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1.
Front Oncol ; 12: 886968, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35646626

RESUMO

Background: Gliomas are more malignant and invasive than meningiomas. Objective: To distinguish meningiomas from low-grade/high-grade gliomas (LGGs/HGGs) using amide proton transfer imaging (APT) combined with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to explore the application of APT in evaluating brain tumour invasiveness. Materials and Methods: The imaging data of 50 brain tumors confirmed by pathology in patients who underwent APT scanning in our centre were retrospectively analysed. Of these tumors, 25 were meningiomas, 10 were LGGs, and 15 were HGGs. The extent of the tumour-induced range was measured on APT images, T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), and MRI enhancement; additionally, and the degree of enhancement was graded. Ratios (RAPT/T2 and RAPT/E) were obtained by dividing the range of changes observed by APT by the range of changes observed via T2WI and MR enhancement, respectively, and APTmean values were measured. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the above measured values with the pathological results obtained for gliomas and meningiomas, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare LGGs, HGGs and meningiomas, and Dunn's test was used for pairwise comparisons. In addition, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn. Results: The Mann-Whitney U test showed that APTmean (p=0.005), RAPT/T2 (p<0.001), and RAPT/E (p<0.001) values were statistically significant in the identification of meningioma and glioma. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the parameters APTmean, RAPT/T2, RAPT/E and the degree of enhancement are statistically significant. Dunn's test revealed that RAPT/T2 (p=0.004) and RAPT/E (p=0.008) could be used for the identification of LGGs and meningiomas. APTmean (p<0.001), RAPT/T2 (p<0.001), and RAPT/E (p<0.001) could be used for the identification of HGGs and meningiomas. APTmean (p<0.001) was statistically significant in the comparison of LGGs and HGGs. ROC curves showed that RAPT/T2 (area under the curve (AUC)=0.947) and RAPT/E (AUC=0.919) could be used to distinguish gliomas from meningiomas. Conclusion: APT can be used for the differential diagnosis of meningioma and glioma, but APTmean values can only be used for the differential diagnosis of HGGs and meningiomas or HGGs and LGGs. Gliomas exhibit more obvious changes than meningiomas in APT images of brain tissue; this outcome may be caused by brain infiltration.

2.
Front Nutr ; 9: 851590, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35651508

RESUMO

Background: In hospital settings, malnutrition affects 30-50% of aged inpatients and is related to a higher risk of hospital complications and death. This study aims to demonstrate the effectiveness of a tailored optimum nutritional therapy in malnourished, elderly inpatients based on multidisciplinary team recommendations in hopes of decreasing the incidence of deleterious clinical outcomes. Methods and Design: This trial will be a multicenter, open-label, randomized control trial conducted in the geriatric wards of at least five hospitals in five different regions. We aim to include 500 inpatients over the age of 60 with or at risk of malnutrition based on a Mini Nutritional Assessment Short-Form (MNA-SF) score of ≤ 11 points and the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition with an expected length of stay of ≥ 7 days. Eligible inpatients will be randomized into a 1:1 ratio, with one receiving a multidisciplinary team intervention and the other receiving standard medical treatment or care alone. A structured comprehensive assessment of anthropometry, nutritional status, cognition, mood, functional performance, and quality of life will be conducted twice. These assessments will take place on the day of group allocation and 1 year after discharge, and a structured screening assessment for elderly malnutrition will be conducted at 3 and 6 months after discharge using the MNA-SF. The primary outcome will be nutritional status based on changes in MNA-SF scores at 3, 6 months, and 1 year. The secondary outcome will be changes in cognition, mood, functional status, length of hospital stay, and all-cause mortality 1 year after discharge. Discussion: Guided by the concept of interdisciplinary cooperation, this study will establish a multidisciplinary nutrition support team that will develop an innovative intervention strategy that integrates nutritional screenings, evaluations, education, consultation, support, and monitoring. Moreover, nutritional intervention and dietary fortification will be provided to hospitalized elderly patients with or at risk of malnutrition. The nutrition support team will formulate a clinical map for malnutrition in elderly patients with standardized diagnosis and treatment for malnutrition in this population. Clinical Trial Registration: [www.ClinicalTrials.gov], identifier [ChiCTR2200055331].

