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1.
Behav Brain Res ; : 112207, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476331

RESUMO

Although the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC) and serotonin1A (5-HT1A) receptor are involved in cognition, their roles in cognitive impairments in Parkinson' disease (PD) are still unclear. In the present study, the effects of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT and antagonist WAY100635 administrated into the dHPC of rats were assessed in T-maze rewarded alternation test for working memory and in hole-board test for long-term habituation. Unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the medial forebrain bundle in rats impaired working memory and long-term habituation, decreased dopamine (DA) levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), dHPC and ventral hippocampus (vHPC), and decreased the mean density of 5-HT1A receptors and co-localization of 5-HT1A receptor and excitatory amino acid carrier 1-immunoreactive (EAAC1-ir) neurons in the dHPC compared to sham-operated rats. Activation of dHPC 5-HT1A receptors by local infusion of 8-OH-DPAT impaired working memory and long-term habituation in both sham-operated and the 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Furthermore, blockade of dHPC 5-HT1A receptors by WAY100635 improved the memories in the 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, but had no effects in sham-operated rats. Additionally, dHPC injection of 8-OH-DPAT decreased noradrenaline (NA) levels, increased 5-HT levels in the mPFC, dHPC and vHPC in sham-operated and lesioned rats, while WAY100635 increased DA and NA levels only in lesioned rats. The results of the present study suggest that dHPC 5-HT1A receptors regulate cognitive impairments in PD by changes of monoamines in the related brain regions.

2.
J Neurosci ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471472

RESUMO

HIV-1 infection of the nervous system causes various neurological diseases, and synaptic degeneration is likely a critical step in the neuropathogenesis. Our prior studies revealed a significant decrease of synaptic protein specifically in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) of HIV-1 patients who developed pain, suggesting a potential contribution of synaptic degeneration to the pathogenesis of HIV-associated pain. However, the mechanism by which HIV-1 causes the spinal synaptic degeneration is unclear. Here, we identified a critical role of microglia in the synaptic degeneration. In primary cortical cultures (DIV14) and spinal cords of 3-5-month-old mice (both genders), microglial ablation inhibited gp120-induced synapse decrease. Fractalkine (FKN), a microglia-activation chemokine specifically expressed in neurons, was up-regulated by gp120, and knockout of the FKN receptor CX3CR1, which is predominantly expressed in microglia, protected synapses from gp120-induced toxicity. These results indicate the neuron-to-microglia intercellular FKN/CX3CR1 signaling plays a role in gp120-induced synaptic degeneration. To elucidate the mechanism controlling this intercellular signaling, we tested the role of the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway in regulating FKN expression. Inhibition of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling blocked both gp120-induced FKN up-regulation and synaptic degeneration, and gp120 stimulated Wnt/ß-catenin-regulated FKN expression via NMDA receptors. Furthermore, NMDAR antagonist APV, Wnt/ß-catenin signaling suppressor DKK1 or knockout of CX3CR1 alleviated gp120-induced mechanical allodynia in mice, suggesting a critical contribution of the Wnt/ß-catenin/FKN/CX3R1 pathway to gp120-induced pain. These findings collectively suggest that HIV-1 gp120 induces synapse degeneration in the spinal pain neural circuit by activating microglia via Wnt3a/ß-catenin-regulated FKN expression in neurons.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTHIV patients with chronic pain develop synaptic degeneration in the spinal cord dorsal horn, but the patients without the pain disorder do not show this neuropathology, indicating a pathogenic contribution of the synaptic degeneration to the development of HIV-associated pain. However, the mechanism underlying the synaptic degeneration is unclear. We report here that HIV-1 gp120, a neurotoxic protein that is specifically associated with the manifestation of pain in HIV patients, induces synapse loss via microglia. Further studies elucidate that gp120 activates microglia by stimulating Wnt/ß-catenin-regulated fractalkine in neuron. The results demonstrate a critical role of microglia in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated synaptic degeneration in the spinal pain neural circuit.

