited test in Nicotiana benthamiana. Then, candidate effectors can be deleted or overexpressed in M. oryzae. The barley or rice infection with M. oryzae, rice leaf sheath inoculation, and subcellular localization during infection can be performed to explore the functions of these effectors.

11.
J Hazard Mater ; 419: 126435, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323726

RESUMO

Dark septate endophytes (DSEs) are the typical representatives of root endophytic fungi in heavy metal (HM)-contaminated environments. However, little is known about their roles in the HMs tolerance of hosts and the underlying mechanism. Here, we investigated the biological roles and molecular mechanisms of a DSE strain Falciphora oryzae in alleviating cadmium (Cd) toxicities in rice. It was found that F. oryzae possessed a capacity of accumulating Cd in its vacuoles and chlamydospores. During symbiosis, F. oryzae conferred improved Cd tolerance to rice, decreasing Cd accumulation in roots and translocation to shoots. F. oryzae alleviated Cd toxicity to rice by sequestering Cd in its vacuoles. Further application of F. oryzae as fertilizer in the field could reduce Cd content in rice grains. We identified a SNARE Syntaxin 1 gene through proteomics, which participated in Cd tolerance of F. oryzae by regulating chlamydospore formation and vacuole enlargement. This study provided novel insights into how the DSEs and their host plants combat Cd stress.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Endófitos/genética , Raízes de Plantas/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
12.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 62(12): 2949-2956, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196252

RESUMO

To evaluate the efficacy of interferon-α (IFN-α) as maintenance therapy in patients with favorable-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML), this retrospective study enrolled 84 patients with favorable-risk AML: 42 patients who received IFN-α maintenance therapy and 42 patients who did not (control). The median follow-up time and duration of IFN-α treatment was 26 (6-54) months and 18 (2-24) months, respectively. The 4-year estimated relapse-free survival (RFS) after the last consolidation chemotherapy was 86.8% (95% confidence interval (CI), 75.8-97.8%) in the IFN-α group and 55.7% (95% CI, 37.2-74.3%) in the control group (p=.007). The 4-year estimated overall survival was 94.4% (95% CI, 86.8-102%) and 76.4% (95% CI, 61.9-90.9%) in IFN-α and control groups, respectively (p=.040). The Cox regression analysis showed that IFN-α treatment was the only independent factor affecting RFS (p=.004). Maintenance therapy with IFN-α may prevent relapse in favorable-risk AML after consolidation chemotherapy.

13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1208: 99-114, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260024

RESUMO

Autophagy, a highly conserved metabolic process in eukaryotes, is a widespread degradation/recycling system. However, there are significant differences (as well as similarities) between autophagy in animals, plants, and microorganisms such as yeast. While the overall process of autophagy is similar between different organisms, the molecular mechanisms and the pathways regulating autophagy are different, which is manifested in the diversity and specificity of the genes involved. In general, the autophagy system is much more complicated in mammals than in yeast. In addition, there are some differences in the types of autophagy present in animals, plants, and microorganisms. For example, there is a unique type of selective autophagy called the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway in yeast, and a special kind of autophagy, chloroplast autophagy, exists in plants. In conclusion, although autophagy is highly conserved in eukaryotes, there are still many differences between autophagy of animals, plants, and microorganisms.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Vacúolos , Animais , Citoplasma , Mamíferos/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
14.
J Comp Physiol B ; 191(4): 755-764, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091751

RESUMO

Individual variations in metabolic rate, locomotion capacity and hypoxia tolerance and their relationships were investigated in three cyprinid species [crucian carp (Carassius auratus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis), in 60 individuals of each species]. Either the active metabolic rate (AMR) and critical swimming speed (Ucrit) (30 individuals) or critical oxygen tension (Pcrit) and loss of equilibrium (LOE) (30 individuals) were measured in each species after measuring the resting metabolic rate (RMR). Both the AMR and Ucrit were found to be significantly and positively correlated with the RMR in all three cyprinid species, indicating that high-RMR individuals have high aerobic capacity and thus good swimming performance. Pcrit was positively correlated with the RMR in all three species, whereas the LOE was highly positively correlated, weakly positively correlated and not correlated with the RMR in qingbo, common carp and crucian carp, respectively, possibly due to specialized morphological and biochemical adaptations involved in hypoxia tolerance in crucian and common carp. Crucian carp showed relatively poor swimming performance, i.e., a low Ucrit (relatively high variation), strong hypoxia tolerance, and low LOE (relatively low variation); qingbo showed relatively good swimming performance (relatively low variation) and weak hypoxia tolerance (relatively high variation); and common carp showed moderate swimming performance and relatively strong hypoxia tolerance (moderate variation). These interspecific differences may be due to the different lifestyles of these cyprinid fishes based on their associated fast-slow-flow regime and are outcomes of long-term selection.


