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1.
Clin Nutr ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although fruits and vegetable consumption has been shown to be associated with lower risks of mortality, cancers, and cardiovascular disease (CVD), there are limited data from China on the shape of the association. This study aimed to quantify the relationship between levels of fruit, vegetable, and legume consumption with the risk of major CVD, CVD mortality, cancer incidence, cancer mortality, and all-cause mortality. METHODS: In the baseline survey, participants attended 1 of 115 (45 urban and 70 rural) communities from 12 provinces to complete a standardized questionnaire, and undergo a physical examination between 2005 and 2009, and were followed up till 2017 (for the current analysis). Diet was assessed through in-person interviews by using validated food-frequency questionnaires. The clinical outcomes were adjudicated centrally by trained physicians using standardized definitions. Cox frailty models were used to explore the associations between fruit, vegetable, and legume consumption with the risk of all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality. RESULTS: A total of 41 243 participants were eligible for inclusion in the analyses. The average combined average daily intake of fruit, vegetable, and legume was 2.97 [standard deviation (SD) 1.22] servings per day. During a median follow-up of 8.9 years [interquartile range (IQR) 6.7-9.9 years], we recorded 1893 major CVDs, 794 cancer events, and 1324 deaths, with 411 CVD deaths and 429 cancer deaths. In the models adjusted for age, sex, and center (random effect), a higher total intake of fruit, vegetable, and legume was inversely associated with CVD mortality, cancer incidence, cancer mortality, and all-cause mortality. After adjusting for additional covariates, the associations were evidently attenuated and only the association with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] trend 0.92, 95% CI 0.86-0.98, p trend = 0.021) remained significant, with a non-significant trend for major CVD (HR trend 1.02, 95% CI 0.97-1.08, p trend = 0.449), CVD mortality (HR trend 0.94, 95% CI 0.84-1.06, p trend = 0.301), cancer incidence (HR trend 0.97, 95% CI 0.89-1.06, p trend = 0.540), or cancer mortality (HR trend 0.92, 95% CI 0.82-1.04, p trend = 0.174). Compared with the reference group, the risk of all-cause mortality was the lowest for four to five servings of total daily intake of fruit, vegetable, and legume (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.55-0.97), and did not show a further decrease for the higher intake group. Separately, fruit intake was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR trend 0.92, 95% CI 0.86-0.99, p trend = 0.020) and legume intake was associated with a lower risk of major CVD (HR trend 0.95, 95% CI 0.90-0.99, p trend = 0.028) and all-cause mortality (HR trend 0.94, 95% CI 0.89-0.99, p trend = 0.020) in the fully adjusted models. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective study suggests that Chinese people with daily consumption of four to five servings (equivalent to 500-625 g/day) of fruit, vegetable, and legume demonstrated the lowest mortality, which conveys an encouraging message to the public that lifestyle modification to increase fruit, vegetable, and legume intakes may have greater beneficial effects on reducing all-cause mortality.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most data regarding the association between the glycemic index and cardiovascular disease come from high-income Western populations, with little information from non-Western countries with low or middle incomes. To fill this gap, data are needed from a large, geographically diverse population. METHODS: This analysis includes 137,851 participants between the ages of 35 and 70 years living on five continents, with a median follow-up of 9.5 years. We used country-specific food-frequency questionnaires to determine dietary intake and estimated the glycemic index and glycemic load on the basis of the consumption of seven categories of carbohydrate foods. We calculated hazard ratios using multivariable Cox frailty models. The primary outcome was a composite of a major cardiovascular event (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure) or death from any cause. RESULTS: In the study population, 8780 deaths and 8252 major cardiovascular events occurred during the follow-up period. After performing extensive adjustments comparing the lowest and highest glycemic-index quintiles, we found that a diet with a high glycemic index was associated with an increased risk of a major cardiovascular event or death, both among participants with preexisting cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25 to 1.82) and among those without such disease (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.34). Among the components of the primary outcome, a high glycemic index was also associated with an increased risk of death from cardiovascular causes. The results with respect to glycemic load were similar to the findings regarding the glycemic index among the participants with cardiovascular disease at baseline, but the association was not significant among those without preexisting cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, a diet with a high glycemic index was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. (Funded by the Population Health Research Institute and others.).