3.
Precis Clin Med ; 5(2): pbac013, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35694716
4.
Front Genet ; 13: 857705, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35664295

RESUMO

Gestation length is a complex polygenic trait that affects pig fetal development. The Qingping (QP) pig, a Chinese native black pig breed, is characterized by short gestation length. However, the genetic architecture of short gestation length is still not clear. The present study aimed to explore the genetic architecture of short gestation length in QP pigs. In this study, selective sweep analyses were performed to detect selective sweep signatures for short gestation length traits between 100 QP pigs and 219 pigs from 15 other breeds. In addition, differentially expressed genes for the short gestation length between QP pigs and Large White pigs were detected by RNA sequencing. Comparing candidate genes from these methods with known genes for preterm birth in the database, we obtained 111 candidate genes that were known preterm birth genes. Prioritizing other candidate genes, 839 novel prioritized candidate genes were found to have significant functional similarity to preterm birth genes. In particular, we highlighted EGFR, which was the most prioritized novel candidate relative to preterm birth genes. Experimental validations in placental and porcine trophectoderm cells suggest that EGFR is highly expressed in the QP pigs with short gestation length and could regulate the NF-κΒ pathway and downstream expression of PTGS2. These findings comprehensively identified candidate genes for short gestation length trait at the genomic and transcriptomic levels. These candidate genes provide an important new resource for further investigation and genetic improvement of gestation length.

5.
Perioper Med (Lond) ; 11(1): 22, 2022 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35761307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of full-size three-dimensional individual printed model (3D-IPM) based on computerized tomography (CT) reconstruction combined with 3D individual digital models (3D-IDMs) for improving the patient's and their families' comprehension levels of robotic-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RALPN) preoperatively. METHODS: Between January 2020 and January 2021, 37 patients underwent RALPN in our institution. 3D individual digital models (3D-IDMs) were reconstructed based on the data of computerized tomography (CT) scanning and full-size 3D-IPMs were fabricated correspondingly. For each patient and his/her closest accompanying immediate family member (CAIFM) (spouse or son/daughter), two semi-structured conversations were held by using CT films (1st conversation) and 3D-IPM combined with 3D-IDM demonstration (2nd one) respectively. The preoperative levels of comprehension were evaluated quantitatively by using a self-made preoperative comprehending score (PCS) in the patients and CAIFMs. RESULTS: All the fabrications of full-size 3D-IPMs and all the operations were technically successful. The total PCS elevated significantly by presenting 3D-IPM combined with 3D-IDM demonstration compared with CT films (42.5 vs 35.5 in patients, P < 0.001; 42.9 vs 35.8 in CAIFMs, P < 0.001). Sub-PCSs in the evaluating aspects of renal anatomy, mass characteristics, the upcoming RALPN procedure, potential complication risks, and prognosis also showed a uniformed climbing pattern with the assistance of 3D-IPM+3D-IDM. CONCLUSION: The application of 3D-IPM presentation combined with 3D-IDM demonstration can improve the preoperative comprehension of patient and CAIFM to RALPN with more direct-viewing and verisimilar presentation, and can be used in RALPN patient education for increasing patients' and their families' cognitive empowerment.

