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1.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809597

RESUMO

To speed up the fabrication of optical metamaterials by making use of the fast speed advantage of femtosecond laser preparation, a metamaterial appropriate for femtosecond laser processing was designed, and the interaction between femtosecond laser and metal-dielectric-metal fishnet stacks was investigated in detail. Two kinds of processing mechanisms, thermal melting and stress break, were revealed during the fabrication. The thermal melting process, dominated by the interaction of femtosecond laser with metals, makes the upper and lower metal layers adhere to each other, which leads to the magnetic resonance impossible. The stress break process, dominated by the interaction of femtosecond laser with dielectrics, can keep the upper and lower metal coatings isolated. Fishnet optical metamaterial was fabricated by femtosecond laser-induced stress break technique, using back side ablation, high numerical aperture and super-Gaussian beam. The resolution and speed can reach 500 nm, and 100 units/s, respectively. Spectrophotometer measurement results proved that the magnetic resonances were found in the fishnet nanostructure. The theoretical refractive index of the metamaterial on a glass substrate reached -0.12 at the wavelength of 3225 nm. It proved that femtosecond laser-induced stress break was a good and fast tool during the fabrication of optical metamaterials.

2.
Food Funct ; 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720247

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of Antrodin A (AdA) from Antrodia camphorata (A. camphorata) mycelium on alcohol-induced gut microbiota and liver metabolomic disorders. In acute alcoholic liver injury mice, AdA ameliorated alcoholic exposure-induced hepatic lipid deposition (TC and TG), oxidative stress (MDA), inflammation (TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-17 and IFN-γ), and liver damage via modulating microbiome and metabolomic responses. AdA restored the composition of intestinal flora with an increase in the relative abundance of Lactobacillus and Dubosiella and a decrease in Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group, Prevotellaceae_NK3B31_group, and Prevotellaceae_UCG-001. Besides, AdA favorably regulated alcohol-induced metabolic disorders, including glutathione metabolism (S-(2-hydroxyethyl)glutathione and glutathione oxidized), ascorbate and aldarate metabolism (l-ascorbic acid), and taurine and hypotaurine metabolism (taurine). In conclusion, AdA in A. camphorata is a beneficial active ingredient to treat the microbiomic and metabolic disturbance induced by alcohol intake.

3.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(1): 97-103, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alprostadil can effectively dilate blood vessels, improve cardiac microcirculation, and reduce cardiac load. Tanshinone IIa injection can protect against atherosclerosis and reduce myocardial oxygen consumption. However, the effects of alprostadil combined with tanshinone IIa injection on microcirculation disorder, outcomes, and cardiac function in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are still not fully clear. METHODS: A total of 300 AMI patients who underwent PCI in our hospital from January 2013 to June 2018 were randomly selected and divided into group A, B, C by using the random number table method, with 100 patients in each group. The group A was treated with alprostadil, the group B was treated with tanshinone IIa injection, and the group C was treated with alprostadil combined with tanshinone IIa injection. 7 days after treatment, the cardiac functions of all patients were observed by ultrasonic Doppler, as were the microcirculations by myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE). The major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in both groups were observed in the 12-month follow-up. RESULTS: After treatment, the left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD), end-diastolic left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWD), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVESD), interventricular septum thickness (IVST), and ratio of maximal early to late diastolic filling velocities (E/A) in the group C were superior to those in the group A and B, the differences were statistically significant (PP<0.05). After treatment, MCE showed that the Aß value of the group aC was higher than that of the group A and B, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The thrombolysis in myocardial infarction myocardial perfusion grade classification showed that the patients with grades 2‒3 were more abundant in the group C than the group A and B, the difference was statistically significant (PP<0.05). The incidences of MACEs, such as malignant arrhythmia, recurrent heart failure (HF), recurrent myocardial infarction, and death, in the group C were significantly lower than those in the group A and B (PP<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: For AMI patients after PCI, alprostadil combined with tanshinone IIa injection can effectively improve microcirculation and ventricular remodeling, improve cardiac function and reduce the occurrence of MACEs. This combination can be widely used in clinical practice.

