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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 23(1): 61, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36710356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lotus (Nelumbo Adans.) is used as an herbal medicine and the flowers are a source of natural flavonoids. 'Da Sajin', which was firstly found in the plateau area, is a natural mutant in flower color with red streamers dyeing around white petals. RESULTS: The LC-MS-MS results showed that eight anthocyanin compounds, including cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-galactoside, malvidin 3-O-galactoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside, were differentially enriched in red-pigmented tissues of the petals, whereas most of these metabolites were undetected in white tissues of the petals. Transcriptome profiling indicated that the relative high expression levels of structural genes, such as NnPAL, NnF3H, and NnANS, was inconsistent with the low anthocyanin concentration in white tissues. Members of the NnMYB and NnbHLH transcription factor families were presumed to play a role in the metabolic flux in the anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthetic pathway. The expression model of translational initiation factor, ribosomal proteins and SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein complex related genes suggested an important role for translational and post-translational network in anthocyanin biosynthesis. In addition, pathway analysis indicated that light reaction or photo destruction might be an important external cause for floral color determination in lotus. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, it is supposed that the natural lotus mutant 'Da Sajin' may have originated from a red-flowered ancestor. Partial loss of anthocyanin pigments in petals may result from metabolic disorder caused by light destruction. This disorder is mainly regulated at post translation and translation level, resulting in a non-inherited phenotype. These results contribute to an improved understanding of anthocyanin metabolism in lotus, and indicate that the translational and post-translational regulatory network determines the metabolic flux of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins under specific environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Nelumbo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Nelumbo/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
2.
Cell Metab ; 35(1): 118-133.e7, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36599297

RESUMO

Immunoediting sculpts immunogenicity and thwarts host anti-tumor responses in tumor cells during tumorigenesis; however, it remains unknown whether metabolic programming of tumor cells can be guided by immunosurveillance. Here, we report that T cell-mediated immunosurveillance in early-stage tumorigenesis instructs c-Myc upregulation and metabolic reprogramming in tumor cells. This previously unexplored tumor-immune interaction is controlled by non-canonical interferon gamma (IFNγ)-STAT3 signaling and supports tumor immune evasion. Our findings uncover that immunoediting instructs deregulated bioenergetic programs in tumor cells to empower them to disarm the T cell-mediated immunosurveillance by imposing metabolic tug-of-war between tumor and infiltrating T cells and forming the suppressive tumor microenvironment.


Assuntos
Evasão da Resposta Imune , Neoplasias , Humanos , Neoplasias/patologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Carcinogênese , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Microambiente Tumoral
3.
Phytomedicine ; 109: 154576, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36610127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. (ZBM) on anti-obesity, lipid-lowering and liver protection has been identified, but the effect on the development of NAFLD induced by high-fat diet remains unclear. PURPOSE: To evaluate the alleviation effect of ZBM on NAFLD in vivo and explore the mechanisms by analyzing the liver transcriptome, microbiota and fecal metabolites. METHODS: NAFLD model was induced in C57BL/6J mice by feeding with high-fat diet (HFD). The potential mechanism of ZBM in improving NAFLD was studied by liver transcriptome analysis, real-time PCR, immunofluorescence, 16s rRNA sequencing and non-targeted metabonomics. RESULTS: ZBM has alleviation effects on HFD-induced NAFLD. The liver transcriptome, real-time PCR and immunofluorescence analysis showed that ZBM could efficiently regulate fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism. The 16S rRNA sequencing and LC-MS based metabonomic demonstrated that ZBM could rebalance gut microbiota dysbiosis and regulate metabolic profiles in HFD-induced NAFLD mice. Spearman correlation analysis revealed a strong correlation between gut microbiota and biochemical, pathological indexes and differential metabolic biomarkers. CONCLUSION: ZBM ameliorates HFD-induced NAFLD by regulating fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism, gut microbiota and metabolic profile.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Zanthoxylum , Camundongos , Animais , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fígado , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo
4.
Molecules ; 28(1)2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36615559