6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(6): e0010528, 2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35737719

RESUMO

Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been proposed to play a key role in regulating the host immune responses. In this study, we provided the first investigation of EVs proteomics released by T. spiralis muscle larvae (ML). T. spiralis ML EVs (Ts-ML-EVs) were successfully isolated and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and western blotting. Using liquid chromatograph mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) analysis, we identified 753 proteins in the Ts-ML-EVs proteome and annotated by gene ontology (GO). These proteins were enriched in different categories by GO, kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) and domain analysis. GO enrichment analysis indicated association of protein deglutathionylation, lysosomal lumen and serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity with proteins which may be helpful during parasite-host interaction. Moreover, KEGG enrichment analysis revealed involvement of Ts-ML-EVs proteins in other glycan degradation, complement and coagulation cascades, proteasome and various metabolism pathways. In addition, BALB/c mice were immunized by subcutaneous injection of purified Ts-ML-EVs. Ts-ML-EVs group demonstrated a 23.4% reduction in adult worms and a 43.7% reduction in ML after parasite challenge. Cellular and humoral immune responses induced by Ts-ML-EVs were detected, including the levels of specific antibodies (IgG, IgM, IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a) as well as cytokines (IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10) in serum. The results showed that Ts-ML-EVs could induce a Th1/Th2 mixed immune response with Th2 predominant. This study revealed a potential role of Ts-ML-EVs in T. spiralis biology, particularly in the interaction with host. This work provided a critical step to against T. spiralis infection based on Ts-ML-EVs.

7.
Chemistry ; 2022 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35730468

RESUMO

Lead halide perovskite has triggered a lot of research due to its superior optical properties. However, halide perovskite materials have poor environmental stabilities and are easily affected by external factors such as water and heat, resulting in structural decomposion and performance failure. Contrary to this commonplace concept, here we find that CsPbBr 3 (CPB) can convert to CsPb 2 Br 5 (CP2B5) partially when meeting a small amount of water, and the CsPbBr 3 @CsPb 2 Br 5 (CPB@CP2B5) composite is synthesized by an in-situ method accordingly. The CPB@CP2B5 composite shows an enhanced catalytic performance compared with pure CPB, as well as a dramatically synergistic effect of photo and thermal for catalytic CO 2 hydrogenation. The CO production rate of CPB@CP2B5 is determined as 69 µmol g -1 h -1 under light irradiation at 200 °C, which is 156.8 and 43.4 times higher than that under pure photo (0.44 µmol g -1 h -1 ) and pure thermal (1.59 µmol g -1 h -1 ) condition, respectively. Meanwhile, the CPB@CP2B5 sample is also stable, which shows no significant decline in the catalytic activity during 5 cycles of repeated experiments. The probable mechanism is explored by utilizing a series of in-situ characterizations.

8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2481: 219-245, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35641768

RESUMO

Genome wide association study (GWAS), which is a powerful tool to detect the relationship between the traits of interest and high-density markers, has provided unprecedented insights into the genetic basis of quantitative variation for complex traits. Along with the development of high-throughput sequencing technology, both sample sizes and marker sizes are increasing rapidly, which make computations more challenging than ever. Therefore, to efficiently process big data with limited computing resources in a reasonable time and to use state-of-the-art statistical models to reduce false positive and false negative rates have always been hot topics in the domain of GWAS. In this chapter, we describe how to perform GWAS using an R package, rMVP, which includes data preparation, evaluation of population structure, association tests by different models, and high-quality visualization of GWAS results.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Herança Multifatorial , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Fenótipo
9.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 172, 2022 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35590378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clonorchiasis, an infectious disease caused by the liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis, may lead to the development of liver and gallbladder diseases, and even cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). However, the pathogenesis, host-pathogen interaction, and diagnostic markers for clonorchiasis remain unclear. METHODS: Eighteen rabbits were randomly divided into control group (n = 9) and C. sinensis-infected group (n = 9), and their plasma samples were collected at 7, 14, 28, and 63 days post-infection (dpi). Biochemical indices and metabolites in different infection periods were detected. A non-targeted ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) approach was employed to investigate the metabolic profiles of plasma in rabbits, and related metabolic pathways of differential metabolites and correlation between candidate biochemical indices and differential metabolites were analyzed. Finally, the candidate biomarkers were verified with human samples using a targeted metabolomics method. RESULTS: The result of biochemical indices indicated C. sinensis infection would affect the liver function biochemical indices, especially alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase (AST), glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), total bile acid, high-density lipoprotein, and cholinesterase. The metabonomic results showed that 58, 212, 23, and 21 differential metabolites were identified in different phases of the infection. Multivariate statistical analysis of differential metabolites revealed distinct metabolic signatures during different phases of infection, with most of these signatures being observed at 14 dpi, which mainly influences the amino acid metabolisms. For metabolites and biochemical indices, AST, GGT, hypoxanthine, L-pipecolic acid, and D-glucuronate represented potential noninvasive biomarkers for the diagnosis of C. sinensis (P < 0.05 and AUC > 0.8). Furthermore, GGT and D-glucuronate levels were positively correlated with the infection (r(28) = 0.98, P < 0.0001) and showed excellent diagnostic performance (AUC = 0.972; 95% confidence interval, 0.921 to 1.000). CONCLUSIONS: The present results provide new insights into plasma metabolic changes in rabbits during C. sinensis infection, and the potential biomarker may be used for developing an effective method to diagnose clonorchiasis in the future.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares , Clonorquíase , Clonorchis sinensis , Animais , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos , Biomarcadores , Cromatografia Líquida , Clonorquíase/diagnóstico , Glucuronatos , Metabolômica , Coelhos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 855958, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35558371