4.
Hepatol Int ; 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global research on endoscopic therapies in combination with partial splenic embolization (PSE) for variceal hemorrhage (VH) is limited. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of endoscopy plus PSE (EP) treatment in comparison to endoscopic (E) treatment for the secondary prophylaxis of VH in cirrhosis patients with hypersplenism. METHODS: Cirrhosis patients with hypersplenism (platelet count < 100, 000/µL) and those who had recovered from an episode of VH were enrolled in a multicenter randomized controlled trial. The participants were randomly assigned into EP and E groups in a 1:1 ratio. The primary endpoint was variceal rebleeding, and the secondary endpoints were severe variceal recurrence and mortality during the 2-year follow-up. Hematological indices, serum biochemical parameters, and the Child-Pugh score were measured at each time point. RESULTS: From June 2016 to December 2019, 108 patients were enrolled in the study, among which 102 patients completed the protocol (51 in EP and 51 in E group). The rebleeding rate of the varices was significantly reduced in the EP group compared to that in the E group during the 2 years (16% vs. 31%, p < 0.001). The EP group showed a significantly lower variceal recurrence rate than the E group (22% vs. 67%, p < 0.001). The COX proportional hazard models revealed that grouping was an independent predictor for variceal rebleeding (H = 0.122, 95% CI 0.055-0.270, p < 0.001) and variceal recurrence (hazard ratio, H = 0.160, 95% CI 0.077-0.332, p < 0.001). The peripheral blood cell count, Child-Pugh class/score, albumin concentration, and coagulation function in the EP group improved significantly compared to the values observed in the E group at any time point (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The EP treatment was more effective in preventing variceal rebleeding and variceal recurrence than the conventional E treatment during the secondary prophylaxis of VH in cirrhosis patients with hypersplenism. Furthermore, the EP treatment could significantly increase the peripheral blood cell count and albumin concentration and also improved the coagulation function and the Child-Pugh score. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: Trial registration number ClincialTrials.gov: NCT02778425. The URL of the clinical trial: https://clinicaltrials.gov/.

5.
Microb Cell Fact ; 20(1): 29, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cembranoids are one kind of diterpenoids with multiple biological activities. The tobacco cembratriene-ol (CBT-ol) and cembratriene-diol (CBT-diol) have high anti-insect and anti-fungal activities, which is attracting great attentions for their potential usage in sustainable agriculture. Cembranoids were supposed to be formed through the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway, yet the involvement of mevalonate (MVA) pathway in their synthesis remains unclear. Exploring the roles of MVA pathway in cembranoid synthesis could contribute not only to the technical approach but also to the molecular mechanism for cembranoid biosynthesis. RESULTS: We constructed vectors to express cembratriene-ol synthase (CBTS1) and its fusion protein (AD-CBTS1) containing an N-terminal GAL4 AD domain as a translation leader in yeast. Eventually, the modified enzyme AD-CBTS1 was successfully expressed, which further resulted in the production of CBT-ol in the yeast strain BY-T20 with enhanced MVA pathway for geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) production but not in other yeast strains with low GGPP supply. Subsequently, CBT-diol was also synthesized by co-expression of the modified enzyme AD-CBTS1 and BD-CYP450 in the yeast strain BY-T20. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that yeast is insensitive to the tobacco anti-fungal compound CBT-ol or CBT-diol and could be applied to their biosynthesis. This study further established a feasibility for cembranoid production via the MVA pathway and provided an alternative bio-approach for cembranoid biosynthesis in microbes.

