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1.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 88: 104038, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Association of oxidative stress biomarkers with aging and several age-related diseases is well documented. However, the possible role of these factors on frailty status in older adults has not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxo-Gsn), a biomarker of RNA oxidative damage, was independently associated with frailty. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis, frailty phenotype was assessed among 230 participants living in a senior community. Participants received a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), white blood cell count (WBC), urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine, and 8-oxo-Gsn were measured. RESULTS: Participants' mean age was 83.9 ± 4.4 years. In total, 33 % were frail, 45 % were pre-frail, and 22 % were non-frail. Urinary 8-oxo-Gsn, serum hsCRP, and WBC were significantly higher in the frail group than in the non-frail and pre-frail groups (p-values < 0.05). Adjusting for age, sex, and Charlson comorbidity index, statistically significant positive associations with frailty were observed for urinary 8-oxo-Gsn (odds ratio [OR]: 1.70, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.264-0.732) and hsCRP (OR: 1.337, 95 % CI: 0.089-0.412). Urinary 8-oxo-Gsn of 3.175 µmol/mol had the optimal predictive value for frailty, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.72 (95 % CI: 0.649-0.788). The prediction probability combining urinary 8-oxo-Gsn and a simple question evaluating exhaustion had the optimal predictive value for frailty, with an AUC of 0.90 (p < 0.001, 95 % CI: 0.85-0.95). CONCLUSION: Urinary 8-oxo-Gsn level was independently associated with frailty. This urinary biomarker may be a promising indicator of frailty.

2.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(4)2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244561

RESUMO

Coumarins and flavonoids are the major constituents of Toddalia asiatica. The separation and purification of ingredients from T. asiatica is an important procedure to acquire high-purity compounds for subsequent pharmacological investigation to discover leading compounds. In the present work, an offline two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was successfully established for the separation of high-purity glycosides from T. asiatica. Based on the separation results obtained with two different chromatographic stationary phases, a phenyl-bonded silica-based reversed-phase column was employed as the first HPLC preparation, and three fractions were obtained from the sample. Then, the fractions were isolated and purified on an octadecyl-bonded silica-based reversed-phase column to obtain high-purity compounds in the second HPLC separation. As a result, three coumarin glycosides, including two undescribed and one known, along with one known flavonoid glycoside with more than 98% purity were isolated from the sample. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic evidence derived from optical rotation, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. Two-dimensional HPLC with different stationary phases has the potential to be an efficient method for the separation of high-purity compounds from T. asiatica.

3.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 876: 173052, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135124

RESUMO

As diabetic macroangiopathy is becoming increasingly prevalent, it is urgent to explore preventive and therapeutic drugs and study the mechanism. Diabetic mice were induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ)for five consecutive days. Diabetic mice were divided into diabetic and allicin groups. After sacrifice, frozen aortic root sections were immunohistochemically stained for nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and inflammation cytokine-tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and the remaining aortic tissues were analyzed by Western blot for the expression of proinflammation genes. In vitro, Nrf2 and inflammatory relative protein expression levels in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) were examined. HUVECs proliferation and apoptosis were measured. TNF-α expression was increased in diabetic group compared to that in control group; this effect was alleviated in allicin-treated mice. Inflammation relative protein expression of Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1(VCAM-1), Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS), and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) was higher in the diabetic group than in the control group; however, allicin treatment inhibited these diabetes-induced increase. In vitro, allicin treatment reversed the hyperglycemia-induced reduction in proliferation, and decreased the apoptosis induced by high glucose. Inflammation relative protein expression was consistent with that in vivo. Additionally, the expression of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB)and Nrf2 was increased in both DM mice and HUVECs; allicin treatment induced a significant reduction in NF-κB level and improvement in Nrf2 level. Allicin alleviates inflammation caused by diabetic macroangiopathy, and the mechanism may occur via increasing Nrf2 and decreasing NF-κB.