RESUMO

Flavonoids are a group of natural polyphenolic substances that are abundant in vegetables, fruits, grains, and tea. Chiral A-ring-containing flavonoids are an important group of natural flavonoid derivatives applicable in a wide range of biological activities such as, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, antioxidant, and enzyme inhibition. The desirable development of chiral A-ring-containing flavonoids by isolation, semi-synthesis or total synthesis in a short duration proves their great value in medicinal chemistry research. In this review, the research progress of chiral A-ring-containing flavonoids, including isolation and extraction, structural identification, pharmacological activities, and synthetic methods, is comprehensively and systematically summarized. Furthermore, we provide suggestions for future research on the synthesis and biomedical applications of flavonoids.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Flavonoides , Flavonoides/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química
5.
Dalton Trans ; 52(4): 928-935, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36594627

RESUMO

Efficient catalysts are highly desirable for the selective electrochemical CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR). Ni single-atom catalysts are known as promising CO2RR catalysts, while Ni NPs are expected to catalyze the competing HER. In this work, we have modified the Ni NPs by encapsulating them into porous Ni-N-C nanosheets (Ni@Ni-N-C), to boost the synergy between Ni NPs and dispersed Ni-N species towards CO2RR. The CO faradaic efficiency (FECO) reached 96.4% at -0.9 V and retained over 90% in a wide potential window. More importantly, FECO values of over 94% have been obtained from -50 to -170 mA cm-2 with a peak FECO of 99% in a flow cell. Our work demonstrates that the surface modification of Ni NPs can inhibit the unexpected HER and activate the surface sites, offering a practical design strategy for CO2RR catalysts.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Nanopartículas , Catálise
6.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 224: 115075, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36641877

RESUMO

To explore the superiority of multifunctional nanocomposites and realize the joint-detection of foodborne pathogens, an immersible amplification dip-stick immunoassay (DSIA) was exploited for the sensitive detection of Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhi) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7). Saving for the basic colorimetric performance, the reporter molecule of CoFe2O4 (CFO) possesses multivalent elements (Co2+/3+, Fe2+/3+) as well as multifunction of superior catalase-like activity and magnetic properties. By dint of the catalytic activity of CFO, a directly immersible amplification can be simply achieved to endure the DSIA with an intensive signal and a dual-visible mode for the determination of S. typhi and E. coli O157:H7. In virtue of the magnetic separation and enrichment capability of the CFO, the DSIA can perform a matrix-interference-free detection and obtain a dynamic detection range of 102-108 CFU/mL and a low assay limit of 102 CFU/mL. Moreover, the DSIA has reasonable recovery rates for contamination monitoring of two target bacteria in milk and beef samples. Our research provides a persuasive supplement for the application of multifunctional nanocomposites in the ongoing dip-stick immunoassay and an alternative strategy for the efficient detection of foodborne pathogens.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Escherichia coli O157 , Animais , Bovinos , Salmonella typhimurium , Escherichia coli O157/genética , Imunoensaio , Leite/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos
7.
Res Sq ; 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36711728