6.
Exp Neurol ; 339: 113637, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549547

RESUMO

The lateral habenula (LHb) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) are two structures closely connected, and they serve as aversion and reward junction of the brain, respectively. This study investigated whether single neurons in the LHb/VTA respond to both aversion and reward stimuli and how these neurons regulate aversion and reward processing. Using optogenetic combined with multi-channel recording of LHb / VTA neuronal discharge, we found that most single neurons in the LHb/ VTA respond to both aversion and reward stimuli. Interestingly, majority of neurons in LHb were aversion-activated and reward-inhibited neurons, consisting mainly of glutamatergic neurons, while most neurons in VTA were reward-activated and aversion-inhibited neurons, which inhibited by glutamatergic neurons in the LHb. Furthermore, optogenetic activation or inhibition of glutamatergic neurons in LHb and their terminals in VTA could induce aversive or reward behaviors. These results indicate that identical neurons in the LHb and VTA have different responses to reward and aversion stimuli. The aversion behaviors induced by activating LHb glutamatergic neurons may be due to its inhibition on reward-activated neurons in VTA. This study suggests that interplay between the LHb and VTA neurons may play a key role in regulating reward and aversion behaviors.

7.
Phytochemistry ; 184: 112677, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556840

RESUMO

Antroquinonol (AQ) as one of the most potent bioactive components in Antrodia cinnamomea (Fomitopsidaceae) shows a broad spectrum of anticancer effects. The lower yield of AQ has hampered its possible clinical application. AQ production may potentially be improved by genetic engineering. In this study, the protoplast-polyethylene glycol method combined with hygromycin as a selection marker was used in the genetic engineering of A. cinnamomea S-29. The optimization of several crucial parameters revealed that the optimal condition for generating maximal viable protoplasts was digestion of 4-day-old germlings with a mixture of enzymes (lysing enzyme, snailase, and cellulase) and 1.0 M MgSO4 for 4 h. The ubiA and CoQ2 genes, which are involved in the synthesis of 4-hydroxybenzoate polyprenyltransferase, were cloned and overexpressed in A. cinnamomea. The results showed that ubiA and CoQ2 overexpression significantly increased AQ production in submerged fermentation. The overexpressing strain produced maximum AQ concentrations of 14.75 ± 0.41 mg/L and 19.25 ± 0.29 mg/L in pCT74-gpd-ubiA and pCT74-gpd-CoQ2 transformants, respectively. These concentrations were 2.00 and 2.61 times greater than those produced by the control, respectively. This research exemplifies how the production of metabolites may be increased by genetic manipulation, and will be invaluable to guide the genetic engineering of other mushrooms that produce medically useful compounds.


Assuntos
Antrodia , Alquil e Aril Transferases , Polyporales , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados
8.
Biomed Mater ; 16(2): 025015, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605229

RESUMO

Biologically active coating materials could promote the growth of granulation tissue as auxiliary materials, while natural polysaccharides could promote vascular regeneration and wound healing. Therefore, in this study, ultrasound-assisted extract of Nostoc commune Vaucher polysaccharides (UAP) yield after the process optimization was 12.89 ± 0.24%, which was used to prepare microcapsules by emulsification and cross-linking. The effect of alginate/chitosan-UAP composite materials on wound healing in an experimental rat model for 14 d and its physical properties were evaluated. In vitro experiments indicated that the UAP microcapsule material had a porous and loose three-dimensional network structure, and had good biocompatibility and swelling properties as a wound healing material. Animal experiments indicated that UAP microcapsules could extremely significantly promote wound healing (P < 0.01), and wound closure rate reached 79.16 ± 3.91% on 14th day. Meanwhile UAP microcapsules might promote angiogenesis and granulation growth by enhancing immunity and increasing the expression of VEGF and miR-21. Therefore, the composites of UAP microcapsules have shown encouraging results as a potential dressing for wound healing.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591430

RESUMO

The anaerobic digestion performance correlates with the functional microbial community. Mesophilic and thermophilic digestions of vegetable waste were conducted, and dynamics of the microbial community were investigated. The mesophilic and thermophilic collapsed stages occurred at organic loading rates of 1.5 and 2.0 g VS/(L d) due to the accumulation of volatile fatty acids with final concentrations of 2276 and 6476 mg/L, respectively. A high concentration of volatile fatty acids caused the severe inhibition of methanogens, which finally led to the imbalance between acetogenesis and methanogenesis. The mesophilic digestion exhibited a higher microbial diversity and richness than the thermophilic digestion. Syntrophic acetate-oxidizing coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was the dominant pathway in the thermophilic stable system, and acetoclastic methanogenesis in the mesophilic stable system. The dominant acidogens, syntrophus, and methanogens were unclassified_f__Anaerolineaceae (8.68%), Candidatus_Cloacamonas (19.70%), Methanosaeta (6.10%), and Methanosarcina (4.08%) in the mesophilic stable stage, and Anaerobaculum (12.59%), Syntrophaceticus (4.84%), Methanosarcina (30.58%), and Methanothermobacter (3.17%) in thermophilic stable stage. Spirochaetae and Thermotogae phyla were the characteristic microorganisms in the mesophilic and thermophilic collapsed stages, respectively. These findings provided valuable information for the deep understanding of the difference of the microbial community and methane-producing mechanism between mesophilic and thermophilic digestion of vegetable waste.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; 764: 144639, 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401045

