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1.
Talanta ; 212: 120754, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113533

RESUMO

Robust, reliable, and sensitively quantitative detection of genetic biomarkers at single-base resolution has the potential to revolutionize medical diagnostics, especially for precision medicine. Here, taking the advantages of the high specificity of ligase reaction and the powerful amplification features of the isothermally exponential amplification, we have demonstrated a novel methodology to sensitively quantify genetic biomarkers at one-base resolution. The methodology is based on the ligase reaction of two stem-loop DNA probes templated by the nucleic acid targets to form a double stem-loop DNA, which subsequently initiates the isothermally exponential amplification reaction with high amplification efficiency. With the proposed method, high sensitivity to determine as low as 0.01 fM DNA or 0.1 fM RNA targets and high specificity to detect single-base changes can be achieved. The new methodology is robust to be performed by using a pair of universal primers under isothermal conditions, which should be employed to quantitatively detect any genetic biomarkers because all DNA/RNA targets can be directly used as the templates to ligate the stem-loop DNA probes with single-base resolution.

2.
J Food Sci ; 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125702

RESUMO

Recently, intensive processing of marine resources has attracted considerable attention. In order to further utilize the byproducts of aquatic shellfish (Pinctada martensii meat) with high value, this study proposes a method of extracting zinc and taurine from P. martensii meat. Zinc was first extracted from P. martensii meat with an ultrasonic crusher, and then taurine was further extracted by ultrasonic-assisted water extraction from the remaining shellfish. After optimization, the biological zinc extraction rate reached 8.63%, and the taurine extraction rate reached 0.71%. Meanwhile, the parameters for cation exchange separation and taurine purification were optimized, in which the injection volume, pH value, and elution rate were set to 8.0 mL, 4.5, and 3.0 mL/min, respectively. Ultimately, the purity the extracted taurine reached 98.16%. This study provides a novel method for the extraction of biological zinc and taurine by deep processing of shellfish meat.

3.
Food Chem ; 319: 126532, 2020 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171153

RESUMO

Interactions between gelatin aggregates (G, 0.5 wt%) and an anionic polysaccharide hsian-tsao gum (HG, 0-0.25 wt%) in aqueous solutions were investigated at 25 °C using zeta potentiometry, turbidimetric analysis, dynamic light scattering, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), fluorescence spectra and circular dichroism measurements. The results indicated that soluble and insoluble G-HG complexes formed mainly through electrostatic interactions followed critical pH-dependent structure-forming events. The phase transition points (pHφ1, pHopt and pHφ2) shifted to lower pH with HG increased, whereas pHc kept constant. Conformational transitions of G from α-helix to ß-sheet were promoted by interacting with HG, concurrent with changes in environment of hydrophobic residues. Additionally, CLSM evidenced phase transitions of G from homogeneity to separation occurred by interaction with HG, forming G-HG complexes with G centered and HG absorbed on the periphery. Findings aided in understanding interactions mechanism between G and HG to further apply HG in designing new food matrixes.

4.
J Clin Anesth ; 63: 109746, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109827

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Intranasal dexmedetomidine (DEX) can provide adequate sedation during short examinations in children. However, we found no data regarding the 95% effective dose (ED95) of intranasal DEX for children's pulmonary function testing (PFT). DESIGN: Prospective study and a biased coin design up-and-down sequential method. SETTING: Sedation center of Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. PATIENTS: Children aged 1-3 years undergoing pulmonary function testing. INTERVENTION: The dose of DEX for each subsequent patient was determined by the response of the previous patient with the biased coin design up-and-down sequential method with an interval of 0.25 µg∙kg-1. MEASUREMENTS: Children aged 1-3 years who received pulmonary function testing were involved in this dose-finding trial. Intranasal DEX started at a dose of 2 µg∙kg-1 on the first patient. The dose of DEX for each subsequent patient was determined by the response of the previous patient with the biased coin design up-and-down sequential method with an interval of 0.25 µg∙kg-1. The sedation was assessed by the Modified Observer Assessment of Alertness and Sedation (MOAA/S) scale, and recovery was assessed by the modified Aldrete recovery score. The ED95 was calculated using isotonic regression. Other variables, including the sedation onset time, examination time, wake-up time, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), and oxyhaemoglobin desaturation (SpO2), were recorded. Adverse events such as hypotension, bradycardia, respiration depression, oxyhaemoglobin desaturation, regurgitation and vomiting were recorded. MAIN RESULTS: A total of 68 children were enrolled for the study; 62 children had successful sedation, and 6 had failed sedation. The ED95 of intranasal DEX was estimated to be 2.64 µg∙kg-1 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.49-2.87 µg∙kg-1]. The sedation onset time for all patients was 15.0 (12.3-19.0) min. The sedation onset time of successful sedation patients was 15.0 (12.0-19.0) min, the sedation onset time of failed sedation patients was 16.0 (15.0-27.8) min, the examination time was 8 (7-10) min, and the wake-up time was 40 (35-43) min. There were no adverse events during the whole procedure. CONCLUSION: The ED95 of intranasal DEX sedation in children aged 1-3 years undergoing PFT was 2.64 µg∙kg-1.