RESUMO

Introduction Despite the well-recognized health benefits, the mechanisms and site of action of metformin remains elusive. Metformin-induced global lipidomic changes in plasma of animal models and human subjects have been reported. However, there is a lack of systemic evaluation of metformin-induced lipidomic changes in different tissues. Metformin uptake requires active transporters such as organic cation transporters (OCTs), and hence, it is anticipated that metformin actions are tissue-dependent. In this study, we aim to characterize metformin effects in non-diabetic male mice with a special focus on lipidomics analysis. The findings from this study will help us to better understand the cell-autonomous (direct actions in target cells) or non-cell-autonomous (indirect actions in target cells) mechanisms of metformin and provide insights into the development of more potent yet safe drugs targeting a particular organ instead of systemic metabolism for metabolic regulations without major side effects. Objectives To characterize metformin-induced lipidomic alterations in different tissues of non-diabetic male mice and further identify lipids affected by metformin through cell-autonomous or systemic mechanisms based on the correlation between lipid alterations in tissues and the corresponding in-tissue metformin concentrations. Methods Lipids were extracted from tissues and plasma of male mice treated with or without metformin in drinking water for 12 days and analyzed using MS/MS scan workflow (hybrid mode) on LC-Orbitrap Exploris 480 mass spectrometer using biologically relevant lipids-containing inclusion list for data-independent acquisition (DIA), named as BRI-DIA workflow followed by data-dependent acquisition (DDA), to maximum the coverage of lipids and minimize the negative effect of stochasticity of precursor selection on experimental consistency and reproducibility. Results Lipidomics analysis of 6 mouse tissues and plasma using MS/MS combining BRI-DIA and DDA allowed a systemic evaluation of lipidomic changes induced by metformin in different tissues. We observed that 1) the degrees of lipidomic changes induced by metformin treatment overly correlated with tissue concentrations of metformin; 2) the impact on lysophosphorylcholine and cardiolipins was positively correlated with tissue concentrations of metformin, while neutral lipids such as triglycerides did not correlate with the corresponding tissue metformin concentrations. Conclusion The data collected in this study from non-diabetic mice with 12-day metformin treatment suggest that the overall metabolic effect of metformin is positively correlated with tissue concentrations and the effect on individual lipid subclass is via both cell-autonomous mechanisms (cardiolipins and lysoPC) and non-cell-autonomous mechanisms (triglycerides).

8.
Pharmacol Res ; 188: 106677, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36702426

RESUMO

Cardiac fibrosis is a pathological process underlying myocardial remodeling and is characterized by excessive deposition of the myocardial extracellular matrix. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as critical regulators of various biological processes. In this study, we investigated the role of a novel lncRNA, Gm41724, in cardiac fibrosis induced by pressure overload. High-throughput whole transcriptome sequencing analysis was performed to detect differentially expressed lncRNAs in cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) with or without TGF-ß1 treatment. Differential expression analysis and gene set enrichment analysis identified Gm41724 as a potential molecule targeting fibrosis. Gm41724 positively regulated the activation of CFs induced by TGF-ß1 and pressure overload. Knocking down Gm41724 could inhibit the differentiation of CFs into myofibroblasts and alleviate cardiac fibrosis induced by pressure overload. Mechanistically, comprehensive identification of RNA-binding proteins by mass spectrometry (CHIRP-MS) and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay combined with other methods of molecular biological revealed the important role of Gm41724 binding to lamina-associated polypeptide 2α (lap2α) for the activation of CFs. Further mechanistic studies indicated that the regulator of G protein signaling 4 (Rgs4), as the downstream effector of Gm41724/lap2α, regulated CFs activation. Our results implicated the involvement of Gm41724 in cardiac fibrosis induced by pressure overload and it is expected to be a promising target for anti-fibrotic therapy.

9.
J Hazard Mater ; 447: 130759, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36641843

RESUMO

Development of robust, reactive, and inexpensive catalyst for pollutants abatement with catalytic ozonation is of great significance. Herein, the effect of a robust and easy-recovery catalyst, Fe2O3/Al2O3-SiC, for the catalytic ozonation of hardly biodegradable COD (hard COD) in coking wastewater had been explored. Al-O-Si bond formed on modified SiC through the substitution of hydrogen in surficial Si-OH groups by Al3+. The Lewis acid sites improved the adsorption of ozone and facilitated the formation of ·OH and O2·-. For coking wastewater treatment, the removal ratio of hard COD and the generation speed of hydroxyl radical (Rct) in the catalytic ozonation process were 71% and 253% higher than those in the ozonation group, respectively. Ozone utilization increased from 0.44 g COD removed/g O3 in the ozonation group to 1.42 g COD removed/g O3 in the Fe2O3/Al2O3-SiC catalytic ozonation group. In a full-scale application, Fe2O3/Al2O3-SiC catalytic ozonation decreased the consumption of O3 to 60 mg L-1 and decreased the operation cost by 50%. These results provided an approachable way for sharing the extraordinary capacity of ozone for contaminants remediation in industrial applications.