RESUMO

Lung ultrasound is a technique that has rapidly developed in recent years. It is a low-cost, radiation-free, and easy-to-operate tool that can be repeatedly performed at the bedside. Compared to chest X-ray, lung ultrasound has high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, transient tachypnoea of newborns and pneumothorax. Lung ultrasound has been widely used in neonatal intensive care units. However, due to the physical barriers of air, where ultrasonic waves cannot pass and therefore reflection artifacts occur, it has limitations in some other lung diseases and cannot fully substitute for chest X-rays or CT/MRI scanning. This review describes these limitations in detail and highlights that if clinical symptoms are not effectively alleviated after medical treatment or the clinical presentation is not compatible with the ultrasound appearances, then chest X-rays or CT/MRI scanning should be performed to avoid misdiagnosis and mistreatment.

11.
J Adv Res ; 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35618635

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sepsis-induced apoptosis leads to lymphopenia including the decrease of CD4+ T cells thus favoring immunosuppression. OBJECTIVES: Although epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors significantly improve the survival rate of septic mice, the effect of EGFR on the function and metabolism of CD4+ T cells in sepsis remained unknown. METHODS: CD4+ T cells from septic mice and patients were assessed for apoptosis, activation, Warburg metabolism and glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) expression with or without the interference of EGFR activation. RESULTS: EGFR facilitates CD4+ T cell activation and apoptosis through Glut1, which is a key enzyme that controls glycolysis in T cells. EGFR, TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and Glut1 form a complex to facilitate Glut1 transportation from cytoplasm to cell surface. Both the levels of membrane expression of EGFR and Glut1 and the activation levels of CD4+ T cells were significantly higher in patients with sepsis as compared with healthy subjects. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrated that through its downstream TBK1/Exo84/RalA protein system, EGFR regulates Glut1 transporting to the cell surface, which is a key step for inducing the Warburg effect and the subsequent cellular activation and apoptosis of CD4+ T lymphocytes and may eventually affect the immune functional status, causing immune cell exhaustion in sepsis.

12.
Adv Mater ; : e2201594, 2022 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35488707

RESUMO

Utilizing a photoelectrochemical (PEC) fuel cell to replace difficult water oxidation with facile oxidation of organic wastes is regarded as an effective method to improve the H2 production efficiency. However, in most reported PEC fuel cells, their PEC activities are still low and the energy in organic fuels cannot be effectively utilized. Here, a unique BiVO4 PEC fuel cell is successfully developed by utilizing the low-cost biomass, tartaric acid, as an organic fuel. Thanks to the strong complexation between BiVO4 and tartaric acid, a bridge for the charge and energy transfer is successfully constructed, which not only improves the photoelectric conversion efficiency of BiVO4 , but also effectively converts the chemical energy of biomass into H2 . Remarkably, under AM1.5G illumination, the optimal nanoporous BiVO4 photoanode exhibits a high current density of 13.54 mA cm-2 at 1.23 V vs reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) for H2 production, which is higher than that of previously reported PEC water splitting systems or PEC fuel cell systems. This work opens a new path for solving the low PEC H2 production efficiency and provides a new idea for improving the performances and energy conversion efficiency in traditional PEC fuel cells.