3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(7): 2337-2347, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555853

RESUMO

Post-translational modifications of histones play an important chromatic role of a transcript activity in eukaryotes. Even though mRNA and long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) genes share similar biogenetic processes, these transcript classes may differ in many ways. However, knowledge about the crosstalk between histone methylations and the two types of sorghum genes is still ambiguous. In the present study, we reveal the genome-wide distribution of six histone modifications, namely, di- and trimethylation of H3K4 (H3K4me2 and H3K4me3), H3K27 (H3K27me2 and H3K27me3), and H3K36 (H3K36me2 and H3K36me3) in sorghum and analyze their functional relationships. Unlike other histone methylation, the codecoration of H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 is negatively associated with the production of lincRNAs in the context of active expression of mRNA genes. Our data demonstrated that H3K4me3 may act as a complementary component to H3K36me3 in the transcriptional regulatory process. Moreover, we observe that both H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 are involved in the negative-going regulation of plant lincRNA and mRNA genes. Our data provide a genome-wide landscape of histone methylation in sorghum, decrypt its reciprocity, and shed light on its transcriptional regulation roles in mRNA and lncRNA genes.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 772: 145313, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578143

RESUMO

In many anthropogenic activities, catechol as a widespread organic chemical could be released and also environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) can be unintentionally formed. However, the underlying links between EPFRs and the role of catechol as an important precursor are not well understood. In this study, EPFR formation from catechol during heating was monitored online by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. It was found that catechol can produce significant amounts of EPFRs via thermochemical reactions. The EPFR species formed from catechol on metal oxides were oxygen-centered phenoxy and semiquinone radicals. Their half-lives were evaluated to be in the range of 113-909 h. The promotional effects of CaO and CuO on EPFR formation from catechol were stronger than that of Fe2O3. The promotional abilities and underlying mechanisms of various metal oxides in EPFR formation were clarified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Significant EPFR formation was observed during the cooling stage of a heating reaction system when CaO was used as the reaction medium. The obtained knowledge on the formation of EPFRs from catechol and the key factors involved will enable better control of the formation of EPFRs from anthropogenic activities.

5.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(1): 79-85, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517966

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To detect the concentrations of ten metals and metalloid elements in the atmospheric PM_(2. 5) in Chengguan district and Xigu district of Lanzhou City from 2015 to 2018, and analyze the pollutant concentration and its change trend. METHODS: From 2015 to 2018, 662 samples of PM_(2. 5) were collected from Chengguan district and Xigu district of Lanzhou City. The concentrations of 10 kinds of metals and metalloid elements such as lead(Pb), arsenic(As), mercury(Hg), cadmium(Cd), chromium(Cr), antimony(Sb), manganese(Mn), nickel(Ni), selenium(Se), beryllium(Be) were detected, and the change trends of different monitoring points, years, seasons and months were analyzed. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in lead content between Chengguan District and Xigu District(χ~2=4. 80, P<0. 05), the median of Pb content in Chengguan and Xigu District was 45. 30 and 37. 20 ng/m~3, which was higher than that in Xigu District; the difference of Mn content in the two districts was statistically significant(χ~2=21. 28, P<0. 05), the median in two District was 32. 04 and 23. 37 ng/m~3, which was higher than that in Xigu District; the median of Be content in the two districts was statistically significant(χ~2=11. 57, P<0. 05), and the median of Be content in two districts was 0. 05 and 0. 07 ng/m~3, Xigu Distric was higher than Chengguan, there was no significant difference in other seven elements(P>0. 05). From 2015 to 2018, the element content of PM_(2. 5) in Chengguan District decreased by 47. 66% compared with 2015; Xigu District in 2018 decreased by 43. 79% compared with 2015; the higher element Pb, Mn and As in Chengguan District decreased by 52. 93%, 47. 00% and 49. 37% compared with 2015; in Xigu District, the content in 2018 decreased by 46. 87%, 47. 49% and 41. 98%compared with 2015, the contents of the remaining seven elements decreased in 2018 compared with those in 2015. There was no statistical significance(P>0. 05) in different seasons except for the difference of Ni content(P<0. 05), and the content of other elements showed a significant seasonal change: winter>spring>autumn> summer. The trend of monthly concentration change in the two regions was basically the same, the concentrations of Sb, As, Pb, Mn, Cd, Ni, Se, Hg and Cr were higher in November and February of next year. In Chengguan District and Xigu District, Ni content was higher in July and August, respectively;and Hg in Xigu District was higher in June, and Be was higher in less months, especially in February, October and December. CONCLUSION: From 2015 to 2018, the levels of 10 metals and metalloids element pollutants in PM_(2. 5) samples from Chengguan District and Xigu District of Lanzhou City showed a decreasing trend year by year, and had obvious seasonal changes.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Metaloides , Metais Pesados , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais/análise , Metais Pesados/análise
6.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(1): e1009065, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508039