3.
J Biophotonics ; : e201900200, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483942

RESUMO

The delineation of brain tumor margins has been a challenging objective in neurosurgery for decades. Despite of the development of various preoperative imaging techniques, the current methodology is still insufficient for clinical practice. We present an intraoperative optical intrinsic signal imaging (iOISI) system for brain tumor surgery and establish a data processing procedure model to localize tumors. From the experimental result of a glioblastoma patient, we observe a relative small oscillation of ΔHbD in tumor region and speculate that vessels in tumor region have poor ability to provide oxygen. We applied the same data processing procedure on the second time data and proclaimed a successful surgery. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Parasitol Res ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486945

RESUMO

Myxobolus pelecicola Voronin et Dudin, 2015 was recently described from the skeletal musculature of sichel Pelecus cultratus. However, another species, Myxobolus ladogensis Rumyantsev et Schulman, 1997, was described previously from the same host, displaying identical tissue localization and spore morphology as in M. pelecicola. Unfortunately, M. ladogensis was overlooked when M. pelecicola was described, resulting in the superfluous description of the latter species, which, according to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, is a junior synonym of M. ladogensis. The description of M. ladogensis is supplemented with SSU rDNA sequence analysis supporting the conspecificity with M. pelecicola. The closest relatives of Myxobolus ladogensis (syn. M. pelecicola) include several muscle-infecting Myxobolus spp. with sequence similarity below 97%.

5.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124707, 2019 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479912

RESUMO

Site soils with persistent cyanide compounds (primarily iron-cyanide complex) pose potential hazards to the environment and require remediation before redevelopment. This study evaluated the possibility of thermal treatment on remediation of cyanide-contaminated soils via batch heating experiments spanning a wide temperature range (200-500 °C). The change with operation variables of total cyanide and some reaction intermediates (e.g. CN-) was analyzed in order to elucidate the optimal variables that guarantee cyanide removal while generating no hazardous byproducts. Temperature, heating time and cyanide species have been found to be important parameters influencing removal/destruction of cyanide in soils. For soils bearing K3[Fe(CN)6] and K4[Fe(CN)6], a removal efficiency of >99.9% can be obtained with temperatures over 350 °C at 1 h, while for samples bearing Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3, a higher temperature (>450 °C) is needed to obtain an equivalent efficiency. During heating, the iron-cyanide complexes decomposed, releasing highly toxic free cyanides, which will subsequently be oxidized. However, a small percentage of free cyanide can always be detected as a result of incomplete oxidation, thus caution should be taken to minimize the accumulation of free cyanide during thermal treatment.

6.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483572

RESUMO

The aberrant expression and dysfunction of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified as critical factors governing the initiation and progression of different human cancers, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). LncRNA small nucleolar RNA host gene 16 (SNHG16) has been recognized as a tumour-promoting factor in various types of cancer. However, the biological role of SNHG16 and its underlying mechanism are still unknown in DLBCL. Here we disclosed that SNHG16 was overexpressed in DLBCL tissues and the derived cell lines. SNHG16 knockdown significantly suppressed cell proliferation and cell cycle progression, and it induced apoptosis of DLBCL cells in vitro. Furthermore, silencing of SNHG16 markedly repressed in vivo growth of OCI-LY7 cells. Mechanistically, SNHG16 directly interacted with miR-497-5p by acting as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) and inversely regulated the abundance of miR-497-5p in DLBCL cells. Moreover, the proto-oncogene proviral integration site for Moloney murine leukaemia virus 1 (PIM1) was identified as a novel direct target of miR-497-5p. SNHG16 overexpression rescued miR-497-5p-induced down-regulation of PIM1 in DLBCL cells. Importantly, restoration of PIM1 expression reversed SNHG16 knockdown-induced inhibition of proliferation, G0/G1 phase arrest and apoptosis of OCI-LY7 cells. Our study suggests that the SNHG16/miR-497-5p/PIM1 axis may provide promising therapeutic targets for DLBCL progression.

7.
J Xray Sci Technol ; 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381539

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To reduce the cost of positron emission tomography (PET) scanning systems, image reconstruction algorithms for low-sampled data have been extensively studied. However, the current method based on total variation (TV) minimization regularization nested in the maximum likelihood-expectation maximization (MLEM) algorithm cannot distinguish true structures from noise resulting losing some fine features in the images. Thus, this work aims to recover fine features lost in the MLEM-TV algorithm from low-sampled data. METHOD: A feature refinement (FR) approach previously developed for statistical interior computed tomography (CT) reconstruction is applied to PET imaging to recover fine features in this study. The proposed method starts with a constant initial image and the FR step is performed after each MLEM-TV iteration to extract the desired structural information lost during TV minimization. A feature descriptor is specifically designed to distinguish structure from noise and artifacts. A modified steepest descent method is adopted to minimize the objective function. After evaluating the impacts of different patch sizes on the outcome of the presented method, an optimal patch size of 7×7 is selected in this study to balance structure-detection ability and computational efficiency. RESULTS: Applying MLEM-TV-FR algorithm to the simulated brain PET imaging using an emission activity phantom, a standard Shepp-Logan phantom, and mouse results in the increased peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and structural similarity (SSIM) as comparing to using the conventional MLEM-TV algorithm, as well as the substantial reduction of the used sampling numbers, which improves the computational efficiency. CONCLUSIONS: The presented algorithm can achieve image quality superior to that of the MLEM and MLEM-TV approaches in terms of the preservation of fine structure and the suppression of undesired artifacts and noise, indicating its useful potential for low-sampled data in PET imaging.