5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 192: 110283, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061980

RESUMO

Menstrual disorders are common diseases among reproductive-aged women with increasing concerns. Until now, there have been limited studies about the association between menstrual disorders and air pollution. This study aimed to investigate the association between short-term (concurrent day and within 1 week prior) ambient air pollution exposure and menstrual disorder outpatient visits in Xi'an, a metropolis in northwestern China. Daily baseline outpatient data of menstrual disorders from January 1, 2010 to February 18, 2016 (2239 days) were obtained. An over-dispersed Poisson generalized additive model was applied to discover the relationship between short-term air pollution exposure and the number of menstrual disorder outpatient visits by adjusting the day of the week and weather conditions. A total of 51,893 outpatient visits for menstrual disorders were recorded. A 10 µg/m3 increase of PM10 and NO2 concentrations corresponded to 0.236% (95% Cl: 0.075%, 0.397%) and 2.173% (95% Cl: 0.990%, 3.357%) elevations in outpatient-visits for menstrual disorders at lag 7 and lag 01 (concurrent day and previous 1 day), respectively. The association was more significant in young females (18-29 years) and there was no obvious association observed between SO2 and menstrual disorder outpatient visits. This is the first evidence that short-term exposure to ambient air pollution can be associated with an increased risk of menstrual disorder attacks. The results of our study may help to establish more comprehensive understanding of the health effects of ambient air pollution on menstrual disorders and other reproductive diseases.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075373

RESUMO

Straightforward encapsulation of Pt clusters (∼2 nm) into the pure silica TON-type zeolite (ZSM-22) was reached in a dry gel conversion route, where the ionic liquid template was removed via the hydrocracking-calcination-reduction approach. The obtained Pt@ZSM-22 series possessed high crystallinity, large surface area, and ultrafine Pt clusters inside the zeolite crystals. They exhibited remarkable activity in the semi-hydrogenation of phenylacetylene into styrene; the lead sample with 0.2 wt % Pt loading afforded a large turnover number up to 117,787. The preferential high affinity of the pure silica ZSM-22-encapsulated Pt clusters toward the substrate phenylacetylene rather than the hydrogenated product was derived from the unique space-confinement effect of zeolite microchannels, which is responsible for such excellent performance.

7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(8): e19229, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080122

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this meta-analysis is to investigate the comparative efficacy between supervised- and home-based programs in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). METHOD: A systematic search in PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library was electronically performed by 2 independent investigators in order to capture all potential studies comparing supervised- with home-based in patients with AS from inception to April 2018. After extracted essential information, apprised risk of bias, statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager (RevMan) software (version 5.3.0). The protocol was registered at PROSPERO platform with an identifier of CRD42018097046. RESULTS: A total of 7 studies comprising 271 patients were included finally. Meta-analyses showed that, compared to home-based program, supervised-based program was associated with reduced bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index (BASMI) scores (mean difference [MD], -0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.73, -0.17), bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI) scores (MD, -0.48; 95% CI, -0.88, -0.08), and bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI) scores (MD, -0.78; 95% CI, -1.19, -0.37). However, depression scores (standard mean difference, -0.22; 95% CI, -0.58, 0.14) between the 2 groups showed no significant defference. CONCLUSIONS: Both supervised- and home-based programs can benefit to reduce BASMI, BASDAI, and BASFI scores in AS patients. However, short-term, supervised exercise program may be more effective than home-based exercises at decreasing disease activity with AS.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/organização & administração , Espondilite Anquilosante/reabilitação , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Espondilite Anquilosante/epidemiologia
8.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 99: 27-34, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001352