RESUMO

Bartonella T4SS effector BepC was reported to mediate internalization of big Bartonella aggregates into host cells by modulating F-actin polymerization. After that, BepC was indicated to induce host cell fragmentation, an interesting cell phenotype that is characterized by failure of rear-end retraction during cell migration, and subsequent dragging and fragmentation of cells. Here, we found that expression of BepC resulted in significant stress fiber formation and contractile cell morphology, which depended on combination of the N-terminus FIC (filamentation induced by c-AMP) domain and C-terminus BID (Bartonella intracellular delivery) domain of BepC. The FIC domain played a key role in BepC-induced stress fiber formation and cell fragmentation because deletion of FIC signature motif or mutation of two conserved amino acid residues abolished BepC-induced cell fragmentation. Immunoprecipitation confirmed the interaction of BepC with GEF-H1 (a microtubule-associated RhoA guanosine exchange factor), and siRNA-mediated depletion of GEF-H1 prevented BepC-induced stress fiber formation. Interaction with BepC caused the dissociation of GEF-H1 from microtubules and activation of RhoA to induce formation of stress fibers. The ROCK (Rho-associated protein kinase) inhibitor Y27632 completely blocked BepC effects on stress fiber formation and cell contractility. Moreover, stress fiber formation by BepC increased the stability of focal adhesions, which consequently impeded rear-edge detachment. Overall, our study revealed that BepC-induced stress fiber formation was achieved through the GEF-H1/RhoA/ROCK pathway.

7.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(1): 1, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179093

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the ginsenoside Rg1 on D­galactose (D­gal)­induced mouse models of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) and the related mechanisms. C57BL/6 female mice were randomly grouped into the following: i) D­gal [subcutaneously (s.c.) 200 mg/kg/d D­gal for 42 days]; ii) Rg1 [intraperitoneally (i.p.) 20 mg/kg/d Rg1 for 28 days]; iii) D­gal + Rg1 (s.c. 200 mg/kg/d D­gal for 42 days followed by i.p. 20 mg/kg/d Rg1 for 28 days); and iv) saline groups (equivalent volume of saline s.c. and i.p.). Hematoxylin and eosin staining and electron microscopy were used to analyze uterine and ovarian morphology. Expression levels of senescence factors (p21, p53 and serine/threonine kinase), secretion of pro­inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)­6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)­α and IL­1ß] and the activities of oxidation biomarkers [superoxide dismutase (T­SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH­px)] were analyzed. The results showed that mice in the Rg1 + D­gal group had significantly higher uterine and ovarian weight compared with those in the D­gal group. Uterus morphology was also improved, based on the comparison between the D­gal group and the Rg1 + D­gal group. In addition, the Rg1 treatment after D­gal administration significantly decreased the expression of senescence­associated factors, enhanced the activities of anti­oxidant enzymes total T­SOD and GSH­px in addition to reducing TNF­α, IL­1ß, MDA and IL­6 (based on the comparison between the D­gal group and the Rg1 + D­gal group). In conclusion, the present study suggested that the ginsenoside Rg1 improved pathological damages in the ovary and uterus by increasing anti­oxidant and anti­inflammatory abilities whilst reducing the expression of senescence signaling pathways in POI mouse models.

