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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150343, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571238

RESUMO

Buffering capacity could provide a comprehensive view to recognize the response between external loads and water quality and help address the significant challenges associated with the reduction of lake pollution. However, quantification of the dynamic change in the holistic buffering capacity of biogenic elements in lakes and its driving mechanisms has not been fully understood. Taking Erhai Lake in China as an example, this study quantified the long-term (2000-2019) dynamic changes in buffering capacity and revealed key driving forces for the changes in buffering capacity. The results showed that nitrogen buffering capacity (NBC) and organic buffering capacity (CODBC) decreased during the past 20 years, while phosphorus buffering capacity (PBC) did not change significantly. Endogenous factors are the main controlling factors of buffering capacity. Specifically, algal biomass drove the change in NBC (interpretation rate of 62.2%); the adsorption and sedimentation effects of sediments maintained the relative stability of PBC (56.30%) while algal biomass indirectly impacted the PBC (1.69% only) by affecting the redox environment of the sediments; and algae-derived organic matter and refractory organic matter accumulation dominated the change in CODBC (61.4% and 32.8%, respectively). Water inflow is another controlling factor for NBC and CODBC due to dilution of lake water. This study indicated that the accumulation of endogenous loads and a decrease in water inflow drove the decrease in the lake's buffering capacity (mainly NBC and CODBC), which could help explain why the decrease in external loads in Erhai Lake has not yet reversed the trend of water quality decline. Our study highlights the importance of comprehensive buffering capacity improvement instead of simple external load control to optimize lake environmental management. In the future, attention should be given to controlling endogenous loads, especially preventing algal blooms, and to optimizing hydrodynamic conditions to cope with the decrease in water inflow.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Lagos , China , Eutrofização , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Qualidade da Água
2.
J Inflamm Res ; 14: 5801-5816, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34764672

RESUMO

Introduction: Alveolar epithelial tight junction damage and glycocalyx syndecan-1 (SDC-1) degrading are key factors to pulmonary edema of acute lung injury (ALI). Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was involved in glycocalyx shedding, which was vital in SDC-1 degrading. This study aimed to investigate the effects of MMP-9-mediated SDC-1 shedding on tight junction in LPS-induced ALI. Methods: Mice were intratracheally atomized with 5 mg/kg LPS to stimulate different periods and LPS stimulation for 6 hours for further studies. A549 cells was stimulated for 6 hours by active MMP-9 protein to assess the effects of active MMP-9 protein on SDC-1 and tight junction. Afterward, the mice treated with MMP-9 shRNA or A549 cells were treated with MMP-9 siRNA before LPS stimulation for 6 hours to explore the effects on glycocalyx SDC-1 and tight junction. Moreover, the mice were treated with recombinant SDC-1 protein or A549 cells were over-expressed by pc-SDC-1 before LPS stimulation for 6 hours to explore the effects of SDC-1 on tight junction. Results: The mice persistent exposure to LPS showed that MMP-9 expression, glycocalyx SDC-1 shedding (SDC-1 decreased in alveolar epithelium and increased in the BALF), tight junction impairment, FITC-albumin infiltration, and other phenomena began to appear after 6 hours of LPS treatment in this study. The levels of SDC-1 and tight junction significantly decreased by active MMP-9 protein stimulation for 6 hours in the A549 cells. Therefore, LPS stimulation for six hours was selected for investigating the underlying effects of MMP-9-mediated SDC-1 shedding on the alveolar epithelial tight junction and pulmonary edema. Further vivo analysis showed that down regulation MMP-9 expression by MMP-9 shRNA significantly alleviated glycocalyx SDC-1 shedding (SDC-1 increased in alveolar epithelium and decreased in the BALF), tight junction (occludin and ZO-1) damage, and FITC-albumin infiltration in LPS-induced early ALI mice. The vitro results also showed that MMP-9 siRNA alleviated glycocalyx SDC-1 shedding (SDC-1 increased in cell culture medium and decreased in cell surface) and tight junction damage by downregulating MMP-9 expression in LPS-stimulated A549 cells. In addition, pretreatment with recombinant mouse SDC-1 protein significantly alleviated glycocalyx (SDC-1 increased in alveolar epithelium) and tight junction damage, and FITC-albumin infiltration in LPS-induced early ALI mice. Overexpression SDC-1 by pc-SDC-1 also significantly decreased tight junction damage in LPS-stimulated A549 cells. Conclusion: Glycocalyx SDC-1 shedding mediated by MMP-9 significantly aggravated tight junction damage, which further increased the pulmonary edema.