5.
Curr Genet ; 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125494

RESUMO

Pyricularia oryzae is the causal agent of blast disease on staple gramineous crops. Sulphur is an essential element for the biosynthesis of cysteine and methionine in fungi. Here, we targeted the P. oryzae PoMET3 encoding the enzyme ATP sulfurylase, and PoMET14 encoding the APS (adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate) kinase that are involved in sulfate assimilation and sulphur-containing amino acids biosynthesis. In P. oryzae, deletion of PoMET3 or PoMET14 separately results in defects of conidiophore formation, significant impairments in conidiation, methionine and cysteine auxotrophy, limited invasive hypha extension, and remarkably reduced virulence on rice and barley. Furthermore, the defects of the null mutants could be restored by supplementing with exogenous cysteine or methionine. Our study explored the biological functions of sulfur assimilation and sulphur-containing amino acids biosynthesis in P. oryzae.

6.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 20(1): 18, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the increased empirical interest in the positive significance of improving nurses' sense of professional benefits, there is a requirement for measures of nurses' perceived professional benefit (NPPB). Our objective was to develop and psychometrically test a brief Nurses' Perceived Professional Benefit Questionnaire (NPPBQ). METHODS: After expert consultation and nurse interviews, a primary questionnaire was developed for an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The seventeen items of the NPPBQ were used for verification of the theorized factor structure and content validity using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The NPPBQ's concurrent validity was evaluated. Three samples of nurses were collected in Shanghai, Hangzhou and Nanjing between November 2017 and August 2018. RESULTS: The results of the EFA and CFA verified the five dimensions of nurses' occupational benefit discovery. The results demonstrated that the NPPBQ has adequate internal consistency and is fully consistent with the theorized factor structure. This 5-factor solution explained an adequate percentage of the total variance. The Cronbach's alpha of each dimension of the NPPBQ was good. The concurrent validity was significantly correlated with all aspects of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the NPPBQ is a psychometrically sound measure for evaluating perceived professional benefits among a wide range of nurses.

7.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037433

RESUMO

A novel P2/tunnel/O3' composite Na0.7Bi0.01MnO2 cathode is developed via the Na+-site modification of Bi3+ in layer structure Na0.7MnO2 for the first time. Superior electrochemical performance with a high capacity retention of ∼86.5% after 300 cycles at 2C is obtained. Moreover, the tri-phase structure can also serve as a model material, which intuitively evidences the environmental structural stability order: tunnel > P2 > O3'.

8.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107836

RESUMO

AIM: Few studies have comprehensively evaluated the factors associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in the elderly. The purpose of the study is to identify the factors associated with HRQOL using a comprehensive geriatric assessment of community-dwelling elderly people in Beijing, China. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 896 community-dwelling elderly people in Beijing was conducted through face-to-face interviews. Data regarding sociodemographic factors, chronic disease (assessed by the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics, CIRS-G), common geriatric syndromes and HRQOL (assessed by the EuroQol 5-Dimension questionnaire, EQ-5D) were collected using a structured questionnaire. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors related to HRQOL. RESULTS: The CIRS-G comorbidity index was negatively related to the EQ-5D index and EQ-Visual Analog Scale (VAS) (P < 0.05). Geriatric syndromes such as chronic pain and non-optimal nutrition were negatively related to HRQOL (P < 0.05), and the negative influence of geriatric syndromes on the EQ-5D index was stronger than that of the cumulative comorbidities. Functional status in daily living activities was positively related to HRQOL (P < 0.05). Receiving care from children was positively related to EQ-VAS (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Besides cumulative comorbidities and geriatric syndromes, in particular nutritional problems and chronic pain exert a substantial negative impact on the HRQOL of elderly people in China, whereas family support is an important protective factor. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; ••: ••-••.