8.
J Hazard Mater ; 407: 124489, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359973

RESUMO

The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is a widespread contaminant in human and animal food products. Previous studies in rats revealed that melatonin (Mel) exhibits a preventive effect against OTA-induced oxidative stress in liver. However, it remains unknown whether gut microbiota respond to Mel and, if so, whether it can prevent OTA-induced inflammation and mitophagy in the liver. In the present study, mice received an oral gavage of Mel and OTA for 3 weeks before harvesting colonic digesta and liver tissue for analyses. In another study, the role of intestinal microbiota on the effects of Mel on OTA-induced liver inflammation and mitophagy was assessed through clearance of intestinal microbiota with antibiotics followed by gut microbiota transplantation (GMT). Oral Mel supplementation ameliorated mitophagy in the liver and reversed gut microbiota dysbiosis. Intriguingly, in antibiotic-treated mice, Mel and OTA failed to induce mitophagy in the liver. Using the GMT approach in which mice were colonised with intestinal microbiota from control-, OTA-, or Mel + OTA-treated mice led us to elucidated the involvement of intestinal microbiota in liver inflammation and mitophagy induced by OTA. The findings suggested that intestinal microbiota play some role in the Mel-induced amelioration of liver inflammation and mitophagy induced by OTA.

9.
J Diabetes Complications ; : 107806, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33280982

RESUMO

AIMS: Subclinical lipohypertrophy is a lesion meeting ultrasonic criteria for lipohypertrophy that was not detected by inspection and palpation. Little information is published on subclinical lipohypertrophy among insulin injection people with diabetes. We aimed to investigate the subclinical lipohypertrophy prevalence, risk factors, and the association between subclinical lipohypertrophy and glycemic control. METHODS: This observational study included 316 people with diabetes who had continuously received insulin therapy for at least one year. We performed ultrasound scanning and clinical examination for evidence of subclinical lipohypertrophy. Demographic characteristics, clinical information, and glycated hemoglobin were measured. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of subclinical lipohypertrophy was 19.9%. By stepwise logistic regression, higher BMI (OR = 1.44, 95%CI: 1.15-1.81, P = 0.002), incorrect rotation of sites (OR = 3.11, 95%CI: 1.02-9.47, P = 0.046), insulin needle reusage for more than four times (OR = 10.00, 95%CI: 3.23-31.02, P = 0.000) and type 1 diabetes (OR = 6.33, 95%CI: 1.32-30.47, P = 0.021) remained associated with subclinical lipohypertrophy. Subclinical lipohypertrophy demonstrated a significant independent correlation with the nonoptimal glycemic control (OR = 9.97, 95% CI: 3.46-28.75, P = 0.000) when accounting for demographic and diabetes-related parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Subclinical lipohypertrophy is common among insulin-injecting patients with diabetes and is related to glycemic control deterioration. Ultrasonography may be an ideal adjunct in the evaluation of easily ignored lipohypertrophy lesions, especially where poor glycemic control, incorrect injection behaviors, overweight or obesity are documented.

10.
J Healthc Eng ; 2020: 8824194, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299536

RESUMO

The feature extraction of surface electromyography (sEMG) signals has been an important aspect of myoelectric prosthesis control. To improve the practicability of myoelectric prosthetic hands, we proposed a feature extraction method for sEMG signals that uses wavelet weighted permutation entropy (WWPE). First, wavelet transform was used to decompose and preprocess sEMG signals collected from the relevant muscles of the upper limbs to obtain the wavelet sub-bands in each frequency segment. Then, the weighted permutation entropies (WPEs) of the wavelet sub-bands were extracted to construct WWPE feature set. Lastly, the WWPE feature set was used as input to a support vector machine (SVM) classifier and a backpropagation neural network (BPNN) classifier to recognize seven hand movements. Experimental results show that the proposed method exhibits remarkable recognition accuracy that is superior to those of single sub-band feature set and commonly used time-domain feature set. The maximum recognition accuracy rate is 100% for hand movements, and the average recognition accuracy rates of SVM and BPNN are 100% and 98%, respectively.