RESUMO

In-situ biogas upgrading by H2 injection is a promising method for bio-natural gas production, yet the effect of H2 addition on antibiotic resistance genes during the in-situ biogas upgrading process remains unknown. We analyzed mesophilic and thermophilic in-situ biogas upgrading digesters with intermittent or continuous mixing models using metagenomic and metatranscriptomic methods to evaluate the effects of H2 addition on antibiotic resistance profiles. We found that H2 addition had less impact in the mesophilic reactor. In the thermophilic reactor, the influenced antibiotic resistance ontology (AROs) was mostly bound to the integral membrane transporters of the ATP-binding cassette and major facilitator superfamily. The annotated gene numbers of four drug classes, including macrolide, glycopeptide, lincosamide, and fluoroquinolone, increased distinctly after H2 addition. Acetate concentration is a vital indicator for distinguishing the abundance of different antibiotic efflux pumps. Most of the AROs influenced by Ruminiclostridium replaced the original dominant species Clostridium, and the versatile genus Methanosarcina was the sole methanogen correlated with the altered AROs of efflux pumps conferring antibiotic resistance. The introduced H2 was synthesized to CH4via the hydrogenotrophic pathway of Methanosarcina flavescens, and part of the consumed H2 was used for cell growth.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Metano , Anaerobiose , Antibacterianos , Reatores Biológicos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Hidrogênio , Temperatura
11.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 10, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge of gingival thickness (GT) and alveolar crest thickness (ACT) is essential when performing surgical and non-surgical procedures in the maxillary anterior teeth region. This study aimed at evaluating the GT and ACT in the maxillary anterior teeth region using 15-MHz B-mode Ultrasonic (US). METHODS: A total of 300 teeth from 50 healthy participants, comprising 25 women and 25 men, aged between 18 and 35 years were analyzed. We measured labial periodontal tissue structures of maxillary anterior teeth, including GT and ACT, at 3 mm apical to the gingival margin (GT3) and the crestal level, respectively. The GT and ACT measurements were correlated. RESULTS: The mean labial GT3 of the maxillary central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines were 1.24 ± 0.03 mm, 1.21 ± 0.03 mm and 1.11 ± 0.03 mm, respectively. Canine GT3 was significantly thin than those in the central and lateral incisors (P < 0.05). With regards to labial ACT, we recorded 0.79 ± 0.03 mm, 0.76 ± 0.02 mm and 0.73 ± 0.02 mm for maxillary central incisors, lateral incisors and canines, respectively. There were no significant differences in ACT of maxillary anterior teeth (P > 0.05). GT3 of men was greater than that of women (P < 0.05). In addition, GT and ACT were positively correlated (r = 0.32, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: 15-MHz B-mode US is an effective tool for measuring labial GT and ACT of anterior teeth. There are sex-associated differences in GT3 and the correlation between the GT3 and ACT of anterior teeth is moderately positive.