8.
Eur Radiol ; 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372787

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare visualization of joint intracranial and carotid vessel walls between 5× compressed sensing accelerated three-dimensional DANTE-SPACE sequence (CS VWI) acquired in 5 min and the same sequence accelerated by 2.7× parallel imaging (PI VWI) which takes 9-10 min currently. METHODS: Following institutional review board approval and informed consent, 28 subjects including 20 stroke patients underwent PI and CS VWI examinations with an acquired spatial resolution of isotropic 0.55 mm and joint coverage of intracranial and carotid arteries. Quantitative wall thickness measurements of CS VWI and PI VWI were compared on healthy volunteers and patients with wall thickening respectively. Subjective wall visualizations of the two VWI methods on patients were scored by two radiologists blindly and independently using a 4-point scale followed by inter-rater reproducibility analysis. RESULTS: Linear regression analysis of wall thickness measurements showed excellent agreement between CS VWI and PI VWI in both healthy volunteers (r = 0.99) and stroke patients with wall thickening (r = 0.99). Subjective wall visualization score of CS VWI was slightly lower than PI VWI (3.13 ± 0.41 vs. 3.31 ± 0.79) but still had good diagnostic quality (> 3 based on a 4-point scale). The two radiologists' scores agreed excellently, evidenced by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values being higher than 0.75 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Compressed sensing expedients joint intracranial and carotid VWI acquired at an isotropic resolution of 0.55 mm in 5 min without compromising quantitative vessel wall thickness measurement or diagnostic wall visualization. KEY POINTS: • CS VWI facilitates comprehensive visualization of intracranial and carotid vessel walls at an acquired isotropic resolution of 0.55 mm in a single 5-min scan. • CS VWI affords comparable vessel wall visualization and morphology measurement as PI VWI with a shortened acquisition time by 45%. • CS VWI alleviates the intensive trade-off between imaging resolution and scan time, and benefits the scan efficiency, motion robustness, and patient tolerance of high-resolution joint intracranial and carotid VWI.

9.
Elife ; 82019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373555

RESUMO

Although geographic isolation is a leading driver of speciation, the tempo and pattern of divergence at the genomic level remain unclear. We examine genome-wide divergence of putatively single-copy orthologous genes (POGs) in 20 allopatric species/variety pairs from diverse angiosperm clades, with 16 pairs reflecting the classic eastern Asia-eastern North America floristic disjunction. In each pair, >90% of POGs are under purifying selection, and <10% are under positive selection. A set of POGs are under strong positive selection, 14 of which are shared by 10-15 pairs, and one shared by all pairs; 15 POGs are annotated to biological processes responding to various stimuli. The relative abundance of POGs under different selective forces exhibits a repeated pattern among pairs despite an ~10-million-year difference in divergence time. Species divergence times are positively correlated with abundance of POGs under moderate purifying selection, but negatively correlated with abundance of POGs under strong purifying selection.

10.
Small ; : e1902811, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373758

RESUMO

Tin diselenide (SnSe2 ) nanosheets as novel 2D layered materials have excellent optical properties with many promising application prospects, such as photoelectric detectors, nonlinear optics, infrared photoelectric devices, and ultrafast photonics. Among them, ultrafast photonics has attracted much attention due to its enormous advantages; for instance, extremely fast pulse, strong peak power, and narrow bandwidth. In this work, SnSe2 nanosheets are fabricated by using solvothermal treatment, and the characteristics of SnSe2 are systemically investigated. In addition, the solution of SnSe2 nanosheets is successfully prepared as a fiber-based saturable absorber by utilizing the evanescent field effect, which can bear a high pump power. 31st-order subpicosecond harmonic mode locking is generated in an Er-doped fiber laser, corresponding to the maximum repetition rate of 257.3 MHz and pulse duration of 887 fs. The results show that SnSe2 can be used as an excellent nonlinear photonic device in many fields, such as frequency comb, lasers, photodetectors, etc.