11.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33305508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alterations in gray matter (GM) have been recognized as playing an important role in the neurobiological mechanism underlying major depressive disorder (MDD) and antidepressant responses. However, little is known about white matter (WM) connectivity in MDD, leaving an incomplete understanding of the pathophysiology of the disorder. PURPOSE: To examine the functional connectivity (FC) of WM, GM, and WM-GM in MDD patients and explore the relationship between FC and antidepressant response. STUDY TYPE: Longitudinal study. SUBJECTS: In all, 129 MDD patients and 89 healthy controls (HC). FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: Whole-brain blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) single-shot echo planar imaging was acquired at 3.0T. ASSESSMENT: At baseline, all participants received Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD) assessment and an fMRI scan. After 2- and 8-week antidepressant treatment, patients completed the HAMD again. The HAMD reductive rate of 2- and 8-weeks were calculated. STATISTICAL TESTS: The comparisons of age, education, HAMD scores, and FC values (false discovery rate correction) between patients and controls were calculated with a two-sample t-test. The chi-square test was employed to compare the differences of gender between these two groups. Correlations between FC and HAMD, as well as the reductive rate of HAMD, were analyzed with Pearson or Spearman correlation. Receiver operator curve analysis was performed to predict the antidepressant response. RESULTS: Compared to HC, MDD patients exhibited widespread decreases in FC of WM-GM. Furthermore, 28 GM regions and 11 WM bundles had lower connectivity in MDD patients. At baseline, four FC of WM-GM showed negative correlations with the HAMD scores. Six FC of WM-GM correlated with the 2-week reductive rate of HAMD. Moreover, FC in GM, WM, and WM-GM also exhibited significantly positive correlations with an 8-week reductive rate of HAMD. DATA CONCLUSION: The FC of WM-GM was decreased in MDD and may play a role in its pathophysiology and antidepressant responses. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2. TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 2.

12.
Am J Transl Res ; 12(10): 6250-6263, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33194027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a severe complication during the treatment of patients with stroke. It has been shown that the expression of SNHG15 was increased in patients with ischemic stroke (IS). However, the function and regulatory mechanism of SNHG15 in IS remains unclear. METHODS: An oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) cell model was use to establish an in vitro model of I/R injury. RT-qPCR assay was used to detect the level of SNHG15 in OGD/R-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Meanwhile, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was used to establish an in vivo model of cerebral I/R injury. RESULTS: The expression of SNHG15 was upregulated in OGD/R-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Downregulation of SNHG15 during reperfusion reduced cell death in OGD/R-treated SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, SNHG15 knockdown suppressed OGD/R-induced apoptosis in SY-SY5Y cells by attenuating intracellular ROS generation and reducing mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) lost. In addition, SNHG15 knockdown promoted cell cycle transition in SY-SY5Y cells after OGD/R insult accompany with PI3K/Akt signaling activation. Meanwhile, mechanism investigations suggested SNHG15 knockdown downregulated the expression of FOXO1 through acting as a competitive 'sponge' of miR-183-5p. Most importantly, knockdown of SNHG15 expression in vivo inhibited neuronal apoptosis and decreased infarct area in MCAO rats. CONCLUSION: Thus, the present study indicated that SNHG15 knockdown protected against cerebral I/R injury via targeting miR-183-5p/FOXO1 axis, which may represent a potential therapeutic option for the treatment of cerebral IS.