RESUMO

Hepcidin links iron metabolism with innate immunity during the inhibition of bacterial infection. Our previous studies had shown that recombinant hepcidin can significantly reduce the mortality rate of Ctenopharyngodon idella infected with Flavobacterium columnare under laboratory conditions. Here, we studied the preventive and therapeutic effects of feed supplemented with different doses of recombinant hepcidin on F. columnare-challenged C. idella reared in a cage culture environment. The results showed that in the prevention groups, 30 and 90 mg/kg of added purified and unpurified hepcidin respectively resulted in a higher survival rate in the early post-infection period, while 60 mg/kg of purified hepcidin significantly improved the survival rate in the therapy group (all compared to the control group). In the hepatopancreas, the expression of hepcidin and ferritin was significantly up-regulated, and the levels of ferroportin and serum iron were significantly decreased, especially in the therapy group. In addition, the expression of iron-related genes in spleen and intestine exhibited a similar trend to that in hepatopancreas. Meanwhile, immune genes were up-regulated to varying degrees, and the therapy group exhibited a significantly improved expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and specific immunity. In summary, our study shows that different doses of recombinant hepcidin had protective effects against bacterial infection by regulating the iron distribution and immune gene expression, which provides a strong foundation for the application of recombinant hepcidin in aquaculture.

9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 150: 654-661, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061693

RESUMO

Herein, water-extracted Caulerpa lentillifera polysaccharides were structurally characterized and their bile acid-binding capacities were investigated. WCLP-25, WCLP-40, WCLP-55, WCLP-70, and WCLP-85 were obtained by graded ethanol precipitation with ethanol concentrations of 25%, 40%, 55%, 70%, and 85%. The total carbohydrate, protein, uronic acid and sulfate contents as well as the monosaccharide composition, molecular weight, and rheological properties were determined. Their infrared spectra, thermogravimetric curves, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images were acquired. The hypolipidaemic effects of the WCLPs were assessed with in vitro simulated bile acid-binding capacity experiments. The WCLPs are high-molecular-weight sulfated heteropolysaccharides, and the ethanol concentration significantly influenced the physicochemical properties of the extract. The bile acid-binding capacities of WCLP-55 and WCLP-70 were significantly higher than those of the other tested WCLP samples, which may be due to their higher neutral sugar, uronic acid and sulfate contents or due to their higher viscosities and a larger sheet structure based on SEM. This study will broaden the sources of raw materials for functional foods and provide a reference for the scientific use of C. lentillifera.

10.
J Mol Biol ; 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087196

RESUMO

Cells have evolved molecular chaperones that modulate phase separation and misfolding of amyloidogenic proteins to prevent neurodegenerative diseases. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), mainly located at the endoplasmic reticulum and also present in the cytosol, acts as both an enzyme and a molecular chaperone. PDI is observed to be S-nitrosylated in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients, but the mechanism has remained elusive. We herein report that both wild-type PDI and its quadruple cysteine mutant only having chaperone activity, significantly inhibit pathological phosphorylation and abnormal aggregation of Tau in cells, and significantly decrease the mitochondrial damage and Tau cytotoxicity resulting from Tau aberrant aggregation, highlighting the chaperone property of PDI. More importantly, we show that wild-type PDI is selectively recruited by liquid droplets of Tau, which significantly inhibits phase separation and stress granule formation of Tau, whereas S-nitrosylation of PDI abrogates the recruitment and inhibition. These findings demonstrate how phase separation of Tau is physiologically regulated by PDI and how S-nitrosylation of PDI, a perturbation in this regulation, leads to disease.

11.
Talanta ; 211: 120704, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070604

RESUMO

Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) plays an important role in regulating a wide range of genomic processes. The sensitive and accurate detection of cellular TdT activity, particularly at the single-cell level, is highly significant for leukemia-associated biomedical and biological studies. Nevertheless, owing to the limited sensitivity of the existing TdT assays, the quantification of TdT activity at the single-cell level remains a big challenge. Herein, a simple but ultrasensitive method for assaying TdT activity is proposed based on terminal extension actuated loop-mediated isothermal amplification (TEA-LAMP). By using the TdT-induced extension product as an actuator, TdT activity is amplified twice by terminal extension and LAMP in an exponential manner and finally converted to a remarkably amplified fluorescent signal. In this study, as low as 2 × 10-8 U/µL TdT can be clearly detectable with the elegant TEA-LAMP strategy. Such an ultrahigh sensitivity enables the direct determination of TdT activity in individual single cells. In the meantime, by employing TdT as a co-factor, this strategy can also be applied to detecting other enzymes that can catalyze the DNA terminal hydroxylation. This work not only reports the up-to-now most sensitive TdT detection strategy at a single-cell level but also opens the new gate for versatile enzyme activity detection.