3.
J Pharm Sci ; 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742730

RESUMO

The release and dissolution of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) from the solid oral formulation into the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is critical for the drug's absorption into systemic circulation. Extended-release (ER) solid oral dosage forms are normally subjected to physical shear and grinding forces as well as pressure exerted by peristaltic movements when passing through the GI tract. The complex physical contraction and sample friction exerted by the GI tract are not simulated well by compendial dissolution methods. These limitations render traditional in vitro dissolution testing unable to discriminate and predict a product's in vivo performance. The objective of this study was to develop a dissolution method that better simulates the GI environment that products are subject to when taken by patients. A newly designed Mechanical Apparatus under GI Conditions (MAGIC) was assembled with a dissolution platform and mechanical capabilities to allow in vitro dissolution testing under sample contractions and friction. The dissolution platform, with medium flow-through configuration, was manufactured by 3D printing. A 60 mg polymer matrix-based ER nifedipine product was tested. To simulate GI physiological conditions during the dissolution testing, the flow rate of the medium, and a combination of mechanical compression with rotation induced sample friction at various rotation frequencies were explored. The polymer matrix-based nifedipine ER formulation used here failed its controlled release functionality in the simulated GI environment under mechanical compression and sample friction. The results showed that the MAGIC system, with flow-through configuration under compression and sample friction, has advantages over compendial methods in testing ER solid oral formulations.

4.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750208

RESUMO

Thiabendazole (TBZ), approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for human oral use, elicits a potential anti-cancer activity on cancer cells in vitro and in animal models. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of TBZ in the treatment of human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). TBZ reduced the viability of GBM cells (P3, U251, LN229, A172, and U118MG) relative to controls in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, normal human astrocytes (NHA) exhibited a greater IC50 than tumor cells lines and were thus, more resistant to its cytotoxic effects. EdU positive cells and the number of colonies formed was decreased in TBZ-treated cells (at 150 µM, P < 0.05 and at 150 µM, P < 0.001, respectively). This decrease in proliferation was associated with a G2/M arrest as assessed with flow cytometry, and the downregulation of G2/M check point proteins. In addition, TBZ suppressed GBM cell invasion. Analysis of RNA sequencing data comparing TBZ treated cells with controls yielded a group of differentially expressed genes, the functions of which were associated with the cell cycle and DNA replication. The most significantly downregulated gene in TBZ-treated cells was mini-chromosome maintenance protein 2 (MCM2). SiRNA knockdown of MCM2 inhibited proliferation, causing a G2/M arrest in GBM cell lines and suppressed invasion. Taken together, our results demonstrated that TBZ inhibited proliferation and invasion in GBM cells through targeting of MCM2. Significance Statement TBZ inhibits the proliferation and invasion of glioblastoma cells by downregulating the expression of MCM2. These results support the repurposing of TBZ as a possible therapeutic drug in the treatment of GBM.