13.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720975517, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213264

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly-identified infectious diseases that has rapidly spread throughout the world with rising fatalities with declaration by World Health Organization as the pandemic. Online consultations have been shown to alleviate the pandemic with our study aims to demonstrate whether online consultation can be a solution for acute health crisis. Retrospective analysis of the characteristics of online consultations through two primary care online-consultation platforms during COVID-19 pandemic was performed at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, which led the assessment of COVID-19-symptoms patients in Guangzhou. The 3473 online consultations were divided into pre-pandemic and pandemic period groups with Chi-square test as statistical analysis method. The number of online consultations has increased with diagnosis of upper respiratory tract infection, psychological conditions, COVID-19-related investigations and interventions. The increased online consultations met the increased demand of the relevant clinical services and reduced the overwhelming hospital presentations, thus decreasing the potential COVID-19 spread inside the major tertiary hospital and sparing the resources for acute crisis management. The epidemiology and disease characteristics of online consultations during the pandemic have been demonstrated with identification of the enabling factors and potential barriers in improving online healthcare in China with online consultation model being a durable solution for pandemic in future.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Consulta Remota/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(47): 52967-52975, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175517

RESUMO

Deep-blue emitters are greatly desirable for preparing white light-emitting diodes and enhancing the color gamut of full-color display. The deep-blue lead halide perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) exhibit far inferior performance compared to green and red counterparts and suffer from lead toxicity, hampering their applications. Nontoxic, stable, and wide band gap zero-dimensional (0D) Cs3Cu2I5 with relatively high exciton binding energy has great potential as deep-blue emitters. However, the development of PeLEDs remains a huge challenge due to the difficulties in preparing a high-quality Cs3Cu2I5 film and device design, arising from an inherent wide band gap together with deep ionization potential. Here, a continuous and pin-hole-free Cs3Cu2I5 thin film with deep-blue emission centered at 440 nm was prepared by the dual-source thermal evaporation approach, and a high photoluminescence quantum yield of 58% was achieved, corresponding to significant enhancement of 61% compared with that of the Cs3Cu2I5 thin film synthesized by solution processes. Furthermore, saturated deep-blue PeLEDs at the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates (0.15, 0.08) were obtained by employing an electron-transfer layer composed of a 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexa-azatriphenylene hexacarboni-trile (HAT-CN) and N,N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)benzidine (NPB) organic heterojunction to realize the effective hole blocking, rendering an external quantum efficiency of approximately 0.1%. These results will be extensively beneficial to wide band gap material and device preparation.

15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 113571, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181282

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sparganii Rhizoma (SR), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is the rhizome of Sparganium stoloniferum Buch.-Ham. mainly distributed in East Asia. It has been used for eliminating blood stasis, promoting the flow of Qi, removing the retention of undigested food and relieving pain in China for hundreds of years. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review summarizes comprehensive information in traditional clinical application, processing, phytochemistry, pharmacology, quality control and toxicity of SR, in exploring future scientific and therapeutic potentials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pertinent information was systematically collected from several electronic scientific databases (e.g., Web of Science, PubMed, China Knowledge Resource Integrated, Springer, Elsevier, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar), PhD and MS dissertations, and classic Chinese medical books. RESULTS: SR is a gynecological drug which is often used to treat dysmenorrhea, mass in the abdomen, amenorrhea due to blood stasis, and abdominal distension in TCM. Two kinds of processed products of SR are included in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, which have better pharmacological effects than the crude herb. Approximately 180 compounds have been identified from SR, including phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, anthraquinones, organic acids, alkaloids, steroids, volatile oils, diarylheptanes, etc. The crude extracts and isolated components of SR have been reported to have anti-tumor, antithrombotic, estrogen antagonistic , anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, anti organ fibrosis and other pharmacological activities. SR also has reproductive toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: As an important TCM, SR has been demonstrated by modern pharmacological researches to have significant bioactivities, especially on anti-tumor, antithrombotic, and estrogen antagonistic activities. These activities provide prospects for the development of new drugs and therapeutics for future applications. Nevertheless, quality control and evaluation, in-depth pharmacological mechanism, and toxicological effect of SR require further detailed research.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142790