10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 251: 114550, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652743

RESUMO

Potentially toxic element (PTE) pollution of urban soils has become the focus of social concern, but the differences of the sources, pollution levels and source-oriented human health risks (HHR) of PTE in urban soils among different urban intensity areas is rarely known. This study explored a comprehensive scheme that combined positive matrix factorization model and source-oriented assessment to quantitatively assess the priority pollution sources and HHR in urban soils from areas with different urbanization intensities. All the average values for PTE concentrations, except for Cr, were higher than their corresponding background values. The contributions made by the four sources (atmospheric deposition, agricultural activities, traffic activities, and natural sources) were relatively similar (22.29-29.89%) in the low urbanization intensity (LUI) area, whereas traffic activities and atmospheric deposition made the greatest contributions in the medium urbanization intensity (MUI) (29.12%) and the high urbanization intensity (HUI) (38.97%) areas, respectively. The geo-accumulation index results revealed that Cd was the most polluting element and the HUI area had the highest pollution levels. The content-oriented assessment of HHR demonstrated that the non-carcinogenic risks were acceptable, but the carcinogenic risks were unacceptable. According to the source-oriented HHR assessment, among the anthropogenic activities, atmospheric deposition contributed the most to carcinogenic risk of children in all areas, and atmospheric deposition, traffic activities and agricultural activities contributed the most to the carcinogenic risk of adults in HUI, MUI and LUI, respectively. This suggest that control measures need to be tailored to the appropriate urbanization intensity to effectively curb PTE pollution caused by anthropogenic activities.

11.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 208: 115403, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592708

RESUMO

Severe acne vulgaris is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease worldwide. 5-Aminolaevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) is effective and safe for severe acne. However, the mechanism is not fully understood. Intense acute inflammatory response at 24 h after ALA-PDT is reported positively correlated to the effectiveness. Inflammation regulation influence the progression or outcome of diseases. ALA-PDT may exert its therapeutic effect by augmenting intense inflammation and break the chronic inflammation. This study was set out to explore the mechanism of ALA-PDT augmenting intense acute inflammation in the treatment of acne. As a result, transcriptome microarrays analysis of severe acne patients showed that ALA-PDT significantly up-regulated expression of various inflammation-related genes, especially TREM1 and PTGS2, which were further confirmed by a C.acnes induced acne-like mouse ear model. The subsequent experiments demonstrated that ALA-PDT could trigger pro-inflammatory M1 polarization of macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, the crosstalk between keratinocytes and macrophages studied by a transwell co-culture system indicated that PGE2 secreted by ALA-PDT treated HaCaT cells could promote THP-1 macrophages M1 polarization by COX2/PGE2/TLR4/TREM1 axis to augment inflammation. Our study provides a novel insight that ALA-PDT could amplify inflammation by COX2/TREM1 mediated macrophages M1 polarization for the treatment of acne. It is hoped that this research will decipher the mechanism of ALA-PDT for the treatment of acne and provide a theoretical basis for optimizing the clinical ALA-PDT management.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar , Fotoquimioterapia , Animais , Camundongos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Dinoprostona , Receptor Gatilho 1 Expresso em Células Mieloides , Ácido Aminolevulínico/farmacologia , Ácido Aminolevulínico/uso terapêutico , Acne Vulgar/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Macrófagos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Anim Nutr ; 12: 138-144, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36683881

RESUMO

Yaks living on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau for a long time have evolved a series of mechanisms to adapt to the unique geographical environment and climate characteristics of the plateau. Compared with other ruminants, yaks have higher energy utilization and metabolic efficiency. This paper presents possible mechanisms responsible for the efficient energy utilization, absorption and metabolism resulting from the unique evolutionary process of yaks. It is hoped that the information discussed in this review will give a better insight into the uniqueness and superiority of yaks in regards to energy metabolism and utilization compared with cattle and open new avenues for the targeted regulation of energy utilization pathways of other ruminants.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; 865: 161110, 2023 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36586692