11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(17): 10417-10425, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393113

RESUMO

Phosphorus is required as a fertilizer for producing food, and there is no substitute. Losses between mine production and diet result in significant environmental harm. We used a demand-driven substance flow model to explore the sensitivity of global phosphorus production to interventions of the food system including: reduction in animal fraction in the diet (AFD); manure use efficiency (MUE); animal food yield (YA); phosphorus use efficiency (PUE); the fraction of food that is wasted (FWF); the fraction of food waste recycled (FRE); and the fraction of human waste recycled (WRE). The model indicated that AFD and YA are the most influential interventions, and they interact with PUE and MUE. Furthermore, there is a minimum in AFD and YA below which it becomes necessary to increase mining. Another result is that reducing food waste is about 80 times more effective than recycling food waste in reducing P demand. Finally, the model was used to explore the global carrying capacity for humans on the basis of P sources other than mining. These sources may satisfy P requirements for as many as 2.5 billion people. If significant improvements were made in all of the considered interventions simultaneously, as many as 14.7 billion people could be sustained.

12.
Peptides ; 121: 170131, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408662

RESUMO

Extensive proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) contributes to intimal hyperplasia following vascular injury, in which endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) plays a critical role. Intermedin (IMD) is a vascular paracrine/autocrine peptide exerting numerous beneficial effects in cardiovascular diseases. IMD overexpression could alleviate intimal hyperplasia. Here, we investigated whether endogenous IMD protects against intimal hyperplasia by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress. The mouse left common carotid-artery ligation-injury model was established to induce intimal hyperplasia using IMD-/-mice and C57BL/6 J wild-type (WT) mice. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) was used to stimulate the proliferation of VSMC. IMD-/- mice displayed exacerbated intimal hyperplasia induced by complete ligation of the left carotid artery at 14 d and 28 d compared to WT mice. However, IMD-deficiency had no effect on blood pressure, plasma triglyceride, and fasting blood glucose levels in mice. Furthermore, VSMCs derived from IMD-/- mice showed increased cell proliferation and dramatically elevated levels of glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), ATF6 mRNA under PDGF-BB treatment compared to WT mice-derived VSMCs. In addition, exogenous administration of IMD significantly attenuated PDGF-BB-induced cell proliferation and GRP78, phosphorylase-inositol requiring enzyme 1α, ATF4, and ATF6 protein levels. Thus, endogenous IMD may counteract ERS to exert protective role in response to vascular injury and IMD is expected to be a therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of restenosis.

13.
Laryngoscope ; 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics, clinical features, and the outcomes of histopathology and microbiology for fungus ball (FB) in the last 10 years in our department. STUDY DESIGN: Database review. METHODS: In total, 1,717 cases of FB were reviewed from the case database of Beijing Tongren Hospital (between 2008 and 2017). Epidemiologic data, clinical manifestations, histopathology, and microbiology were analyzed. RESULTS: In the past 10 years, there has been a significant increase in patients with FB presenting at our department (P < .05). The mean age of patients with paranasal sinus FB was 54 years, and 67% of patients were female (1,156/1,717). The average age and female predominance were consistent with previous reports. In total, 1,626 cases (94.7%) were unilateral, and the most common location was the maxillary sinus (76.6%). Aspergillus spp. (72.8%) was the most abundant fungal species in our study. The direct smear positive rate was 68.6%, and the fungal culture rate was 22.6%. All cases were treated with functional endoscopic sinus surgery, with a very low rate of postoperative complications and reoperation (20/1,717). CONCLUSIONS: Histopathological and microbiological analyses are essential for the diagnosis of FB. Surgery is the most effective method of treatment. Direct smear after surgery is not necessary. Oral or topical antimycotic treatments are not recommended after surgery or during the perioperative period. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 2019.