12.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 99: 353-361, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081806

RESUMO

Edwardsiella ictaluri (E. ictaluri) causes severe infections in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco), which leads to a massive loss in the aquaculture industry especially in catfish commercial production. Previous studies have confirmed that vitamin D3 is essential in immune regulation in mammals. Based on next-generation sequencing, this study explored the immunomodulatory effects of dietary vitamin D3 on the head kidney of yellow catfish after E. ictaluri challenge. Current results showed that increasing the content of dietary vitamin D3 within the experimental concentration range (1120IU/kg-16600IU/kg) could reduce the mortality of the yellow catfish after E. ictaluri challenge. Results of the next-generation sequencing showed that dietary vitamin D3 regulates the immune mechanism of the head kidney mainly through three pathways i.e. negative regulation of interferon-ß production, negative regulation of interleukin-6 production and neutrophil chemotaxis. Proteins HSPA8, MAP4K4 and MRC1 may be involved in vitamin D3-mediated immunoregulation in the head kidney. qPCR results showed that increasing the content of dietary vitamin D3 can improve the immune function of the yellow catfish by down-regulating ifn-ß and pro-inflammatory factors tnf-α, il1-ß, il-6, il-8 and up-regulating the anti-inflammatory factor il-10. The above results indicated that dietary addition of vitamin D3 regulated the immune response in head kidney of yellow catfish and helped the fish to resist the negative effects of infection by E. ictaluri in a dose-dependent manner.

13.
Food Funct ; 11(1): 328-338, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799535

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle regeneration is a complicated process, requiring the proliferation, migration and differentiation of myoblasts whose processes are highly regulated by the extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding the muscle tissues in vivo. However, the effects of respective ECM components on the regulation of myoblast behaviors are unknown. In this study, we report on the effect of collagen I, a major ECM component in muscle tissue and a popular food supplement, on mouse C2C12 myoblast proliferation, migration and differentiation as well as the underlying mechanisms. Collagen I (col 1) enhances the migration and myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells, but has no effect on cell proliferation. Col I significantly promotes the production and release of interleukin-6 via nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65. The release of IL-6 plays a critical role in the col I-enhanced migration and differentiation of C2C12 cells. Furthermore, col I increases phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) that is involved in the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. Collectively, col I enhances the migration and differentiation of C2C12 cells through IL-6 release induced by FAK/NF-κB p65 activation.

14.
Mol Immunol ; 117: 122-130, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765841

RESUMO

The acute phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP) binds with high affinity to fibronectin (FN), but this binding occurs only at pH 6.5 or lower, and the binding is inhibited by calcium ions at physiological pH. Since CRP in the circulating blood exists in a calcium-binding form, the interaction between CRP and FN in vivo has been uncertain. CRP can undergo a conformational rearrangement in the absence of calcium or in the local microenvironment (e.g., acidic pH) of inflamed tissue to dissociate into monomeric CRP (mCRP). Therefore, we tested whether these discrepancies can be explained by the different isoforms and locations of CRP. Surface plasmon resonance and ELISA assays showed that mCRP binds with high affinity to FN, and the binding of mCRP to FN was unaffected by calcium or pH. Peptide competition assay, deletion mutant binding assay and protein docking analyse verified that the binding site of mCRP to FN is residues a.a.35-47. Furthermore, mCRP can significantly enhance the adhesion of monocytes to FN as well as upregulate the adhesion molecules expression on endothelial cell. Colocalization of mCRP with FN was observed in mice with DSS-induced colitis, whereas there was very little signal orcolocalization of CRP. These results provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that mCRP formed by local dissociation from circulating CRP is the major isoform that interacts with FN and regulates FN-mediated monocyte adhesion, which is involved in the pro-inflammatory process.