RESUMO

The separation of Cs+ from radioactive wastes is of paramount importance, but still a challenge. In this paper, ACC/MoO3 composite electrode was prepared and used for the separation of Cs+ by capacitive deionization (CDI). The electrode materials were characterized by SEM-EDS, FTIR, XPS before and after adsorption experiments. The composite electrode was composed of ACC and hexagonal tunnel structure of MoO3, which had a mesoporous structure. The specific surface area, average pore diameter, total pore volume and maximal specific capacitance were 170.4 m2 g-1, 2.127 nm, 0.906 cm3 g-1 and 76.3 F g-1, respectively. The adsorption kinetics, isotherms, and the mass transfer process were analyzed, and the possible adsorption mechanism was proposed. The removal efficiency of Cs+ increased with the increase of voltage and the decrease of Cs+ concentration, which reached 44.7 % after 240 min when voltage was 1.2 V and Cs+ concentration was 5 mg L-1. The Cs+ adsorption onto the ACC/MoO3 composite was multi-layer adsorption and the adsorption to active sites (AAS) was the rate-limiting step. Overall, the ACC/MoO3 composite was a potential electrode for Cs+ separation.

14.
J Mater Chem B ; 2022 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36458580

RESUMO

Regeneration of dental pulp via the transplantation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) has emerged as a novel therapy for dental pulp necrosis after inflammation and injury. However, providing sufficient oxygen and nutrients to support stem cell survival, self-renewal, and differentiation in the narrow root canal remains a great challenge. In this study, we explored a novel strategy based on cell-laden microfibers for dental pulp regeneration. Firstly, we fabricated suitable GelMA hydrogels that facilitate the survival and proliferation of DPSCs and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and possess satisfactory biomechanical properties to generate microfibers. Two kinds of GelMA microfibers were fabricated with DPSCs and HUVECs via a silicone-tube-based coagulant bath-free method. Live/dead and Ki-67 immunofluorescence staining assays identified that these two cell lines maintained high survival rate and proliferation ability in GelMA microfibers. Immunofluorescence staining confirmed that DPSCs fully spread in the microfibers and highly expressed CD90 and laminin. HUVECs positively express CD31 and VE-cad in microfibers and could migrate well in the GelMA hydrogel. In vitro permeation experiments confirmed the superiority of microfiber aggregates (MAs) in liquid permeation compared to GelMA hydrogel blocks. We further adopted an ectopic pulp regeneration assay in nude mice to validate the regeneration of the aggregates of mixed DPSC-microfibers and HUVEC-microfibers in vivo. Compared to a conventional mixture of DPSCs and HUVECs in GelMA hydrogel blocks, the aggregates of cell-laden microfibers generated more pulp-like tissue, blood vessels, and odontoblast-like cells that positively express DMP-1 and DSPP. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to apply cell-laden MAs for pulp regeneration. Our study proposes a new solution to the challenge of pulp regeneration, which might promote the clinical translation and application of stem cell-based therapy.

15.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 3764914, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36532833