14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12485, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462749

RESUMO

Plant subtilases (SBTs) are a widely distributed family of serine proteases which participates in plant developmental processes and immune responses. Although SBTs are divided into seven subgroups in plants, their origin and evolution, particularly in green algae remain elusive. Here, we present a comprehensive large-scale evolutionary analysis of all subtilases. The plant subtilases SBT1-5 were found to be monophyletic, nested within a larger radiation of bacteria suggesting that they originated from bacteria by a single horizontal gene transfer (HGT) event. A group of bacterial subtilases comprising representatives from four phyla was identified as a sister group to SBT1-5. The phylogenetic analyses, based on evaluation of novel streptophyte algal genomes, suggested that the recipient of the HGT of bacterial subtilases was the common ancestor of Coleochaetophyceae, Zygnematophyceae and embryophytes. Following the HGT, the subtilase gene duplicated in the common ancestor and the two genes diversified into SBT2 and SBT1, 3-5 respectively. Comparative structural analysis of homology-modeled SBT2 proteins also showed their conservation from bacteria to embryophytes. Our study provides the first molecular evidence about the evolution of plant subtilases via HGT followed by a first gene duplication in the common ancestor of Coleochaetophyceae, Zygnematophyceae, and embryophytes, and subsequent expansion in embryophytes.

15.
Top Curr Chem (Cham) ; 377(5): 23, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463700

RESUMO

Since the pioneering independent reports of Akiyama and Terada, the use of chiral phosphoric acids (CPAs) and derivatives as a versatile tool for asymmetric synthesis with good reactivity, regioselectivity, diastereoselectivity and enantioselectivity has emerged, forming an important part of the implementation of asymmetric counteranion-directed catalysis reported to date. In these achievements, the combination of metals with CPAs has enabled various catalytic modes beyond the scope of typical acid catalysis, such as relay catalysis, ion-pairing catalysis, and binary acid catalysis. The first-row transition metals (Sc-Zn) are considered to be sustainable transition metals and have received a great deal of attention. These naturally abundant metals display excellent Lewis acidity and function as powerful redox catalysts in synthesis involving both one and two-electron transfers. Hence, in this chapter, we summarize recent advances in the development of asymmetric reactions using a combination of first-row transition metals and CPAs. Furthermore, we provide a detailed discussion of the mechanisms involved in order to understand the interaction of the metal/phosphate and the origins of the asymmetric control of the transformations.

16.
J Chromatogr A ; : 460454, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443966

RESUMO

We propose a new capillary electrophoresis (CE)-based open-tubular immobilized enzyme microreactor (OT-IMER) and its application in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) assays. The IMER is fabricated at the capillary inlet (reactor length of ∼1 cm) with the inner surface modified by a micropore-structured layer (thickness of ∼220 nm, pore size of ∼15-20 nm). The use of IMER accomplishes the enzymatic reaction and separation/detection of the products in the same capillary within 3 min. The feasibility of the proposed method is evaluated via online analysis of the activity and inhibition of AChE enzymes. Such method exhibits good reproducibility with relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 4% for 20 runs, and the enzyme remains over 82% of the initial activity after usage of 7 days. The IMERs are successfully applied to detect the organophosphorus pesticide, paraoxon, in three types of vegetable juice samples with a limit of detection of as low as 61 ng mL-1. Results show that the spiked samples are in the range of 89.6-105.9% with RSD less than 2.7%, thereby indicating its satisfactory level of accurate and reliable analysis of real samples by using the proposed method. Our study indicates that, with combination of advantages of both porous-layer capillary and CE OT-IMER, the proposed method is capable to enhance enzymatic reactions and to achieve rapid analysis with simple instrumentation and operation, thus would pave the way for extensive application of CE-based IMERs in a variety of bioanalysis.

17.
Pharm Biol ; 57(1): 477-484, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438784

RESUMO

Context: In China, the herb Sophora tonkinensis Gagnep. (Fabaceae, ST) (Committee of National Pharmacopeia. 2015) exhibits anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antiviral effects. However, to date, there have been few studies on its gastrointestinal effect. Objective: The gastrointestinal effect of the methanol extract of ST rhizome (STR) was evaluated. Materials and methods: Study was conducted from February to December 2018. In vivo, antidiarrheal activity of STR (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg; orally) in castor oil-induced diarrheal mice was studied. In vitro, the effects of STR (0.01-10 mg/mL) on the isolated tissue preparations of rabbit jejunum were also investigated, the rabbit jejunum stripes were pre-contracted with Ach (10-5 M), K+ (60 mM) and tested in the presence of STR, the possible spasmolytic effect was analyzed in the pretreatment of the jejunum preparations with STR or verapamil in Ca2+-free high-K+ (60 mM) solution containing EDTA. Results: STR (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) exhibited antidiarrheal activity. STR (0.01-10 mg/mL) completely relaxed spontaneously contracting, Ach (10-5 M) and high K+ (60 mM) induced contracted jejunum with an EC50 value of 0.66 (0.49-0.96), 0.39 (0.28-0.44) and 0.17 (0.10-0.21), similar to verapamil. Concentration-response curves of CaCl2 could be significantly moved to the right and down in the presence of STR (0.3, 1 mg/mL). Discussion and conclusions: Results suggest the presence of antidiarrheal activity and spasmolytic effects of STR, possibly mediated through Ca2+ channel blocking activity, providing the pharmacological basis for its traditional uses in gastrointestinal disorders.