RESUMO

How one can reshape the current healthcare sector into a tiered healthcare system with clarified division of functions between primary care facilities and hospitals, and improve the utilization of primary care, is a worldwide problem, especially for the low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This paper aimed to evaluate the impact of the Beijing Reform on healthcare-seeking behavior and tried to explain the mechanism of the change of patient flow. In this before and after study, we evaluated the changes of outpatient visits and inpatient visits among different levels of health facilities. Using the monitored and statistical data of 373 healthcare institutions 1-year before and 1-year after the Beijing Reform, interrupted time series analysis was applied to evaluate the impact of the reform on healthcare-seeking behavior. Semi-structured interviews were used to further explore the mechanisms of the changes. One year after the reform, the flow of outpatients changed from tertiary hospitals to community health centers with an 11.90% decrease of outpatients in tertiary hospitals compared to a 15.01% increase in primary healthcare facilities. The number of ambulatory care visits in primary healthcare (PHC) showed a significant upward trend (P < 0.10), and the reform had a significant impact on the average number of ambulatory care visits per institution in Beijing's tertiary hospitals (p < 0.10). We concluded that the Beijing Reform has attracted a substantial number of ambulatory care visits from hospitals to primary healthcare facilities in the short-term. Comprehensive reform policies were necessary to align incentives among relative stakeholders, which was a critical lesson for other provinces in China and other LMICs.

17.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 563389, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33250864

RESUMO

In order to investigated diversity and geographic distribitution of rhizobia associated with invasive Mimosa species, Mimosa nodules and soils around the plants were sampled from five provinces in southern China. In total, 361 isolates were obtained from Mimosa pudica and Mimosa diplotricha in 25 locations. A multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) including 16S rRNA, atpD, dnaK, glnA, gyrB, and recA identified the isolates into eight genospecies corresponding to Paraburkhleria mimosarum, Paraburkholderia phymatum, Paraburkholeria carbensis, Cupriavidus taiwanensis, Cupriavidus sp., Rhizobium altiplani, Rhizobium mesoamericanum, and Rhizobium etli. The majority of the isolates were Cupriavidus (62.6%), followed by Paraburkholderia (33.5%) and Rhizobium (2.9%). Cupriavidus strains were more predominant in nodules of M. diplotricha (76.2) than in M. pudica (59.9%), and the distribution of P. phymatum in those two plant species was reverse (3.4:18.2%). Four symbiotypes were defined among the isolates based upon the phylogeny of nodA-nifH genes, represented by P. mimosarum, P. phymatum-P. caribensis, Cupriavidus spp., and Rhizobium spp. The species affiliation and the symbiotype division among the isolates demonstrated the multiple origins of Mimosa rhizobia in China: most were similar to those found in the original centers of Mimosa plants, but Cupriavidus sp. might have a local origin. The unbalanced distribution of symbionts between the two Mimosa species might be related to the soil pH, organic matter and available nitrogen; Cupriavidus spp. generally dominated most of the soils colonized by Mimosa in this study, but it had a particular preference for neutral-alkaline soils with low fertility whereas. While Paraburkholderia spp. preferred more acidic and fertile soils. The Rhizobium spp. tended to prefer neutral-acidic soils with high fertility soils.

18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(11): e0008920, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253189

RESUMO

Advances in technology have greatly stimulated the understanding of insect-specific viruses (ISVs). Unfortunately, most of these findings are based on sequencing technology, and laboratory data are scarce on the transmission dynamics of ISVs in nature and the potential effects of these viruses on arboviruses. Mesonivirus is a class of ISVs with a wide geographical distribution. Recently, our laboratory reported the isolation of a novel strain of mesonivirus, Yichang virus (YCV), from Culex mosquitoes, China. In this study, the experimental infection of YCV by the oral route for adult and larvae mosquitoes, and the vertical transmission has been conducted, which suggests that YCV could adopt a mixed-mode transmission. Controlled experiments showed that the infectivity of YCV depends on the mosquito species, virus dose, and infection route. The proliferation curve and tissue distribution of YCV in Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. albopictus showed that YCV is more susceptible to Ae. albopictus and is located in the midgut. Furthermore, we also assessed the interference of YCV with flaviviruses both in vitro and in vivo. YCV significantly inhibited the proliferation of DENV-2 and ZIKV, in cell culture, and reduced transmission rate of DENV-2 in Ae. albopictus. Our work provides insights into the transmission of ISVs in different mosquito species during ontogeny and their potential ability to interact with mosquito-borne viruses.