RESUMO

Background: Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) is mainly involved in the regulation of systemic metabolism through various lipid signaling pathways. Metabolic reprogramming is one of the important factors in the development and progression of cancer. It has been recently reported that FABP4 is closely related to the development of cancer and may be involved in tumor invasion and metastasis. Methods: In this study, we explored the expression pattern of FABP4 in pancancer through TCGA and CPTAC. Using TCGA, Kaplan-Meier Plotter, and STRING databases, to explore its diagnostic and prognostic value, and function through GO/KEGG and GSEA. Then, using the TIMER2.0 database, we investigated the correlation between FABP4 expression and immune infiltration in cancers, especially stomach adenocarcinomas (STAD) and colorectal adenocarcinoma (COADREAD). Results: Compared with normal tissues, the expression of FABP4 in more than 10 tumor tissues was lower (p < 0.05). Through the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the diagnostic value was found higher in colorectal cancer, breast cancer, thyroid cancer, and lung cancer, with the area under the curve (AUC) > 0.9. Through the K-M curve, FABP4 was found to correlate to the prognosis of various cancers. The results of gastric cancer and colorectal cancer are consistent. The low-expression group has a better prognosis than the high-expression group, and the expression of FABP4 in the early T and N stages of gastrointestinal tumors is lower. FABP4 highly expressed gene set is mostly enriched in extracellular matrix degradation and cell adhesion functions. Gastrointestinal tumors with high expression of FABP4 may have more immunosuppressive effects on macrophages and have a worse prognosis. Conclusion: FABP4 can be used as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in pancancer, and its high expression in gastrointestinal tumors suggests poor prognosis. This may be correlated to the immune infiltration of macrophages and epithelial-mesenchymal transition.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos , Prognóstico , Biologia Computacional , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética
16.
Life (Basel) ; 12(12)2022 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36556345

RESUMO

Plant-specific Rac/Rop small GTPases, also known as Rop, belong to the Rho subfamily. Rac proteins can be divided into two types according to their C-terminal motifs: Type I Rac proteins have a typical CaaL motif at the C-terminal, whereas type II Rac proteins lack this motif but retain a cysteine-containing element for membrane anchoring. The Rac gene family participates in diverse signal transduction events, cytoskeleton morphogenesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and hormone responses in plants as molecular switches. S. album is a popular semiparasitic plant that absorbs nutrients from the host plant through the haustoria to meet its own growth and development needs. Because the whole plant has a high use value, due to the high production value of its perfume oils, it is known as the "tree of gold". Based on the full-length transcriptome data of S. album, nine Rac gene members were named SaRac1-9, and we analyzed their physicochemical properties. Evolutionary analysis showed that SaRac1-7, AtRac1-6, AtRac9 and AtRac11 and OsRac5, OsRacB and OsRacD belong to the typical plant type I Rac/Rop protein, while SaRac8-9, AtRac7, AtRac8, AtRac10 and OsRac1-4 belong to the type II Rac/ROP protein. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that nine genes were expressed in roots, stems, leaves and haustoria, and SaRac7/8/9 expression in stems, haustoria and roots was significantly higher than that in leaves. The expression levels of SaRac1, SaRac4 and SaRac6 in stems were very low, and the expression levels of SaRac2 and SaRac5 in roots and SaRac2/3/7 in haustoria were very high, which indicated that these genes were closely related to the formation of S. album haustoria. To further analyze the function of SaRac, nine Rac genes in sandalwood were subjected to drought stress and hormone treatments. These results establish a preliminary foundation for the regulation of growth and development in S. album by SaRac.

17.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 20(1): 527, 2022 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36510210

RESUMO

Through the self-assembled strategy to improve the clinical efficacy of the existing drugs is the focus of current research. Herbal formula granule is a kind of modern dosage form of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) which has sprung up in recent decades. However, whether it is equivalent to the TCM decoction that has been used for thousands of years has always been a controversial issue. In this paper, taking the herb pair of Coptidis Rhizoma-Scutellariae Radix and its main component berberine-baicalin as examples, the differences and mechanisms of self-assemblies originated from the co-decoction and physical mixture were studied, respectively. Moreover, the relationship between the morphology and antibacterial effects of self-assemblies was illuminated via multi-technology. Our study revealed that the physical mixture's morphology of both the herb pair and the phytochemicals was nanofibers (NFs), while their co-decoction's morphology was nanospheres (NPs). We also found that the antibacterial activity was enhanced with the change of self-assemblies' morphology after the driving by thermal energy. This might be attributed to that NPs could influence amino acid biosynthesis and metabolism in bacteria. Current study provides a basis that co-decoction maybe beneficial to enhance activity and reasonable use of herbal formula granule in clinic.