5.
J Asthma Allergy ; 14: 1307-1321, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744440

RESUMO

Background: During asthma progression, the intricate molecular networks, including microRNA (miRNA) transcriptional regulation in airway epithelium, remain largely undefined. The abnormal expression of miRNAs in asthmatic airway epithelium is a recent and fast-growing area in developing diagnostic and therapeutic targets for asthma. Material and Methods: Analyses were conducted to compare airway epithelial miRNAs and gene expression between patients with asthma and healthy subjects from three datasets (two for miRNAs expression profiles and one for gene expression profile). The interactions network between differentially expressed (DE)-miRNAs and mRNAs was further identified for functional analysis. To verify the involvement and functions of all the identified miRNAs in asthma, we constructed two cellular models of asthma. The most promising causal miRNA candidate, miR-1246, was examined in an in vitro system to explore its targets and roles in asthma pathophysiology. Results: Through integrative analysis, we obtained six miRNAs with 31 validated target genes in airway epithelium associated with asthma. Next, we confirmed that these miRNAs were all associated with asthma progression by in vitro functional experiments. They may participate in eosinophilic inflammation (miR-92b-3p, miR-1246, miR-197-3p, and miR-124-5p) or remodeling (miR-197-3p, miR-193a-5p, miR-1246, and miR-92b-3p). Additionally, some other non-screened valuable miRNAs were also examined and identified (miR-21-5p and miR-19b-3p), and some detected in blood correlated with the disease status. Furthermore, we found that miR-1246 could directly target POSTN and influence epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and fibrosis in airway epithelial cells. Conclusion: We constructed a preliminary epithelial regulatory network in asthma based on six identified miRNAs and their valuable target genes. Candidate factors in the biological miRNA-mRNA network in airway epithelium may provide further information on the pathogenesis of asthma. Strikingly, among all screened miRNAs, miR-1246, which could interact with POSTN may have multifunctional effects in the course of asthma and be a promising agent for asthma treatment and molecular subtyping.

6.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 17: 100280, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734200

RESUMO

Background: Aortic dissection (AD) represents a significant mortality; however, there is rare epidemiologic information about the demography of AD in Chinese, especially its incidence rate. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was established using the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance claims data covering 346.7 million residents from 23 provinces in China, 2015-2016. AD cases were then linked to database of the Urban Employee Basic Endowment Insurance for death information. Incidence rate was age- and sex-standardized to the 2010 China census population. The associations between AD and related factors were evaluated with Poisson regression models. Moreover, mortality and sex- and age-adjusted survival rate was estimated by Cox models. Findings: 6084 adult AD cases were included in incidence analysis. Totally 4692(77.1%) were men and 5641(92.7%) were Han Chinese. The overall age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate of AD was 2.78(95%CI:2.59-2.98) per 100,000 person-years. In terms of geographic disparities, the crude incidence rate was significantly higher in Northwest China than South China (4.96[95%CI:4.17-5.75] vs. 2.04[95%CI:0.38-3.71] per 100,000 person-years; risk ratio: 2.67[95%CI: 2.34-3.04]). Moreover, survival analysis of 4518 AD patients with 683 recorded deaths during follow-up (median 2.2 years) showed that overall 3-year survival was 83.7%(95%CI:82.4-84.8). Interpretation: This contemporary population-based cohort study provides a first comprehensive assessment of incidence of AD in urban Chinese adults. The distinct signatures of different incidence with respect to geographic variations may have important implications for clinical management of AD. Funding: Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology (2020YFC2003503, 2016YFC0903000), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (91846112, 81973132, 81961128006).

7.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(27): 8249-8259, 2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM) is a type of benign chronic inflammatory disease that poses therapeutic challenges to healthcare providers. The diagnosis of GLM relies on tissue biopsy, and incorrect treatment may lead to delayed diagnosis, considerable aesthetic damage, and even mastectomy. CASE SUMMARY: We report the case of a 37-year-old Chinese woman who was lactating and had GLM in both breasts. At the time of treatment, the right breast had a mass of approximately 15 cm × 11 cm, which was hard and had poor mobility. Multiple skin ulcerations and pus spills were also observed on the surface of the breast. The left breast had a mass of about 13 cm × 9 cm, which was hard and had poor mobility. CONCLUSION: Herein, we report a case of bilateral GLM in a lactating woman that was successfully treated with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), without the requirement for surgery or other treatments. Therefore, TCM may have advantages in the nonsurgical treatment of GLM.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682469

RESUMO

The health and welfare of older adults have raised increasing attention due to global aging. Cycling is a physical activity and mode of transportation to enhance the mobility and quality of life among older adults. Nevertheless, the planning strategies to promote cycling among older adults are underutilized. Therefore, this paper describes the nonlinear associations of the built environment with cycling frequency among older adults. The data were collected from the Zhongshan Household Travel Survey (ZHTS) in 2012. The modeling approach was the eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) model. The findings demonstrated that nonlinear relationships exist among all the selected built environment attributes. Within specific intervals, the population density, the land-use mixture, the distance from home to the nearest bus stop, and the distance from home to CBD are positively correlated to the cycling among older adults. Additionally, an inverse "U"-shaped relationship appears in the percentage of green space land use among all land uses. Moreover, the intersection density is inversely related to the cycling frequency among older adults. These findings provide nuanced and appropriate guidance for establishing age-friendly neighborhoods.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Planejamento Ambiental , China , Qualidade de Vida , Características de Residência , Transportes , Caminhada
9.
Opt Express ; 29(16): 26137-26149, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614926

