Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 6.345
Filtrar
1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130596, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293545

RESUMO

Clarification of the mechanism of heat-induced gel formation by proteins under natural food systems could provide important references for the regulation of food texture. In the present study, the proteins involved in the early stage (heating at 72 °C for 8 min) of egg-white thermal gel (EWG) formation were studied quantitatively through comparative proteomic analysis. We discovered that the abundance of ovalbumin and ovomucoid increased significantly (p < 0.01), whereas that of ovotransferrin, lysozyme, ovomucin (mucin 5B and mucin 6) decreased significantly (p < 0.01), in the supernatant of EWG. If the initial interaction of egg white proteins was altered by ultrasonic pretreatment, the abundance of ovomucin and lysozyme in the supernatant of EWG increased, and was accompanied by the change from a solid gel to a fluid gel. Based on these results, we hypothesize that ovomucin has a key role in the formation and regulation of EWG properties.

2.
ChemSusChem ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478230

RESUMO

A galvanic deposition method for the in-situ formation of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) on top and inner surfaces of high aspect ratio black TiO 2 -nanotube electrodes (bTNTs) for true utilization of their total surface area has been developed. Density Functional Theory calculations indicated that the deposition of Pt NPs was favored on bTNTs with a preferred [004] orientation, and a deposition mechanism occurring via oxygen vacancies, where electrons were localized. High resolution TEM images revealed a graded deposition of Pt NPs with an average diameter of ~2.5 nm along the complete nanotube axis (length:pore diameter of 130:1). Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) studies in acidic electrolytes showed comparable results to bulk Pt (per geometric area) and Pt/C commercial catalysts (per mg of Pt). The presented novel HER cathodes of minimal engineering and low noble metal loadings (µm cm -2 range) achieved low Tafel slopes (30 to 34 mV dec -1 ) and high stability in acidic conditions. This study provides important insights for the in  situ formation and deposition of NPs in high aspect ratio structures for energy applications.

3.
Eur J Cancer ; 157: 114-123, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508993

RESUMO

AIM: CD73 overexpression has been reported in several malignancies and is considered to be a novel immune checkpoint. However, the role and significance of CD73 in gastric cancer (GC) still remain obscure. We aim to investigate the role of CD73 expression in predicting prognosis, shaping immune contexture and guiding therapeutic strategy in GC. METHODS: The study enrolled four independent cohorts with a total of 902 patients with GC. CD73 expression and immune contexture were examined by immunohistochemistry, single-sample gene set enrichment analysis and flow cytometry. Clinical outcomes of patient subgroups were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: CD73 was identified as an independent adverse prognostic factor for survival in GC. CD73high tumours showed a specific microenvironment with more CD8+ T cell infiltration, but these CD8+ T cells displayed a dysfunctional phenotype. Furthermore, the CD73 (NT5E) mRNA level was associated with the Cancer Genome Atlas molecular subtypes, and NT5E high tumours showed significant fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 activation and vascular endothelial growth factor and receptor enrichment. In addition, CD73high tumours indicated better chemotherapeutic responsiveness to fluorouracil yet a worse objective response rate to pembrolizumab in GC. CONCLUSIONS: High CD73 expression indicated an immunoevasive contexture with CD8+ T cell dysfunction and represented an independent predictor for adverse clinical outcomes. As a potential immunotherapeutic target, CD73 could potentially be a novel biomarker for adjuvant chemotherapy, targeted therapies and immunotherapy. The crucial role of CD73 in the therapeutic landscape of GC needs further validation retrospectively and prospectively.

4.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520601

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ginseng is widely used in cosmetics and skin care. The progress of research on the effect of ginseng on the skin was explored through a summary and analysis of skin-related studies on ginseng conducted over in the past 20 years, and this exploration aimed to elucidate new research opportunities with regard to the development and application of ginseng treatments for the skin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Keywords were used to retrieve human studies related to the use of ginseng to treat skin conditions from the Web of Science. Scientometric analyses were performed in R to analyze the studies on the human skin-related effects of ginseng conducted from 2000 to 2019. RESULTS: The main active ingredient in ginseng is ginsenoside, and its effects on the skin are mostly anti-aging and whitening. Ginseng extract regulates the levels of matrix metalloproteinases in human fibroblast type I collagen to improve the elasticity and water content of skin. In addition, ginseng inhibits the transcription factors or signaling pathways involved in the formation of melanin, it exerts a whitening effect. The authors of the retrieved studies are mostly located in Asia, mainly South Korea and China. Wang Y, Kim JH, and Kim YJ are relatively influential scholars, these ginseng-related articles published in the Journal of Ginseng Research, Molecules and other journals are very important in this field. CONCLUSION: This study shows the development of trends in research on ginseng as a raw cosmetic material used on the skin and thus enables researchers to rapidly understand the key information in the field of ginseng research, comprehend the research directions, and improve their research efficiency.