13.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 87(1): 305-315, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35431257

RESUMO

Wang et al. analyze Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment accuracy as screening tests for detecting dementia associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Such tests are at the center of controversy regarding recognition and treatment of AD. The continued widespread use of tools such as MMSE (1975) underscores the failure of advancing cognitive screening and assessment, which has hampered the development and evaluation of AD treatments. It is time to employ readily available, efficient computerized measures for population/mass screening, clinical assessment of dementia progression, and accurate determination of approaches for prevention and treatment of AD and related conditions.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Testes Neuropsicológicos
14.
Insights Imaging ; 13(1): 65, 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35380293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEH) is extremely rare and the MRI features have never been investigated in a large group of patients. METHODS: A retrospective study was designed to review the MRI images of HEH patients. Two radiologists separately evaluated signal intensity (SI) on unenhanced imaging, morphological features, contrast-enhancement pattern at dynamic study. The MRI features were compared between patients with HEH and hepatic metastatic tumor (HMT). RESULTS: Fifty-seven HEH patients were included in this study and a total of 412 lesions were evaluated. On per-lesion analysis, the rate of coalescent lesion and subcapsular lesion were 18.2% and 39.8%, respectively. Capsular retraction and lollipop sign were observed in 47 lesions (11.4%) and 60 lesions (14.6%), respectively. Large lesions (> 5 cm) had the highest rate of coalescent lesion, subcapsular lesion, capsular retraction and lollipop sign. Target sign appeared in 196 lesions (47.6%) on T2 weighted (T2W) and 146 lesions (35.4%) on portal phase. Medium lesions (2-5 cm) had the highest rate of target sign on both T2W (72.9%) and portal phase (55.2%). On per-patient analysis, compare with HEH patients, HMT patients seldom had the appearance of lollipop sign (66.7% versus 6.4%, p < 0.01), capsular retraction (59.6% versus 3.2%, p < 0.01) and target appearance on both T2Wand portal phase (64.9% versus 12.7%, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: MRI features of HEH correlated with the lesion size. Capsular retraction, lollipop sign and coexistence of target sign on both T2W and portal phase were relatively specific MRI features of HEH, which could be helpful in suggesting the diagnosis.

15.
ACS Omega ; 7(14): 12296-12306, 2022 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35449916

RESUMO

The correct understanding of the occurrence law of coalbed gas (CBG) is the premise of gas disaster prevention, outburst risk prediction, and gas exploitation. The factors affecting gas occurrence in different gas-geology units are different, so the correct division of gas-geology units is the foundation for studying the occurrence law of CBG. In view of this, this paper defined the division principle of gas-geology units. A gas-geology unit is an area with the same gas-geology characteristics. Based on the division of tectonic units, gas-geology units can be divided by integrating the differences of in situ stress, geological factors, and gas distribution of each tectonic unit. Then, taking the Guhanshan mine field in the Jiaozuo coalfield as an example, the analysis method of the occurrence law of CBG based on gas-geology units was expounded. Taking the EW section, NE section, and their extension lines of the Tuanxiang fault as the boundary, the Guhanshan mine field was divided into four tectonic units, and the factors affecting the gas occurrence of each tectonic unit were analyzed. Finally, according to the difference of the bedrock thickness and the CBG distribution in the four tectonic units, combined with the fracture development degree of the coal seam, surrounding rock, and the development degree of deformed coal, the Guhanshan mine field was divided into three gas-geology units, and their occurrence law of CBG was analyzed.