RESUMO

We present an all-optical scheme for the generation of longitudinal magnetization superoscillation based on the vectorial diffraction theory and the inverse Faraday effect. To achieve this, an azimuthally polarized high-order Laguerre-Gaussian vortex mode is firstly focused by a high numerical aperture (NA) objective and then impinges on an isotropic magneto-optical material. It is found that, by judiciously controlling the intrinsic arguments (radial mode index (p) and truncation parameter (ß)) of such a configurable vectorial vortex beam, the longitudinal magnetic domain induced in the focal plane can be switched from a peak sub-wavelength magnetization (> 0.36λ/NA), via the fastest Fourier magnetization component (∼0.36λ/NA), to a super-oscillation magnetization hotspot (< 0.36λ/NA). We further examine the dependence of the transverse size, the side lobe, and the energy conversion efficiency within the focal magnetization domain on both the p and ß of the initial vortex modes, confirming that the higher-order structured vortex beams are preferable alternatives to trigger robust longitudinal magnetization superoscillation. In addition, the underlying mechanisms behind the well-defined magnetization phenomena are unveiled. The ultra-small-scale longitudinal magnetization demonstrated here may hold massive potential applications in high-density all-optical magnetic recording/storage, super-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, atom trapping and spintronics.

10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 744477, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671356

RESUMO

Syndecan-1 (SDC-1) is a transmembrane proteoglycan of heparin sulfate that can regulate various cell signal transduction pathways in the airway epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Airway epithelial cells and human bronchial fibroblasts are crucial in airway remodeling. However, the importance of SDC-1 in the remodeling of asthmatic airways has not been confirmed yet. The present study was the first to uncover SDC-1 overexpression in the airways of humans and mice with chronic asthma. This study also validated that an increase in SDC-1 expression was correlated with TGFß1/Smad3-mediated airway remodeling in vivo and in vitro. A small interfering RNA targeting SDC-1 (SDC-1 siRNA) and homo-SDC-1 in pcDNA3.1 (pc-SDC-1) was designed to assess the effects of SDC-1 on TGFß1/Smad3-mediated collagen I expression in Beas-2B (airway epithelial cells) and HLF-1 (fibroblasts) cells. Downregulation of the SDC-1 expression by SDC-1 siRNA remarkably attenuated TGFß1-induced p-Smad3 levels and collagen I expression in Beas-2B and HLF-1 cells. In addition, SDC-1 overexpression with pc-SDC-1 enhanced TGFß1-induced p-Smad3 level and collagen I expression in Beas-2B and HLF-1 cells. Furthermore, the levels of p-Smad3 and collagen I induced by TGFß1 were slightly increased after the addition of the recombinant human SDC-1 protein to Beas-2B and HLF-1 cells. These findings in vitro were also confirmed in a mouse model. A short hairpin RNA targeting SDC-1 (SDC-1 shRNA) to interfere with SDC-1 expression considerably reduced the levels of p-Smad3 and remodeling protein (α-SMA, collagen I) in the airways induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Similarly, OVA-induced p-Smad3 and remodeling protein levels in airways increased after mice inhalation with the recombinant mouse SDC-1 protein. These results suggested that SDC-1 of airway epithelial cells and fibroblasts plays a key role in the development of airway remodeling in OVA-induced chronic asthma.