15.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 97: 531-539, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794844

RESUMO

Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) has been an economically important freshwater species in China because of its good meat quality. In present, the high-density breeding industry has suffered great damage from bacterial infections, in especial, the rapid illness and death of fish caused by bacterial septicemia leads to huge economic losses. Therefore, it is urgent and important to identify pathogenic bacteria and study its pathogenicity. In this study, we isolated a bacterial strain from the yellow catfish with typical septicemia and named it E. 719, then, by morphological observations, regression infection, biochemical identification, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and triple PCR identification, E. 719 was determined to be Edwardsiella ictaluri. Further, we infected yellow catfish with E. ictaluri to study its effects on mortality rate, hematological, histopathological disturbances and expression of immune genes. The mortality results showed that E. ictaluri was highly pathogenic, all infected fish died after 14 days post injection, and the distribution of bacteria in body kidney, spleen, liver, head kidney and brain of fish was continuously detected by measuring the amount of bacteria in the tissues. In addition, the number of red blood cells decreased significantly with the time of infection, while the number of white blood cells and thrombocytes increased. In particular, the number of monocytes and neutrophils increased significantly in the differential leucocyte count (DLC). Histopathologic changes observed by HE staining showed similar results, gill, intestine, spleen and head kidney showed obvious inflammation, bleeding and necrosis. Besides, checking by real time quantitative RT-PCR assays, in both spleen and head kidney tissues which were the major immune organs, mRNA expressions of immune gene IL-1ß, TNF-α, and MR significantly increased in the early and middle stages of infection, which suggested that the infection of E. ictaluri caused a strong immune response in yellow catfish. This study provides a preliminary basis for the diagnosis and treatment of pathophysiology septicemia in yellow catfish induced by E. ictaluri.

16.
Ann Bot ; 125(2): 291-300, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Ecosystem-based flood defence including salt-marsh as a key component is increasingly applied worldwide due to its multifunctionality and cost-effectiveness. While numerous experiments have explored the wave-attenuation effects of salt-marsh plants critical to flood protection, little is known about the physiological and biochemical responses of these species to continuous wave exposure. METHODS: To address this knowledge gap, we developed a shallow-water wave simulator to expose individual Spartina alterniflora plants to waves in a greenhouse for 8 weeks. S. alterniflora individuals were partially submerged and experienced horizontal sinusoidal motion to mimic plant exposure to shallow water waves. A factorial experiment was used to test the effects of three wave heights (4.1 cm, 5.5 cm and a no-wave control) and two wave periods (2 s and 3 s) on the following key physiological and biochemical plant parameters: plant growth, antioxidant defence and photosynthetic capacity. KEY RESULTS: Comparison of wave treatment and control groups supported our hypotheses that wave exposure leads to oxidative stress in plants and suppresses plant photosynthetic capacity and thereby growth. In response, the wave-exposed plants exhibited activated antioxidant enzymes. Comparison between the different wave treatment groups suggested the wave effects to be generally correlated positively with wave height and negatively with wave period, i.e. waves with greater height and frequency imposed more stress on plants. In addition, wave-exposed plants tended to allocate more biomass to their roots. Such allocation is favourable because it enhances root anchorage against the wave impact. CONCLUSIONS: Simulated wave exposure systems such as the one used here are an effective tool for studying the response of salt-marsh plants to long-term wave exposure, and so help inform ecosystem-based flood defence projects in terms of plant selection, suitable transplantation locations and timing, etc. Given the projected variability of the global wave environment due to climate change, understanding plant response to long-term wave exposure has important implications for salt-marsh conservation and its central role in natural flood defence.

17.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(2): 1821-1837, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432516

RESUMO

Extracellular matrix (ECM) has a marked influence on adipose tissue development. Adipose tissue formation is initiated with proliferation of preadipocytes and migration before undergoing further differentiation into mature adipocytes. Previous studies showed that collagen I (col I) provides a good substratum for 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to grow and migrate. However, it remains unclear whether and how col I regulates adipogenic differentiation of preadipocytes. This study reports that lipid accumulation, representing in vitro adipogenesis of the 3T3-L1 preadipocytes or the mouse primary adipocyte precursor cells derived from subcutaneous adipose tissue in the inguinal region is inhibited by the culture on col I, owing to downregulation of adipogenic factors. Previous study shows that col I enhances 3T3-L1 cell migration via stimulating the nuclear translocation of yes-associated protein (YAP). In this study, we report that downregulation of YAP is associated with in vitro adipogenesis of preadipocytes as well as with in vivo adipose tissue of high-fat diet fed mice. Increased expression of YAP in the cells cultured on col I-coated dishes is correlated with repression of adipogenic differentiation processes. The inactivation of YAP using YAP inhibitor, verteporfin, or YAP small-interfering RNA enhanced adipogenic differentiation and reversed the inhibitory effect of col I. Activation of YAP either by the transfection of YAP plasmid or the silence of large tumor suppressor 1 (LATS1), an inhibitory kinase of YAP, inhibited adipogenic differentiation. The results indicate that col I inhibits adipogenic differentiation via YAP activation in vitro.