9.
Br J Haematol ; 2020 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090321

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients with biallelic mutations of CEBPA (bi CEBPA) have a 30-50% relapse rate. This study established the value of mutations based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) and multiparameter flow cytometric measurable residual disease (MFC-MRD) detection and compared the outcomes. From 2014 to 2018, 124 newly diagnosed bi CEBPA AML patients were treated. The median age was 37·5 (16-69) years. The 3-year cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR), relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were 33·0%, 64·7% and 84·3%, respectively. Patients without additional mutations and with GATA2 mutations were defined as 'NGS low risk', which was the only favourable independent factor for CIR and RFS of pretreatment parameters. Patients with sustained positive MRD after two consolidation cycles and MRD negative losses at any time were defined as 'MRD high risk', which was the only poor independent factor for CIR, RFS and OS, including pretreatment and post-treatment parameters. In CR2 and non-remission patients who underwent allo-HSCT, superior OS was achieved. We conclude that NGS low risk was a favourable factor in the analysis of pretreatment parameters. MRD risk stratification was an independent prognostic factor in pretreatment and post-treatment parameters. Relapsed patients still have a favourable outcome followed by allo-HSCT.

10.
Gene ; 737: 144451, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035243

RESUMO

Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) can cause serious losses in Luffa cylindrica (L.) Roem. Chemical application to control CMV is ineffective and environmentally unfriendly. The development of resistant hybrids is the best way to control CMV disease. Elucidating the virus-host interaction of CMV and molecular basis underlying Luffa spp. resistance against CMV would undoubtedly facilitate breeding for resistance against CMV disease. Transcriptome sequencing was used to analyze differentially expressed genes (DEGs) caused by CMV infection. A total of 138,336 unigenes were assembled, and 74,525 unigenes were annotated. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis indicated that the three major enrichment pathways (according to the p-values) were flavonoid biosynthesis, sulfur metabolism, and photosynthesis. Genes involved in basal defenses, probably R genes, were determined to be related to CMV resistance. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we validated the differential expression of 8 genes. A number of genes associated with CMV resistance were found in this study. This study provides transcriptomic information regarding CMV-Luffa spp. interactions and will shed light on our understanding of host-virus interactions.

12.
J Med Virol ; 92(4): 424-432, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981224

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are by far the largest group of known positive-sense RNA viruses having an extensive range of natural hosts. In the past few decades, newly evolved Coronaviruses have posed a global threat to public health. The immune response is essential to control and eliminate CoV infections, however, maladjusted immune responses may result in immunopathology and impaired pulmonary gas exchange. Gaining a deeper understanding of the interaction between Coronaviruses and the innate immune systems of the hosts may shed light on the development and persistence of inflammation in the lungs and hopefully can reduce the risk of lung inflammation caused by CoVs. In this review, we provide an update on CoV infections and relevant diseases, particularly the host defense against CoV-induced inflammation of lung tissue, as well as the role of the innate immune system in the pathogenesis and clinical treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Coronavirus/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Coronavirus/ultraestrutura , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Inflamação , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/imunologia , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia
13.
Transgenic Res ; 29(1): 149-163, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927726

RESUMO

Myostatin (MSTN), a member of the transforming growth factor-ß superfamily, is a negative regulator of muscle growth and development. Disruption of the MSTN gene in various mammalian species markedly promotes muscle growth. Previous studies have mainly focused on the disruption of the MSTN peptide coding region in pigs but not on the modification of the signal peptide region. In this study, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9) system was used to successfully introduce two mutations (PVD20H and GP19del) in the MSTN signal peptide region of the indigenous Chinese pig breed, Liang Guang Small Spotted pig. Both mutations in signal peptide increased the muscle mass without inhibiting the production of mature MSTN peptide in the cells. Histological analysis revealed that the enhanced muscle mass in MSTN+/PVD20H pig was mainly due to an increase in the number of muscle fibers. The expression of MSTN in the longissimus dorsi muscle of MSTN+/PVD20H and MSTNKO/PVD20H pigs was significantly downregulated, whereas that of myogenic regulatory factors, including MyoD, Myogenin, and Myf-5, was significantly upregulated when compared to those in the longissimus dorsi muscle of wild-type pigs. Meanwhile, the mutations also activated the PI3K/Akt pathway. The results of this study indicated that precise editing of the MSTN signal peptide can enhance porcine muscle development without markedly affecting the expression of mature MSTN peptide, which could exert other beneficial biological functions in the edited pigs.