11.
Sci Total Environ ; : 151101, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688734

RESUMO

Phthalate pollution in plastic greenhouses (PGs) has aroused concerns. However, mechanisms and factors of vegetables planted in PGs (VPGs) accumulating phthalates from soil and air are unclear. To fill the gap, 19 PGs in Shaanxi, the largest vegetable production province in northwestern China, were selected to probe this issue. 35 soil samples, 48 air samples, and 26 VPG samples were collected in winter and summer. Medians of sum of 7 phthalate concentrations (∑7 PAEs) in PG soil, air, and VPGs were 73.9 µg kg-1, 5300 ng m-3, and 1053 µg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. ∑7 PAE concentrations in PG environmental media in winter were higher than summer, with the significant difference in VPGs. Sum concentrations of bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) accounted for 76.8% and 82.3% of the ∑7 PAEs in soil and VPGs. DnBP and DEHP concentrations in VPGs were significantly correlated to those in air and soil, with correlation coefficients (R) of 0.89 and 0.96 to air and 0.68 and 0.59 to soil. Log-transformed soil-air partition coefficient (log KSA) and fugacity fraction (log ff) of DnBP decreased while log KSA and log ff of DEHP increased from winter to summer, though DnBP in soil volatilized to air while DEHP in air sank to soil within the year. These issues were caused by air temperature changes and the application of plastic films. Furthermore, DnBP concentrations in VPGs were positively correlated to KSA values of DnBP (R = 0.87) while those of DEHP were negative (R = -0.82). Therefore, VPGs could uptake more phthalates from air than from soil, especially for edible parts of leafy and solanaceous VPGs. Applying phthalates free agricultural films and precision management such as adjusting air temperature in PGs could be considered to ensure VPG safeties.

12.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 738769, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34712259

RESUMO

Spartina alterniflora is a perennial herb native to the American Atlantic coast and is the dominant plant in coastal intertidal wetlands. Since its introduction to China in 1979, it has quickly spread along the coast and has caused various hazards. To control the further spread of S. alterniflora in China, we first reconstructed the history of the spread of S. alterniflora in its invasion and origin countries. We found that S. alterniflora spreads from the central coast to both sides of the coast in China, while it spreads from the west coast to the east coast in America. Furthermore, by comparing 19 environmental variables of S. alterniflora in its invasion and origin countries, it was found that S. alterniflora is more and more adaptable to the high temperature and dry environment in the invasion country. Finally, we predicted the suitable areas for this species in China and America using the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model and ArcGIS. Overall, through analysis on the dynamic and trend of environmental characteristics during the invasion of S. alterniflora and predicting its suitable area in the invasion area, it guides preventing its reintroduction and preventing its further spread of the species has been found. It has reference significance for studying other similar alien plants and essential enlightening relevance to its invasion and spread in similar areas.

13.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 128: 112342, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474892

RESUMO

Owing to the structural replication of native extracellular matrix, nonwoven mats of electrospun nanofibers have great potential for use in wound healing. Herein, we report the design and fabrication of a sandwich wound dressing to balance its antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility. This success mainly relies on the incorporation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into electrospun nanofibers, together with the rational design of a sandwich structure for the dressing. The bottom layer was composed of hydrophilic nanofibers made from a blend of polycaprolactone (PCL) and gelatin (Gel). The top layer consisted of hydrophobic PCL nanofibers. AgNP-loaded PCL/Gel nanofibers were sandwiched between the two layers. When compared with a commercial silver sulfadiazine dressing, the designed wound dressing showed competitive antimicrobial properties, lower cell toxicity, and accelerated wound closure for mouse skin injury. By balancing the biocompatibility of electrospun nanofibers and the broad-spectrum antibacterial activity of AgNPs within a sandwich structure, the novel multifunctional wound dressing could be valuable for effective wound healing and related applications.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanofibras , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bandagens , Camundongos , Prata , Sulfadiazina de Prata/farmacologia , Sulfadiazina , Cicatrização
14.
Epigenomics ; 13(18): 1443-1458, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528440

RESUMO

Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) associated with schizophrenia (SZ) and the relationships among their expression, antipsychotic efficacy and SZ severity. Method: The diagnostic and predictive value of nine lncRNAs, Gomafu, DISC2, PSZA11, AK096174, AK123097, DB340248, uc011dma.1, ENST00000509804-1 and ENST00000509804-2, was investigated in 48 patients with SZ before and after antipsychotic treatment. Results: Gomafu, AK096174, AK123097, DB340248, uc011dma.1, ENST00000509804-1 and ENST00000509804-2 were individually and collectively associated with, and predictive of, SZ pathogenesis. Moreover, increased expression of plasma AK123097, uc011dma.1 and ENST00000509804-1 levels was reversed after 12 weeks of antipsychotic treatment, which was associated with SZ severity. Conclusion: Seven lncRNAs serve as novel biomarkers for SZ diagnosis and prognosis and three lncRNAs are potential therapeutic targets.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574517