5.
MAGMA ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524564

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To propose a fully automated algorithm, which is implemented to segment subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and internal adipose tissue (IAT) from the total adipose tissue for whole-body fat distribution analysis using proton density fat fraction (PDFF) magnetic resonance images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adipose tissue segmentation was implemented using the U-Net deep neural network model. All datasets were collected using a 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner for whole-body scan of 20 volunteers covering from neck to knee with about 160 images for each volunteer. PDFF images were reconstructed based on chemical-shift-encoded fat-water imaging. After selecting the representative PDFF images (total 906 images), the manual labeling of the SAT area was used for model training (504 images), validation (168 images), and testing (234 images). RESULTS: The automatic segmentation model was validated through three indices using the validation and test sets. The dice similarity coefficient, precision rate, and recall rate were 0.976 ± 0.048, 0.978 ± 0.048, and 0.978 ± 0.050, respectively, in both validation and test sets. CONCLUSION: The proposed algorithm can reliably and automatically segment SAT and IAT from whole-body MRI PDFF images. The proposed method provides a simple and automatic tool for whole-body fat distribution analysis to explore the relationship between fat deposition and metabolic-related chronic diseases.

6.
Biomaterials ; 277: 121115, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488118

RESUMO

Conductive polymers with high near-infrared absorbance, have attracted considerable attention in the design of intelligent nanomedicines for cancer therapy, especially chemo-photothermal therapy. However, the unknown long-term biosafety of conductive polymers in vivo due to non-degradability hinders their clinic application. Herein, a H2O2-triggered degradable conductive polymer, polyacrylic acid (PAA) stabilized poly(pyrrole-3-COOH) (PAA@PPyCOOH), is fabricated to form nanoparticles with doxorubicin (DOX) for safe and precise chemo-phototherapy. The PAA@PPyCOOH was found to be an ideal photothermal nano-agent with good dispersity, excellent biocompatibility and high photothermal conversion efficiency (56%). After further loading of doxorubicin (DOX), PAA@PPyCOOH@DOX demonstrates outstanding photothermal performance, as well as pH/H2O2 dual-responsive release of DOX in tumors with an acidic and overexpressed H2O2 microenvironment, resulting in superior chemo-photothermal therapeutic effects. The degradation mechanism of PAA@PPyCOOH is proposed to be the ring-opening reaction between the pyrrole-3-COOH unit and H2O2. More importantly, the nanoparticles can be specifically degraded by excess H2O2 in tumor, and the degradation products were confirmed to be excreted via urine and feces. In vivo therapeutic evaluation of chemo-photothermal therapy reveals tumor growth of 4T1 breast cancer model is drastically inhibited and no apparent side-effect is detected, thus indicating substantial potential in clinic application.

7.
Eur J Med Chem ; 225: 113818, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492551

RESUMO

Cathepsin C, an important lysosomal cysteine protease, mediates the maturation process of neutrophil serine proteases, and participates in the inflammation and immune regulation process associated with polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Therefore, cathepsin C is considered to be an attractive target for treating inflammatory diseases. With INS1007 (trade name: brensocatib) being granted a breakthrough drug designation by FDA for the treatment of Adult Non-cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis and Coronavirus Disease 2019, the development of cathepsin C inhibitor will attract attentions from medicinal chemists in the future soon. Here, we summarized the research results of cathepsin C as a therapeutic target, focusing on the development of cathepsin C inhibitor, and provided guidance and reference opinions for the upcoming development boom of cathepsin C inhibitor.