14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18620, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chuankezhi injection (CKZ) is gaining increasing popularity for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment, yet their comparative effectiveness and safety remain unclear. Therefore, we will provide a protocol to assess the efficacy and safety of CKZ for COPD. METHODS: From now until June 2020, we will conduct a comprehensive and systematic literature search in 4 Chinese and 4 English databases, and the use of CKZ in the treatment of COPD will be included in randomized controlled trials, as well as all the treatment of stable COPD during the treatment of all CKZ. The risk assessment of the bias tool in Cochrane 5.1.0 will be combined with the quality of the trial. The 2 investigators will independently perform quality assessments and data extractions for the included studies in strict accordance with inclusion and exclusion criteria and perform the meta-analysis with Stata 15 software (version 15.0, StataCorp, College Station, TX). RESULTS: Further evidence of CKZ treatment for COPD will be provided by this study. CONCLUSION: The efficacy and safety assessment of CKZ for COPD will be supported by this protocol. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: ROSPERO CRD 42019134133.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Epimedium , Morinda , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa
15.
Chemosphere ; 246: 125820, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918111

RESUMO

[Background] Melamine and phthalates have been reported to damage renal function in children. This association is scarce in general adults. [Method] A cross-sectional subsample population of 611 adults participating in the 2012 Shanghai Food Consumption Survey (SHFCS) was analyzed for urinary biomarkers of melamine, metabolites of phthalates, and renal function parameters. The correlations between renal function parameters and chemical exposure (either independently or interactively) were explored by linear regression models. To simplify the analysis, phthalate metabolites were dimensionally reduced using principal component analysis (PCA) method. [Result] Urinary melamine was positively associated with renal function parameters of both albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) and ß2-microglobulin (B2M) in multivariate linear regression models (P < 0.05). A PCA pattern characterized by high-molecular-weight phthalates (HMWP) was positively associated with all three parameters of renal function (ACR, B2M, and N-acetyl-ß-d-glucosaminidase (NAG)). The co-exposure to melamine and HMWP presented an additive effect on increasing these parameters (ACR, B2M, and NAG). [Conclusion] Impaired renal function in Shanghai adults was associated with exposure to both melamine and HMWP.

16.
Science ; 367(6473): 26, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896705
17.
J Mater Chem B ; 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894232

RESUMO

In the present work, a novel self-enhanced electrochemiluminescence (ECL) composite was for the first time prepared by simply electrospinning a mixture of polyacrylonitrile (PAN), Ru(bpy)32+, poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) and Nafion, and defined as PAN@Ru@PEI@Nafion nanofiber mat (PAN@Ru@PEI@Nafionnfm). Herein, Ru(bpy)32+ was applied as an ECL reagent, and PEI was selected as a co-reactant due to the abundant tertiary amine groups in its backbone. In order to further improve the ECL efficiency of the Ru(bpy)32+-PEI system, we innovatively loaded Ru(bpy)32+ and PEI into PAN nanofibers simultaneously by a one-step electrospinning technique. As a result, the electronic transmission distance between them was sharply shortened. Meanwhile, with the help of electrostatic interaction between positively charged Ru(bpy)32+ or PEI and negatively charged Nafion, exfoliation of Ru(bpy)32+ and PEI from the PAN nanofiber mat was effectively avoided. As expected, the luminous nanofibers exhibited excellent ECL performance including high efficiency and good stability. On this basis, we fabricated a new self-enhanced ECL sensor with excellent analysis performance. Using α-naphthol as an analytical probe, the sensor showed a wide linear range from 1.0 × 10-12 to 1.0 × 10-7 M with a low detection limit of 1.0 × 10-12 M. When it was applied to detect α-naphthol from carbaryl hydrolysis, the results were well consistent with those obtained from the high efficiency liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method, indicating the potential application of the ECL sensor in real sample assays.