12.
Plant Cell Rep ; 40(3): 529-541, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386424

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Overexpression of CiNPR4 enhanced resistance of transgenic citrus plants to Huanglongbing by perceiving the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signals and up-regulating the transcriptional activities of plant-pathogen interaction genes. Developing transgenic citrus plants with enhanced immunity is an efficient strategy to control citrus Huanglongbing (HLB). Here, a nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related gene 1 (NPR1) like gene from HLB-tolerant 'Jackson' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.), CiNPR4, was introduced into 'Wanjincheng' orange (Citrus sinensis Obseck). CiNPR4 expression was determined in transgenic citrus plants using quantitative real-time PCR analyses. The Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) pathogen of HLB was successfully transmitted to transgenic citrus plants by grafting infected buds. HLB symptoms developed in transgenic and wild-type (WT) plants by 9 months after inoculation. A CLas population analysis showed that 26.9% of transgenic lines exhibited significantly lower CLas titer levels compared with the CLas-infected WT plants at 21 months after inoculation. Lower starch contents and anatomical aberration levels in the phloem were observed in transgenic lines having enhanced resistance compared with CLas-infected WT plants. CiNPR4 overexpression changed the jasmonic acid, but not salicylic acid, level. Additionally, the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid levels increased after CLas infection. Transcriptome analyses revealed that the enhanced resistance of transgenic plants to HLB resulted from the up-regulated transcriptional activities of plant-pathogen interaction-related genes.

13.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 25, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Auricular concha has been widely used as a supporting material in rhinoplasty or repairing of auricular defects. However, complications, trauma or iatrogenic excision often result in concha defects which destroy the normal structure of the external ear and further influence daily life. Local flaps are often applied to repair the defects because of their safety and satisfactory functional and aesthetic results. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 24-year-old female who presented with a concha defect that resulted from a complication of concha cartilage graft for rhinoplasty. The anterior concha defect was covered by a revolving-door (RD) flap as a single-stage procedure. The aesthetic and functional outcomes were satisfactory at 6 months post operation. CONCLUSION: We recommend the RD flap as an excellent choice for conchal defect reconstruction. Satisfactory aesthetic and functional results can be achieved by this easy-to-learn technique in relatively short surgical time.


Assuntos
Orelha Externa , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Adulto , Pavilhão Auricular/cirurgia , Orelha Externa/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Doença Iatrogênica , Rinoplastia/efeitos adversos , Rinoplastia/métodos , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Med Image Anal ; 69: 101942, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418465

RESUMO

Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect and the leading cause of neonate death in China. Clinical diagnosis can be based on the selected 2D key-frames from five views. Limited by the availability of multi-view data, most methods have to rely on the insufficient single view analysis. This study proposes to automatically analyze the multi-view echocardiograms with a practical end-to-end framework. We collect the five-view echocardiograms video records of 1308 subjects (including normal controls, ventricular septal defect (VSD) patients and atrial septal defect (ASD) patients) with both disease labels and standard-view key-frame labels. Depthwise separable convolution-based multi-channel networks are adopted to largely reduce the network parameters. We also approach the imbalanced class problem by augmenting the positive training samples. Our 2D key-frame model can diagnose CHD or negative samples with an accuracy of 95.4%, and in negative, VSD or ASD classification with an accuracy of 92.3%. To further alleviate the work of key-frame selection in real-world implementation, we propose an adaptive soft attention scheme to directly explore the raw video data. Four kinds of neural aggregation methods are systematically investigated to fuse the information of an arbitrary number of frames in a video. Moreover, with a view detection module, the system can work without the view records. Our video-based model can diagnose with an accuracy of 93.9% (binary classification), and 92.1% (3-class classification) in a collected 2D video testing set, which does not need key-frame selection and view annotation in testing. The detailed ablation study and the interpretability analysis are provided. The presented model has high diagnostic rates for VSD and ASD that can be potentially applied to the clinical practice in the future. The short-term automated machine learning process can partially replace and promote the long-term professional training of primary doctors, improving the primary diagnosis rate of CHD in China, and laying the foundation for early diagnosis and timely treatment of children with CHD.