Assuntos
Carpas , Animais , Água Doce , Carpa Dourada , Humanos , Hipóxia , Locomoção
15.
Virulence ; 12(1): 1550-1562, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097566

RESUMO

Septins, a conserved family of GTP-binding proteins, are widely recognized as an essential cytoskeletal component, playing important roles in a variety of biological processes, including division, polarity, and membrane remodeling, in different eukaryotes. Although the roles played by septins were identified in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, their importance in other fungi, especially pathogenic fungi, have recently been determined. In this review, we summarize the functions of septins in pathogenic fungi in the cell cycle, autophagy, endocytosis and invasion host-microbe interactions that were reported in the last two years in the field of septin cell biology. These new discoveries may be expanded to investigate the functions of septin proteins in fungal pathogenesis and may be of wide interest to the readers of Microbiology and Molecular Pathology.

16.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 15: 664008, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34122029

RESUMO

Background: Individuals' information processing includes automatic and effortful processes and the latter require sustained concentration or attention and larger amounts of cognitive "capacity." Event-related potentials (ERPs) reflect all neural activities that are related to a certain stimulus. Investigating ERP characteristics of effortful cognitive processing in people with schizophrenia would be helpful in further understanding the neural mechanism of schizophrenia. Methods: Both schizophrenia patients (SCZ, n = 33) and health controls (HC, n = 33) completed ERP measurements during the performance of the basic facial emotion identification test (BFEIT) and the face-vignette task (FVT). Data of ERP components (N100, P200, and N250), BFEIT and FVT performances were analyzed. Results: Schizophrenia patients' accuracies of face emotion detection in the BFEIT and vignette emotion detection in the FVT were both significantly worse than the performance of the HC group. Repeated-measures ANOVAs performed on mean amplitudes and latencies revealed that the interaction effect for group × experiment × site (prefrontal, frontal, central, parietal, and occipital site) was significant for N250 amplitude. In FVT experiment, N250 amplitudes at prefrontal and frontal sites in schizophrenia group were larger than those of HC group; the maximum N250 amplitude was present at the prefrontal site in both the groups. For N250 latency, the interaction effect for group × experiment was significant; N250 latencies in the schizophrenia group were longer than those of the HC group. Conclusion: Schizophrenia patients present effortful cognitive processing dysfunctions which reflect in abnormal ERP components, especially N250 at prefrontal cortex and frontal cortex sites. These findings have important implications for further clarifying the neural mechanism of effortful cognitive processing deficits in schizophrenia.

17.
J Cancer ; 12(12): 3427-3438, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33995621

RESUMO

Background: Various studies have verified the prognostic significance of the tumor-stromal ratio (TSR) in several types of carcinomas using manually assessed H&E stained histologic sections. This study aimed to establish a computerized method to assess the TSR in invasive breast cancer (BC) using immunohistochemistry (IHC)-stained tissue microarrays (TMAs), and integrate the TSR into a novel nomogram for predicting survival. Methods: IHC-staining of cytokeratin (CK) was performed in 7 prepared TMAs containing 240 patients with 480 invasive BC specimens. The ratio of tumor areas and stromal areas was determined by the computerized method, and categorized as stroma-low and stroma-high groups using the X-tile software. The prognostic value of the TSR at 5-year disease free survival (5-DFS) in each subgroup was analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed and a novel nomogram for predicting survival in invasive breast cancer was established and assessed. Results: The newly developed computerized method could accurately recognize CK-labeled tumor areas and non-labeled stromal areas, and automatically calculate the TSR. Stroma-low and stroma-high accounted for 38.8% (n = 93) and 61.2% (n = 147) of the cases, according to the cut-off value of 55.5% for stroma ratio. The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients in the stroma-high group had a worse 5-DFS compared to patients in the stroma-low group (P = 0.031). Multivariable analysis indicated that the T stage, N status, histological grade, ER status, HER-2 gene, and the TSR were potential risk factors of invasive BC patients, which were included into the nomogram (P < 0.10 for all). The nomogram was well calibrated to predict the probability of 5-DFS and the C-index was 0.817, which was higher than any single predictor. A dynamic nomogram was built for convenient use. The area under the curve (AUC) of the nomogram was 0.870, while that of the TNM staging system was 0.723. The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the nomogram had a better risk stratification for invasive BC patients than the TNM staging system. Conclusions: Based on IHC staining of CK on TMAs, this study successfully developed a computerized method for TSR assessment and established a novel nomogram for predicting survival in invasive BC patients.