18.
Sci Total Environ ; 702: 135054, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734612

RESUMO

Wind energy has been considered as one of the greenest renewable energy sources over the last two decades. However, attention is turning to reducing the possible environmental impacts from this sector. We argue that wind energy would not be effectively "green" if anthropogenic materials are not given attention in a responsible manner. Using the concept of the circular economy, this paper considers how anthropogenic materials in the form of carbon fibers can reenter the circular economy system at the highest possible quality. This paper first investigates the viability of a carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer extraction process using thermal pyrolysis to recalibrate the maximum carbon fiber value by examining the effect of (a) heating rate, (b) temperature, and (c) inert gas flow rate on char yield. With cleaner and higher quality recovered carbon fibers, this paper discusses the economic preconditions for the takeoff and growth of the industry and recommends the reuse of extracted carbon fibers to close the circular economy loop.

19.
Eye (Lond) ; 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784704

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy and safety of subthreshold micropulse laser (SML) with threshold conventional laser (TCL) in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). METHODS: Prospective, randomized, double-masked, non-inferiority, 12-week clinical trial. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to SML group or TCL group. Patients in the SML group were treated with 577 nm micropulse laser. The spot size was 160 µm, the duty cycle was 5% and exposure time was 0.2 s. The power was 50% threshold tested. Patients in the TCL group were treated with 577 nm continuous laser. The power was 100% threshold tested. The primary outcome was the mean change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at week 12, with a non-inferiority limit of five letters on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) visual acuity charts. RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients were enroled. Seventy-seven patients were male. Forty-four patients were in SML group and 44 in TCL group. At week 12, SML was equivalent to TCL with a gain of 6.23 ± 8.59 and 6.61 ± 6.35 letters, respectively, (SML-TCL difference: -0.38 letters; 95% confidence interval (CI):-3.58-2.81; Pnon-inferiority = 0.0026). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (t = 0.240, P = 0.811). At week 12, the proportion of patients whose SRF had been totally absorbed was 63.63 and 81.82% respectively for SML and TCL groups. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (χ2 = 3.67, P = 0.056). CONCLUSIONS: Both SML and TCL can improve visual acuity in CSC. SML was non-inferior to TCL in the improvement of BCVA.

20.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1387-1390, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1040142

RESUMO

SUMMARY: This study aimed to investigate the micro-anatomical morphology of ossicular chain in term fetus using micro-CT, in order to analyze the parameters of internal ossicular structure that may affect sound conduction.Four ossicular chains from two term fetuses were scanned by micro-CT. The related structural parameters of the trabeculae within the incus and malleus were calculated and compared. The fine anatomical structure of the auditory ossicles was analyzed.The microstructure of each auditory ossicles in term fetuses was clearly revealed by micro-CT. A marrow cavity was observed in the incus and malleus. In statistical analysis of the structural parameters of trabeculae in the incus and malleus, significant differences were found in BS/BV and Tb.Th (P < 0.05). Micro-CT enables the visualization of internal ossicular structure. The auditory ossicles in term fetus has good bone quality. The obtained bone structure data will help to clarify the physiological functions of normal fetal auditory ossicles.


RESUMEN: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar la morfología microanatómica de la cadena osicular en el feto a término con micro-CT, con el fin de analizar los parámetros de la estructura osicular interna que pueden afectar la conducción del sonido. Cuatro cadenas osiculares de dos fetos a término fueron examinadas por micro-CT. Se calcularon y compararon los parámetros estructurales relacionados de las trabéculas dentro de los incus y malleus. Se analizó la estructura anatómica fina de los osículos. Se observó claramente la microestructura de cada osículo en los fetos y la cavidad medular en el incus y el malleus. En el análisis estadístico de los parámetros estructurales de las trabéculas en el incus y el malleus, se encontraron diferencias significativas en BS / BV y Tb.Th (P <0,05). Micro-CT permite la visualización de la estructura osicular interna. Los osículos en el feto a término tienen buena calidad ósea. Los datos obtenidos de la estructura ósea ayudarán para aclarar las funciones fisiológicas de los osículos auditivos fetales normales.

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