RESUMO

Global aging has raised increasing concerns on the health and well-being of older adults. Public transport is a viable option to improve the mobility and quality of life among older adults. However, policies that promote the public transport use among older adults are rare. This study utilizes the eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) decision tree to explore the non-linear associations of the built and social environment with bus use among older adults in China. The bus use of older adults was obtained from the Zhongshan Household Travel Survey (ZHTS) in 2012. Results show that non-linear relationships exist among all built environment and social environment characteristics. Within certain thresholds, the percentage of green space land use, land use mixture, bus-stop density, and dwelling unit density are positively related to bus use among older adults. Likewise, one social environment variable, the proportion of older adults in a neighborhood, is the key social environment variable. Furthermore, the dwelling unit density and proportion of older adults appear to have an inverse U-shaped relationship. Additionally, age, ownership of motorcycles, and distance from home to the nearest bus stop also show non-linearity. The findings presented in this paper facilitate effective planning interventions to promote bus use among older adults.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Qualidade de Vida , China , Planejamento Ambiental , Características de Residência , Meio Social
16.
Environ Pollut ; 289: 117912, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365243

RESUMO

The innovative and sustainable technologies are highly needed to decrease serious environmental problems from current agriculture. Herein, the green and biosafe copper-based nano-agriculture was described for tomato production. Prepared Cu nanoclusters (NCs) showed small size (3.0 ± 0.5 nm) and high bioavailability. At low concentration (1 mg kg-1) in soil, Cu NCs improved the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase) in the tomato plants, which could help to slow down leaf aging, increase photosynthesis and carbohydrates content by 19.4 % and 14.9 %, respectively. Cu NCs promoted the roots' growth, especially increasing the root tip' number, which might contribute to the increase in absorption of macronutrients (K, Mg and P) and micronutrients (B, Mn, Cu and Zn). The Cu NCs (1 mg kg-1) promoted tomato growth and increased the tomato fruit yields by 12.2 % compared to the control. Moreover, the tomato fruit qualities had been improved meanwhile the accumulation of Cu in fruits was not observed. These findings indicate that the Cu NCs have potential to be safely applied for tomato production.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Catalase/metabolismo , Cobre , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
17.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(10): 1085-1095, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420154

RESUMO

The cardiovascular risk equations for diabetes patients from New Zealand and Chinese electronic health records (CREDENCE) study is a unique prospectively designed investigation of cardiovascular risk in two large contemporary cohorts of people with type 2 diabetes from New Zealand (NZ) and China. The study was designed to derive equivalent cardiovascular risk prediction equations in a developed and a developing country, using the same epidemiological and statistical methodology. Two similar cohorts of people with type 2 diabetes were identified from large general population studies in China and New Zealand, which had been generated from longitudinal electronic health record systems. The CREDENCE study aims to determine whether cardiovascular risk prediction equations derived in patients with type 2 diabetes in a developed country are applicable in a developing country, and vice versa, by deriving and validating equivalent diabetes-specific cardiovascular risk prediction models from the two countries. Baseline data in CREDENCE was collected from October 2004 in New Zealand and from January 2010 in China. In the first stage of CREDENCE, a total of 93,207 patients (46,649 from NZ and 46,558 from China) were followed until December 31st 2018. Median follow-up was 7.0 years (New Zealand) and 5.7 years (China). There were 5926 (7.7% fatal) CVD events in the New Zealand cohort and 3650 (8.8% fatal) in the Chinese cohort. The research results have implications for policy makers, clinicians and the public and will facilitate personalised management of cardiovascular risk in people with type 2 diabetes worldwide.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Medição de Risco/métodos , Albuminúria/urina , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Creatinina/urina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
Plant Sci ; 310: 110976, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315592