18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(15)2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387229

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a worldwide healthcare problem calling for the development of new therapeutic drugs. Angelica sinensis and Zingiber officinale Roscoe are two common dietetic Chinese herbs, which are traditionally used for complementary treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. As bioactive constituents, volatile and pungent substances of these two herbs could be effectively extracted together by supercritical fluid extraction. In this study, the supercritical fluid extract of Angelica sinensis and Zingiber officinale Roscoe (AZ-SFE) was obtained by an optimized extraction process and it was chemically characterized. The anti-inflammatory effect and underlying mechanism of AZ-SFE were evaluated in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cell model and a 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis rat model. AZ-SFE notably inhibited the production of NO in LPS-stimulated macrophages, and it inhibited the proliferation of Concanavalin A (Con A)-induced splenocytes with suppression of the Th1 immune response. In vivo, the study demonstrated that AZ-SFE significantly alleviated disease activity, colonic shortening, macroscopic damage and histological injury of TNBS-treated rats with reduction of oxidative stress, suppression of inflammatory cytokines, and modulation of hepcidin and serum iron. These findings suggested that AZ-SFE may be a promising supplement for current IBD therapy.

19.
Life Sci ; 234: 116751, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415771

RESUMO

AIMS: The present study aims to investigate the impacts of olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) on urinary metabolic profile and tryptophan metabolites in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats, and to explore the regulation effects of fluoxetine. MAIN METHODS: OBX model was developed by aspiration of olfactory bulbs. After fluoxetine treatment (10 mg/kg) for 14 days, urine samples were collected and behavior tests were applied. Tryptophan (TRP) metabolites and neurotransmitters in PFC were determined by prominence ultrafast liquid chromatography-QTRAP-mass spectrometry, and tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) and indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) were evaluated by western blot. Urinary metabolites were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabonomics strategy. KEY FINDING: OBX rats showed hyperlocomotion in open field, hyperactivity in open arm and despair status, and fluoxetine reserved these behavioral abnormalities. The levels of TRP, 5-HIAA, 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio and DA increased, while kynurenine and 5-HT decreased in PFC of OBX rats. The activities of TPH2 and IDO1were inhibited after OBX. Twenty-six altered metabolites were identified as potential biomarkers in OBX rats involved in tryptophan metabolism, gut microbiota metabolism, energy metabolism, purine metabolism, ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, and tyrosine metabolism. Among them, 15 abnormal metabolites were corrected by fluoxetine to some extent. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results revealed that urinary metabolic profile changed greatly in OBX rats, and identified biomarkers might be helpful for the diagnosis of agitated depression. The regulation effects of fluoxetine on urinary metabolic profile and tryptophan metabolites in PFC might contribute to its antidepressant action in OBX rats.

20.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 149: 110507, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421568

RESUMO

This study focused on the bloom-developing process of the giant jellyfish, Nemopilema nomurai, on phytoplankton and microzooplankton communities. Two repeated field observations on the jellyfish bloom were conducted in June 2012 and 2014 in the southern Yellow Sea where blooms of N. nomurai were frequently observed. We demonstrated that the bloom was made up of two stages, namely the developing stage and the mature stage. Total chlorophyll a increased and the concentrations of inorganic nutrients decreased during the developing stage, while both concentrations maintained stable and at low levels during the mature stage. Our analysis revealed that phosphate excreted by growing N. nomurai promoted the growth of phytoplankton at the developing stage. At the mature stage, size compositions of microzooplankton were altered and tended to be smaller via a top-down process, while phytoplankton compositions, affected mainly through a bottom-up process, shifted to be less diatoms and cryptophytes but more dinoflagellates.

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