18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11270, 2021 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050206

RESUMO

Controversial results have been reported about the association of calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus and stroke risk, but none in China. To investigate the association between dietary calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and stroke incidence in Chinese adults, we collected data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) from 2004 to 2011, including 6411 participants aged 45-79 years and free of stroke at baseline. Diet was assessed by interviews combining 3-d 24-h food recalls and household food inventory weighing at each survey round. The stroke incident was identified based on the validated self-report. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For 32,024 person-years of follow-up, 179 stroke cases were documented. After adjustment for major lifestyle and dietary risk factors, calcium intake was positively associated with reduced stroke risk, and the HR of stroke comparing extreme quartiles was 0.53 (95% CI 0.29-0.96, Ptrend = 0.03). In further stratified analyses, significant heterogeneity across sex strata was found (Pinteraction = 0.03). Dietary calcium intake among men was more inversely related to stroke, with HRs being 0.33 (95% CI 0.15-0.76, P trend = 0.02), compared to 1.24 (95% CI 0.46-3.35, Ptrend = 0.89) among women. However, no significant association between stroke and magnesium or phosphorus was revealed. Our findings suggest that higher dietary calcium intake was associated with a lower risk of stroke in Chinese adults, particularly in men.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo , Idoso , Cálcio/metabolismo , Cálcio/farmacologia , China/epidemiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Magnésio/metabolismo , Magnésio/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Fósforo/metabolismo , Fósforo/farmacologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Microbiol Res ; 248: 126749, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744788

RESUMO

The fungal cell wall plays an essential role in maintaining cellular integrity and facing complex and changing environmental conditions. Whether a fungus successfully invades a host depends on whether it evades the plant's innate immune system, which recognizes the conserved components of the fungal cell wall, such as chitin. Fungi developed infection-related changes in cell wall composition in co-evolution with nature to solve this problem. One of the changes is the deacetylation of chitin by chitin deacetylase (CDA) to produce a polysaccharide that influences the infection of pathogenic fungi. The present study revealed the functions of PoCda7, a chitin deacetylase in Pyricularia oryzae. Phenotype analysis revealed that the knockout mutant of ΔPocda7 had no significant effect on fungal morphogenic development, including conidiation, germination, appressorial formation and cell wall of conidium and hyphae but was sensitive to reactive oxygen species. Glycerols are necessary to generate sufficient turgor in appressoria for invading the host surface. As a result of the decreased appressorium turgor pressure and decreased appressorium-mediated invasion, the fungal virulence of ΔPocda7 was significantly reduced in host plants. PoCda7 inhibited the cell death of leaves in Nicotiana benthamiana. Additionally, the expression of PoCDA7 was repressed in the early stage of infection. Subcellular localization experiments showed that PoCda7 was localized in the cell wall, and its fluorescence transferred to the EIHM and BIC when the rice blast fungus infected the rice leaf sheath, which was referred to as a candidate apoplastic effector in P. oryzae.


Assuntos
Amidoidrolases/metabolismo , Ascomicetos/enzimologia , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Oryza/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Amidoidrolases/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Ascomicetos/genética , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Quitina/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Oryza/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Esporos Fúngicos/enzimologia , Esporos Fúngicos/genética , Esporos Fúngicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Virulência
20.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 20: 15347354211006179, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784875

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This retrospective study investigated the effects of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on depression, anxiety, response rates, and adverse events in patients with locoregional advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). METHODS: A total of 269 patients with diagnosis of stage III-IVA NPC received either CBT plus chemoradiotherapy (CBT group, n = 136) or treatment as usual (TAU) plus chemoradiotherapy (TAU group, n = 133). Patients in the CBT group received a series of 6 CBT sessions for 6 weeks during concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Depression and anxiety were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) score at baseline, the completion of radiotherapy, and 6, 12, and 24 months after radiotherapy. Response rates and adverse events were also evaluated. RESULTS: Patients in the CBT group showed significantly less depression and anxiety than patients in the TAU group after the completion of radiotherapy (P < .05). Complete response rates were 99.3% (135/136) and 92.5% (123/133) in the CBT group and TAU group with a small effect size (Phi coefficient = .171), respectively (P = .005). Compared with the TAU group, the CBT group showed a significantly lower incidence of acute adverse events and late toxic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of CBT to chemoradiotherapy significantly reduced depressive and anxiety symptoms. CBT combined with chemoradiotherapy is associated with improved response rates, with reduced incidence of toxic effects in patients with locoregional advanced NPC. Based on this study, we registered a randomized controlled clinical trials to better define the role of CBT in patients with locoregional advanced NPC (Registration number: ChiCTR2000034701).


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/terapia , Humanos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/terapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
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