Assuntos
Berberina , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Berberina/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
18.
Biology (Basel) ; 11(12)2022 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36552358

RESUMO

Abdominal fat percentage (AFP) is an important economic trait in chickens. Intensive growth selection has led to the over-deposition of abdominal fat in chickens, but the genetic basis of AFP is not yet clear. Using 520 female individuals from selection and control lines of Jingxing yellow chicken, we investigated the genetic basis of AFP using a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and fixation indices (FST). A 0.15 MB region associated with AFP was located on chromosome 27 and included nine significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which could account for 3.34-5.58% of the phenotypic variation. In addition, the π value, genotype frequency, and dual-luciferase results identified SNP rs312715211 in the intron region of ZNF652 as the key variant. The wild genotype was associated with lower AFP and abdominal fat weight (AFW), but higher body weight (BW). Finally, annotated genes based on the top 1% SNPs were used to investigate the physiological function of ZNF652. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis suggested that ZNF652 may reduce AFW and BW in broilers through the TGF-ß1/SMad2/3 and MAPK/FoxO pathways via EGFR and TGFB1. Our findings elucidated the genetic basis of chicken AFP, rs312715211 on the ZNF652 gene, which can affect BW and AFW and was the key variant associated with AFP. These data provide new insight into the genetic mechanism underlying AF deposition in chickens and could be beneficial in breeding chickens for AF.

19.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 10: 1087363, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36578506

RESUMO

A major sign of aging is wrinkles (dynamic lines and static lines) on the surface of the skin. In spite of Botulinum toxin's favorable therapeutic effect today, there have been several reports of its toxicity and side effects. Therefore, the development of an effective and safe wrinkle-fighting compound is imperative. An antioxidant-wrinkle effect was demonstrated by the peptide that we developed and synthesized, termed Skin Peptide. Aiming at the intrinsic defects of the peptide such as hydrolysis and poor membrane penetration, we developed a general approach to transform the Skin Peptide targeting intracellular protein-protein interaction into a bioavailable peptide-gold spherical nano-hybrid, Skin Pcluster. As expected, the results revealed that Skin Pcluster reduced the content of acetylcholine released by neurons in vitro, and then inhibit neuromuscular signal transmission. Additionally, human experiments demonstrated a significant de-wrinkle effect. Moreover, Skin Pcluster is characterized by a reliable safety profile. Consequently, anti-wrinkle peptides and Skin Pcluster nanohybrids demonstrated innovative anti-wrinkle treatments and have significant potential applications.

20.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 1053610, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36408246

RESUMO

Glucuronidation catalyzed by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) is one of the most important phase II mechanisms, facilitating drug clearance via conjugation of glucuronic acid with polar groups of xenobiotics. Accumulating evidence suggests that IBDs impact drug disposition, but whether and how IBDs regulate UGTs and drug glucuronidation remains undefined. In this study, we aim to investigate the expression of UGTs and drug glucuronidation in experimental colitis. Given that glucuronidation occurs primarily in the liver, we analyzed the mRNA changes in hepatic UGTs with a DSS-induced mouse colitis model. Twelve UGTs were downregulated in the liver of colitis mice including UGT1A1 and UGT1A9 (two representative UGTs). Colitis in mice downregulated UGT1A1 and UGT1A9 in the liver but not in small intestine, colon, and kidney. We also established that the downregulation of UGTs was attributed to the disease itself rather than the DSS compound. Moreover, colitis-reduced UGT1A1 and UGT1A9 lead to dampened baicalein and puerarin glucuronidation. PXR was the only UGT regulator significantly downregulated in colitis mice, suggesting dysregulation of PXR is associated with the downregulation of UGT1A1 and UGT1A9, thereby potentially resulting in dysfunction of baicalein and puerarin glucuronidation. Collectively, we establish that UGTs and glucuronidation are dysregulated in colitis, and this effect may cause variation in drug responsiveness in IBDs.

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