15.
Org Lett ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475367

RESUMO

A ruthenium-catalyzed highly chemoselective N-alkylation of 2-pyridones has been developed, affording N-alkylated 2-pyridone derivatives in good yields and excellent N-selectivity. The key to achieve this unprecedented N-H rather than O-H insertion reaction is the use of CpRu(PPh3)2Cl as the catalyst and sulfoxonium ylides as the alkylation reagents. Moreover, this protocol is also amenable to 7-azaindoles by slightly varying the reaction conditions. Furthermore, sulfonium ylides are also suitable alkylation reagents, providing the N-alkylated 2-pyridones in good selectivity.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449889

RESUMO

The curse of dimensionality, which is caused by high-dimensionality and low-sample-size (HDLSS), is a major challenge in gene expression data analysis. However, the real situation is even worse: labelling data is laborious and time-consuming, so only a small part of the limited samples will be labelled. Having such few labelled samples further increases the difficulty of training deep learning models. Interpretability is an important requirement in biomedicine. Many existing deep learning methods are trying to provide interpretability, but rarely apply to gene expression data. Recent semi-supervised graph convolution network methods try to address these problems by smoothing the label information over a graph. However, to the best of our knowledge, these methods only utilize graphs in either the feature space or sample space, which may restrict their performance. We propose a transductive semi-supervised representation learning method called a hierarchical graph convolution network (HiGCN) to aggregate the information of gene expression data in both feature and sample spaces. HiGCN first utilizes external knowledge to construct a feature graph and a similarity kernel to construct a sample graph. Then, two spatial-based GCNs are used to aggregate information on these graphs. To validate the model's performance, synthetic and real datasets are provided to lend empirical support. Compared with two recent models and three traditional models, HiGCN learns better representations of gene expression data, and these representations improve the performance of downstream tasks, especially when the model is trained on a few labelled samples. Important features can be extracted from our model to provide reliable interpretability.

17.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res ; 1868(1): 118856, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931817

RESUMO

NIR, a novel INHAT, negatively regulates the transcription activity of tumor repressor p53. However, if NIR functions in the tumorigenesis dependent on the regulation of p53 remains unknown. Here, we report that NIR promotes progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) through regulating RB function. Firstly, we found that NIR expression is upregulated in the human CRC tissues and significantly associated with the poor outcome of the patients. Sequence alignment shows that NIR contains an RB-binding motif LxCxE in its INHAT-2 domain. We demonstrate that NIR interacts with RB via INHAT-2 in CRC cells and promotes RB degradation through proteasome-mediated pathway. Further, either full-length GFP-NIR or GFP-NIR-INHAT2 facilitates poly-ubiquitination of RB. In addition, NIR inhibits RB acetylation by INHAT-2, suggesting NIR might promote RB degradation through inhibiting RB acetylation. Importantly, endogenous NIR is downregulated upon DNA damage, which is consistent with the upregulation of total level and acetylation of RB. We further show that Flag-NIR inhibits DNA damage-induced RB acetylation. Thus, downregulation of NIR might contribute to maintain the cellular homeostasis under DNA damage. Consequently, depletion of NIR inhibits cell proliferation and tumor growth in mouse xenografts. Taken together, we demonstrate that NIR promotes CRC progression partially through inhibiting RB acetylation and promoting RB degradation. Targeting NIR may provide a potential therapeutic strategy for NIR-upregulated CRC patients.

18.
Plant Sci ; 302: 110681, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288003

RESUMO

TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PCF (TCP) family genes, as plant-specific transcription factors, play vital roles in flower pattern, leaf development and plant architecture. Our recent study shows that the TCP gene BRANCHED1 (CsBRC1) specifically regulates shoot branching in cucumber. Here, we found CsBRC1 had a closely related paralogous gene CsBRC1-like. The synteny analysis revealed that these two genes originated from a segmental duplication. CsBRC1-like displayed different expression patterns in cucumber compared with CsBRC1, indicating that they may have functional differentiation. Ectopic expression of CsBRC1-like in Arabidopsis brc1-1 mutant resulted in reduced rosette branches and rosette leaves, whereas silencing CsBRC1-like in cucumber only led to a deformed true leaf of seedling rather than affecting the shoot branching. RNA-seq analysis of wild-type and CsBRC1-like-RNAi plants implicated that CsBRC1-like might regulate early leaf development through affecting the transcripts of auxin and cytokinin related genes in cucumber. Moreover, CsBRC1-like directly interacts with CsTCP10a and CsBRC1 in vivo. Our results demonstrated that CsBRC1-like has a specific role in regulating leaf development, and CsBRC1-like and CsBRC1 may have overlapping roles in shoot branching.