18.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 98: 312-317, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968268

RESUMO

Inactivated vaccines are often applied with adjuvants in commercial fish farming. Although some mineral or non-mineral oil adjuvants show efficient improvement with inactivated vaccines, but sometimes bring side effects such as tissue adhesion and granulomatous lesion at the injection site. CpG ODN is a novel type of soluble adjuvant which has been proved to possess excellent advantages in fish vaccine development. In this study, we designed a tandem sequence of CpG ODN synthesized in plasmid pcDNA 3.1, and an inactivated Vibrio anguillarum vaccine developed in our previous work was chosen for determining the efficiency of the CpG-riched plasmids (pCpG) as an adjuvant. Results showed that pCpG we designed can offer higher immunoprotection with the vaccine. Interestingly, even below the minimum immune dosage of the vaccine, a high RPS of 84% was observed once the vaccine was administrated with the pCpG. Serum specific antibody titer, superoxide dismutase and total protein were enhanced and some immune genes related to both innate and adaptive immune response were upregulated, implying an effective auxiliary function of the pCpG. Totally, our study suggested that the pCpG is a potential and available adjuvant for turbot vaccine development.

19.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 36, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) or radiotherapy alone (RT-alone) in elderly patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS: The clinical data of patients with ESCC treated with RT-alone or CRT were collected and retrospectively reviewed. The 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates and the clinical characteristics correlated with survival were analyzed statistically. Propensity score matching (PSM) analyses were used to compensate for differences in baseline characteristics between the CRT and RT-alone groups to confirm the survival difference. RESULTS: A total of 729 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were reviewed. Diabetes, primary tumor volume (pTV), primary tumor location (pTLo), clinical T stage,(cT) clinical N stage (cN), clinical M stage (cM) and short-term response to RT were independent factors influencing OS (P = 0.002-0.044). The 5-year OS rate was 26.6, 26.0 and 30.1% in the whole cohort, RT-alone and CRT groups, respectively. The survival difference between RT alone and CRT was not significant before or following PSM. Compared with the corresponding subgroups treated with RT alone, CRT significantly benefited patients with diabetes (P = 0.003), cT4 (P = 0.030) and cN0 (P = 0.049), whereas no benefit was identified between CRT and RT alone in the other subgroups, including cT1-3, cN1, cM, pTLo, pTV, age and gender. CONCLUSIONS: CRT with the current chemotherapy regimens may not improve the survival of elderly ESCC patients compared to RT-alone, except in patients with cT4 stage, cN0 stage or diabetes. However, due to the limitation of the retrospective nature of the current study, further clinical trials are required for confirmation.

20.
Xenotransplantation ; 27(1): e12568, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The design and fabrication of porous scaffolds are important issues for tissue engineering applications. In this study, we attempted to fabricate porous scaffolds using bovine pericardium (BP) and examined whether these scaffolds were beneficial for cell ingrowth and bioactive factors delivery. METHODS: A vacuum-freeze-thawing-Triton X-100 (VFTT) protocol was used to fabricate porous BP scaffolds. The porous and mechanical properties were assessed using histology, scanning electron microscopy, and mechanical assay. The fabricated scaffolds were seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and cell ingrowth was evaluated. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was subsequently incorporated into the fabricated scaffolds. The bioactive factor delivery capacity was evaluated using loading and release studies. The bioactivity of released bFGF was assessed using a rat subcutaneous model. RESULTS: The BP scaffolds fabricated by the VFTT protocol displayed interconnected porous structures with porosity of 6.82 ± 1.36%.There were no significant differences in thickness, ultimate load, Young's modulus, and ultimate tensile strength between the fabricated porous BP scaffolds and native BPs (all P > .05). However, the water content of BPs was slightly reduced after VFTT treatment (P < .05). Cell ingrowth analysis showed that the seeded MSCs penetrated into the porous BP scaffolds with time of culture, while MSCs were limited to the surface layers of native BPs. Furthermore, bFGF was observed to be effectively loaded onto and released from the porous BP scaffolds. The released bFGF increased the phosphorylation levels of Akt, ERK 1/2, and MEK1/2, promoted host MSC recruitment, and inhibited myofibroblast differentiation in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: The porous BP scaffolds fabricated using a VFTT protocol were promising natural scaffolds for tissue engineering applications, since they had considerable mechanical properties as native BPs, supplied porous channels for cell ingrowth, and possessed bioactive factors delivery capability.

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