RESUMO

NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2 (NAC) proteins regulate plant responses to salt stress. However, the molecular mechanisms by which NAC proteins regulate salt-induced programmed cell death (PCD) are unclear. We identified 56 NAC genes, 35 of which had complete open reading frames with complete NAM domain, in the R. trigyna transcriptome. Salt stress and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) mediated PCD-induced leaf senescence in R. trigyna seedlings. Salt stress accelerated endogenous JA biosynthesis, upregulating RtNAC100 expression. This promoted salt-induced leaf senescence in R. trigyna by regulating RtRbohE and RtSAG12/20 and enhancing ROS accumulation. Transgenic assays showed that RtNAC100 overexpression aggravated salt-induced PCD in transgenic lines by promoting ROS and Na+ accumulation, ROS-Ca2+ hub activation, and PCD-related gene expression. Therefore, RtNAC100 induces PCD via the MeJA signaling pathway in R. trigyna under salt stress.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Tamaricaceae/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Tamaricaceae/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 279: 114379, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216727

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tiaogeng decoction (TGD), a mixture of 10 traditional Chinese herbs, has been used clinically for over 30 years in treating menopause-related symptoms such as cognitive changes, mood disorders, vasomotor symptoms, and sleep disorders. These central nervous system symptoms are closely associated with declined ovarian function, which dramatically increases the risk of neurodegenerative disease. Previous studies revealed that TGD may have anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic properties, potentially preventing neurodegenerative conditions; however, the underlying pharmacological mechanism remains unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to examine whether TGD could activate the Nrf2 and C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathways to effectively reduce oxidative injury and apoptosis in PC12 cells and elucidate the mechanism by which this medicine may prevent neurodegenerative disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PC12 cells were exposed to different concentrations of TGD (125, 250, 500 µg/mL) and H2O2 (150 µM). 17ß-estradiol (0.05 µg/mL) was used as the positive control. A cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay were used to detect cell viability and cytotoxicity, while Hoechst and flow cytometry were performed to evaluate apoptosis levels. Mitochondrial function was assessed by measuring mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were used to measure oxidative stress (OS). Western blot analysis was used to identify the levels of Nrf2, phospho-JNK (p-JNK), phospho-mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 (p-MKK7), Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), Caspase3 (Casp3), Caspase9 (Casp9), Bax, and Bcl-2 proteins. Moreover, JNK agonist anisomycin and Nrf2 inhibitor ML385 were used to validate pathways. RESULTS: TGD pretreatment significantly alleviated H2O2-induced cytotoxicity, apoptosis, MMP, and OS levels. H2O2 stimulated the activation of Nrf2 and JNK signaling pathways, but TGD increased the extent of Nrf2 antioxidant activation, decreased the activation of JNK, and eventually reversed the H2O2-induced protein expression of p-MKK7, Keap1, HO-1, Cleaved Caspase3 (CL-Casp3), Cleaved Caspase9 (CL-Casp9), Bax, and Bcl-2. CONCLUSIONS: This study's findings suggest that TGD may attenuate oxidative injury and apoptosis via the Nrf2 and JNK signaling pathways, making it a potential therapeutic candidate for neurodegenerative diseases.

20.
Environ Manage ; 68(3): 340-352, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274979

RESUMO

Invasive alien species (IAS) significantly impact biodiversity, human health, and economies, and considerable resources are often used to manage their spread. Few studies have focused on the human perception of IAS management, and little is known about approaches to improve stakeholder perception. This study examined perception gaps between managers and non-managers of a notorious weed Mikania micrantha and the preference for educational approaches to bridge those gaps. Household questionnaires and key informant interviews were conducted in the China-Myanmar Border Region (China), and ordinal logistic regressions and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used in statistical analyses. We found a high level of perception of M. micrantha among stakeholders, and a significant influence of socio-demographic factors including gender, educational level, ethnic group, and geographical location. Scores of the identification, damage, control measure, and manual treatment of M. micrantha were significantly higher for managers than those for non-managers, indicating that there were certain perception gaps between two stakeholder groups. Nine educational approaches were identified as being effective in improving stakeholder perception of IAS, of which training workshops were mostly preferred, followed by brochures (or leaflets) and other promotional materials. Additionally, we propose that well-designed and well-conducted educational approaches would benefit stakeholder perception of IAS, and that integration of IAS management into a comprehensive rural development scheme would improve its long-term performance in marginalized rural communities.


Assuntos
Mikania , Biodiversidade , China , Humanos , Espécies Introduzidas , Percepção
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