16.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 215: 114737, 2022 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35429725

RESUMO

Acute exacerbation of pediatric asthma (AEPA) has always been one of the most common reasons for children to visit the emergency department, whereas unified diagnostic criteria in the clinic are lacking. The purpose of this study was to determine potential biomarkers, and provide a basis for predictive and diagnostics AEPA. Urine samples were collected from 40 pediatric patients, including 19 patients with AEPA (PA) and 21 healthy controls (HCs). The samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS), and the data were statistically analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Differential metabolites were selected by VIP (variable importance for the projection) > 1, and a p value ≤ 0.05 was used as the standard. The corresponding metabolic pathways of differential metabolites were subjected to analysis by the KEGG database, and further analysis and characterization of differential metabolites were conducted through the HMDB database. A total of 26 potential biomarkers were selected, of which 17 were found to be associated with respiratory diseases. Nine metabolites with obvious fluctuations in patients with AEPA, such as 13-L-hydroperoxylinoleic acid, gentisate aldehyde, L-3-phenyllactic acid, hydrocinnamic acid, and gentisic acid, could be used as potential biomarkers to further explore the prediction and diagnosis of AEPA for the first time. The contents of 3 potential biomarkers showed a positive correlation. Abnormalities in seven metabolic pathways, such as phenylalanine metabolism, tyrosine metabolism and beta-alanine metabolism, are also related to AEPA. This study further confirmed the reliability of this method to detect differences in urine metabolites of patients with AEPA. By monitoring the content of these 26 potential biomarkers and their related metabolic pathways, it provides a basis for further effective prediction and diagnosis of AEPA to avoid further development of this disease.


Assuntos
Asma , Metabolômica , Asma/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/urina , Criança , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 178: 113639, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35413503

RESUMO

China's marginal seas (CMSs, including the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, East China Sea) are a significant sink for both terrestrial organic matter (OM) and marine OM, and they play an important role in the global biogeochemical carbon cycle. The spatial distribution and origin of organic matter based on n-alkanes in the surface sediments of CMSs and the implications of carbon sinks were comparatively analyzed. The n-alkane content in surface sediment from the Bohai Sea was higher than that of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. The spatial distribution trends of marine and terrestrial organic matter are obviously different in the surface sediments of China's marginal seas. The n-alkanes in the sediments of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea were mainly derived from terrestrial higher plants, and land-based influence gradually decreased from the near shore to the open sea. Higher concentration of terrigenous OM are concentrated nearshore, especially near estuaries, such as the Yellow River Estuary, the Old Yellow River Estuary and the Yangtze River Estuary. The input of n-alkanes from woody plants in the Bohai Sea area was slightly higher than that of herbaceous plants, and the input of herbaceous plants in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea was slightly dominant. The distribution of marine organic matter is controlled by marine productivity and the sedimentary environment. Due to climate change, the decomposition and enrichment of organic matter also show the climate effect of carbon molecular combinations. As a semiclosed sea area, the Bohai Sea was beneficial to the growth and reproduction of marine phytoplankton. From the perspective of petroleum pollution, the Bohai Sea was the most serious, followed by the Yellow Sea, and the East China Sea was the lightest. The carbon burial amount of terrestrial organic matter accounts for approximately 7% of the terrestrial organic matter burial amount of global marginal sea sediments, indicating that China's marginal sea plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. The result provide a basis for further understanding the source pattern and burial preservation of sedimentary organic matter in this sea area.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Alcanos/análise , Carbono/análise , Sequestro de Carbono , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Oceanos e Mares , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
J Org Chem ; 87(8): 5199-5212, 2022 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35275636