19.
Water Res ; 188: 116555, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137529

RESUMO

It would be highly beneficial to use the methane produced by anaerobic digestion, which is low cost and accessible, as the carbon source in the removal of nitrogenous contaminants in wastewater. However, there is a knowledge gap regarding coupling systems that entail methane oxidation, nitrification, and denitrification, which restricts their industrial application. In this study, we acclimated a mixed culture to deal with simultaneous nitrification-denitrification coupled to methane oxidation in a laboratory-scale hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor, which achieved a steady ammonia removal rate of 38.09 mg N/(L•d). Furthermore, a series of batch experiments were conducted to test methane oxidation coupled to nitrate denitrification (AME-D3), nitrite denitrification (AME-D2), and simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (ME-SND). The molar ratio between methane consumed and nitrate reduced (C/N) equals 10 and 5 mol CH4C mol-1 NO3N in AME-D3 and AME-D2, averagely and respectively. Without methane injection, the removal of nitrates and nitrites was very low, indicating that the coupling of nitrate/nitrite denitrification and methane oxidation was beneficial. The average ammonia removal rates in the 20% O2 and 25% O2 groups were 20.06 and 22.03 mg N/(L•d) in the ME-SND system, respectively. Without methane, the ammonia oxidation rate declined, and large amounts of nitrite accumulated. As traditional ammonia and nitrite oxidation approaches are autotrophic, we proposed the possibility of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification (HN-AD). To study the coupling systems, the microbial communities and functional bacteria were analyzed. The results indicated that the system contained a guild of methanotrophs (mainly Methylobacter) and HN-AD bacteria (mainly Chrysobacterium and Comamonas).


Assuntos
Amônia , Nitrificação , Reatores Biológicos , Desnitrificação , Metano , Nitritos , Nitrogênio
20.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(1): 1, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179096

RESUMO

Increasing evidence has demonstrated that long non­coding RNAs (lncRNAs) serve important roles in numerous malignancies, including triple­negative breast cancer (TNBC). The lncRNA titin­antisense RNA1 (TTN­AS1) has previously been reported to promote tumorigenesis in various types of cancer. The present study aimed to investigate the potential role of TTN­AS1 in breast cancer and the associated underlying mechanisms. Following prediction by Starbase and confirmation by dual­luciferase reporter assay, TINCR was demonstrated to be a target gene for microRNA (miR)­211­5p. The expression levels of TTN­AS1 and miR­211­5p, which was predicted to be targeted by TTN­AS1, in TNBC tissues and in the breast cancer cell lines MDA­MB­453 and MDA­MB­231 were measured using reverse transcription­quantitative PCR. Following TTN­AS1­knockdown, cell proliferation was measured using a Cell Counting Kit­8 assay and colony formation assay, whereas cell invasion and migration were measured using Transwell and wound healing assays, respectively. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to verify the potential interaction between TTN­AS1 and miR­211­5p. In addition, rescue assays were conducted to investigate the effects of TTN­AS1 and miR­211­5p on TNBC development. The results demonstrated that TTN­AS1 expression was significantly upregulated, whereas that of miR­211­5p was found to be downregulated in TNBC tissues and cell lines compared with the matched adjacent normal tissues and normal breast epithelial cell line MCF­10A, respectively. Furthermore, TTN­AS1­knockdown inhibited the proliferation and invasive and migratory abilities of MDA­MB­453 and MDA­MB­231 cells, which was reversed following co­transfection with the miR­211­5p inhibitor. The results from luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR­211­5p was a direct target of TTN­AS1, suggesting that TTN­AS1 may bind directly to miR­211­5p to negatively regulate its expression. In conclusion, the findings from the present study demonstrated that TTN­AS1 regulated the proliferation and invasive and migratory abilities of TNBC by targeting miR­211­5p. This study may provide some insights into the regulatory mechanism of TNBC and help the development of novel therapeutic interventions for TNBC.

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