19.
Food Chem ; : 128309, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051099

RESUMO

Redox imbalance and fungal infection are major causes for quality deterioration and postharvest decay of fruit. Therefore, it is crucial to activate intrinsic antioxidative capacity and disease responses for fruit quality maintenance. Although plant-derived flavonoids have been reported for health-promoting benefits, their roles in the maintenance of fruit quality remains largely unexplored. Here, we exogenously applied luteolin, a flavonoid substance, and further examined its efficacy in maintaining fruit quality and inhibiting fungal diseases in sweet cherry. The results showed that 100 or 200 mg/L luteolin maintained better organoleptic quality and decreased disease incidence during storage. Biochemical assays revealed that luteolin activated the phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway and improved antioxidative capacity, thereby elevating total anthocyanin and flavonoid contents. Notably, luteolin inhibited mycelial growth of fungal pathogens and reduced patulin yield by Penicillium expansum. Collectively, these results suggest that luteolin is a promising alternative for maintaining better fruit quality and ameliorating disease resistance.

20.
Lancet Planet Health ; 4(10): e451-e462, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 2·8 billion people are exposed to household air pollution from cooking with polluting fuels. Few monitoring studies have systematically measured health-damaging air pollutant (ie, fine particulate matter [PM2·5] and black carbon) concentrations from a wide range of cooking fuels across diverse populations. This multinational study aimed to assess the magnitude of kitchen concentrations and personal exposures to PM2·5 and black carbon in rural communities with a wide range of cooking environments. METHODS: As part of the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) cohort, the PURE-AIR study was done in 120 rural communities in eight countries (Bangladesh, Chile, China, Colombia, India, Pakistan, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe). Data were collected from 2541 households and from 998 individuals (442 men and 556 women). Gravimetric (or filter-based) 48 h kitchen and personal PM2·5 measurements were collected. Light absorbance (10-5m-1) of the PM2·5 filters, a proxy for black carbon concentrations, was calculated via an image-based reflectance method. Surveys of household characteristics and cooking patterns were collected before and after the 48 h monitoring period. FINDINGS: Monitoring of household air pollution for the PURE-AIR study was done from June, 2017, to September, 2019. A mean PM2·5 kitchen concentration gradient emerged across primary cooking fuels: gas (45 µg/m3 [95% CI 43-48]), electricity (53 µg/m3 [47-60]), coal (68 µg/m3 [61-77]), charcoal (92 µg/m3 [58-146]), agricultural or crop waste (106 µg/m3 [91-125]), wood (109 µg/m3 [102-118]), animal dung (224 µg/m3 [197-254]), and shrubs or grass (276 µg/m3 [223-342]). Among households cooking primarily with wood, average PM2·5 concentrations varied ten-fold (range: 40-380 µg/m3). Fuel stacking was prevalent (981 [39%] of 2541 households); using wood as a primary cooking fuel with clean secondary cooking fuels (eg, gas) was associated with 50% lower PM2·5 and black carbon concentrations than using only wood as a primary cooking fuel. Similar average PM2·5 personal exposures between women (67 µg/m3 [95% CI 62-72]) and men (62 [58-67]) were observed. Nearly equivalent average personal exposure to kitchen exposure ratios were observed for PM2·5 (0·79 [95% 0·71-0·88] for men and 0·82 [0·74-0·91] for women) and black carbon (0·64 [0·45-0·92] for men and 0·68 [0·46-1·02] for women). INTERPRETATION: Using clean primary fuels substantially lowers kitchen PM2·5 concentrations. Importantly, average kitchen and personal PM2·5 measurements for all primary fuel types exceeded WHO's Interim Target-1 (35 µg/m3 annual average), highlighting the need for comprehensive pollution mitigation strategies. FUNDING: Canadian Institutes for Health Research, National Institutes of Health.

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