RESUMO

The complex structures and important biological functions of Strychnos alkaloids have attracted a great deal of attention from synthetic chemists. Herein, we describe the concise asymmetric total syntheses of the Strychnos alkaloids, (-)-dehydrotubifoline, (-)-tubifoline, and (-)-tubifolidine, as well as the formal total synthesis of (-)-strychnine. Our strategy features the construction of the common tetracyclic pyrrolo[2,3-d]carbazole structure using regioselective Fischer indolization on unsymmetrical cyclic ketones and late-stage functionalization for divergent synthesis. We developed a stepwise Fischer indolization featuring selective formation of enol triflate to solve the challenging regioselectivity problem, leading to the common tetracyclic ring skeleton in these Strychnos alkaloids. The regioselectivity of Fischer indolization on unsymmetrical cyclic ketones was studied on the basis of different types of ring systems and supported by density functional theory calculations. Overall, our success in the construction of this tetracyclic ring secured the syntheses of Strychnos alkaloids and may provide a general method for the total syntheses of various alkaloids containing this skeleton.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Strychnos , Alcaloides/química , Cetonas , Estricnina/química , Strychnos/química
19.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 178, 2022 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35236297

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Associations between cognitive decline and depression have been inconclusive. We examined 1) whether sleep quality mediates these relationships and 2) which factor of sleep quality mediates these relationships. METHODS: This study utilized baseline data from the 2018 West China Health and Aging Trend study (WCHAT), a large cohort data-set that including participants aged over 50 years old. We defined depression using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). Cognitive status was measured using the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ) and sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). Direct relationships between cognitive decline, sleep quality and depression were assessed using multiple linear regression. Mediation models and structural equation model (SEM) pathway analysis were used to test the mediating role of specific aspects of sleep (e.g., quality, duration) in the relationship between cognitive decline and depression. RESULTS: Of 6828 participants aged 50 years old or older, the proportion of depression was 17.4%. Regression analysis indicated a total association between cognitive scores (ß = 0.251, 95% CI 0.211 to 0.290, p < 0.001) and depression status. After adjusted PSQI scores, the association between cognitive scores and depression status was still significant (ß = 0.242, 95% CI 0.203 to 0.281, p < 0.001), indicating a partial mediation effect of sleep quality. Mediation analysis verified sleep quality partially mediate the associations between cognitive decline and depression (indirect effect estimate = 0.0308, bootstrap 95% CI 0.023 to 0.040; direct effect estimate = 0.3124, bootstrap 95% CI 0.269 to 0.350). And daytime dysfunction had a highest mediation effect with a proportion of mediation up to 14.6%. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep quality partially mediated the relationship between cognitive decline and depression. Daytime dysfunction had a highest mediation effect. Further research is necessary to examine the effects of sleep quality on the relationship of cognitive decline and depression.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Depressão , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Humanos , Sono
20.
J Clin Invest ; 132(9)2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35271504

RESUMO

Clearance of dying cells by efferocytosis is necessary for cardiac repair after myocardial infarction (MI). Recent reports have suggested a protective role for vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) during acute cardiac lymphangiogenesis after MI. Here, we report that defective efferocytosis by macrophages after experimental MI led to a reduction in cardiac lymphangiogenesis and Vegfc expression. Cell-intrinsic evidence for efferocytic induction of Vegfc was revealed after adding apoptotic cells to cultured primary macrophages, which subsequently triggered Vegfc transcription and VEGFC secretion. Similarly, cardiac macrophages elevated Vegfc expression levels after MI, and mice deficient for myeloid Vegfc exhibited impaired ventricular contractility, adverse tissue remodeling, and reduced lymphangiogenesis. These results were observed in mouse models of permanent coronary occlusion and clinically relevant ischemia and reperfusion. Interestingly, myeloid Vegfc deficiency also led to increases in acute infarct size, prior to the amplitude of the acute cardiac lymphangiogenesis response. RNA-Seq and cardiac flow cytometry revealed that myeloid Vegfc deficiency was also characterized by a defective inflammatory response, and macrophage-produced VEGFC was directly effective at suppressing proinflammatory macrophage activation. Taken together, our findings indicate that cardiac macrophages promote healing through the promotion of myocardial lymphangiogenesis and the suppression of inflammatory cytokines.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Cardíacos , Infarto do Miocárdio , Fator C de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Animais , Traumatismos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Fagocitose , Fator C de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética
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