8.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(undefined)2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517344

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the role of embryonic gene Cripto-1 (CR-1) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using hepatocyte-specific CR-1-overexpressing transgenic mice. The expression of truncated 1.7-kb CR-1 transcript (SF-CR-1) was significantly higher than the full-length 2.0-kb CR-1 transcript (FL-CR-1) in a majority of HCC tissues and cell lines. Moreover, CR-1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in HCC tissues than adjacent normal liver tissues. Hepatocyte-specific over-expression of CR-1 in transgenic mice enhanced hepatocyte proliferation after 2/3 partial hepatectomy (2/3 PHx). CR-1 over-expression significantly increased in vivo xenograft tumor growth of HCC cells in nude mice and in vitro HCC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. CR-1 over-expression in the transgenic mouse livers deregulated HCC-related signaling pathways such as AKT, Wnt/ß-catenin, Stat3, MAPK/ERK, JNK, TGF-ß and Notch, as well as expression of HCC-related genes such as CD5L, S100A8, S100A9, Timd4, Orm2, Orm3, PDK4, DMBT1, G0S2, Plk2, Plk3, Gsta1 and Gsta2. However, histological signs of precancerous lesions, hepatocyte dysplasia or HCC formation were not observed in the livers of 3-, 6- or 8-month-old hepatocyte-specific CR-1-overexpressing transgenic mice. These findings demonstrate that liver-specific CR-1 overexpression in transgenic mice deregulates signaling pathways and genes associated with HCC.

9.
Gerontology ; : 1-11, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515122

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It is known that oral frailty is one of the risk factors for physical frailty. Therefore, early detection, appropriate treatment, and prevention of oral frailty are really important. Tongue lifting exercise has been identified as a well-known method for improving decreased tongue pressure, one of the factors for oral frailty. However, few reports have investigated how tongue-strengthening exercises affect physical function and body composition. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of isometric tongue lifting exercises on oral function, physical function, and body composition. METHODS: Participants were 49 elderly people aged 68-79 years, who had previously participated in the "Itoshima Frail Study." Participants performed isometric tongue lift exercises for 3 months. Oral function (tongue pressure and oral diadocokinesis), physical function (grip strength, open-eyed one-leg standing, sit-to-stand motion time, 5-m gait speed, and 3-m Timed up and go [TUG]), and body composition were measured at baseline and post-intervention, and the extent of changes in each item was statistically analyzed. Furthermore, participants were divided into physical frailty/pre-frailty and robust groups based on the Japanese version of the frail scale proposed by [BMC Geriatr. 2015 Apr;15:36] and were compared in terms of the extent of changes in each item baseline and the post-intervention. RESULTS: After the intervention, oral function increased significantly together with a significant improvement in physical function, open-eyed one-leg standing time, sit-to-stand motion, and 3-m TUG. For body composition, visceral fat level and basal metabolic rate decreased significantly. Although no significant change in body composition was observed in the physical frailty/pre-frailty group after the intervention, significant improvements in several items were observed in the robust group. CONCLUSION: Isometric tongue lifting exercise can effectively improve oral function. Furthermore, it might affect physical function and body composition.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; 801: 149785, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467934

RESUMO

Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) catalyzed by Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera (M. oxyfera)-like bacteria is a new pathway for the regulation of methane emissions from paddy fields. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (e[CO2]) can indirectly affect the structure and function of microbial communities. However, the response of M. oxyfera-like bacteria to e[CO2] is currently unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of e[CO2] (ambient CO2 + 200 ppm) on community composition, abundance, and activity of M. oxyfera-like bacteria at different depths (0-5, 5-10, and 10-20 cm) in paddy fields across multiple rice growth stages (tillering, jointing, and flowering). High-throughput sequencing showed that e[CO2] had no significant effect on the community composition of M. oxyfera-like bacteria. However, quantitative PCR suggested that the 16S rRNA gene abundance of M. oxyfera-like bacteria increased significantly in soil under e[CO2], particularly at the tillering stage. Furthermore, 13CH4 tracer experiments showed potential n-damo activity of 0.31-8.91 nmol CO2 g-1 (dry soil) d-1. E[CO2] significantly stimulated n-damo activity, especially at the jointing and flowering stages. The n-damo activity and abundance of M. oxyfera-like bacteria increased by an average of 90.9% and 50.0%, respectively, under e[CO2]. Correlation analysis showed that the increase in soil dissolved organic carbon content caused by e[CO2] had significant effects on the activity and abundance of M. oxyfera-like bacteria. Overall, this study provides the first evidence for a positive response of M. oxyfera-like bacteria to e[CO2], which may help reduce methane emissions from paddy fields under future climate change conditions.

11.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486812

RESUMO

The 15 species of small carnivorous marsupials that comprise the genus Antechinus exhibit semelparity, a rare life-history strategy in mammals where synchronised death occurs after one breeding season. Antechinus males, but not females, age rapidly (demonstrate organismal senescence) during the breeding season and show promise as new animal models of ageing. Some antechinus species are also threatened or endangered. Here, we report a chromosome-level genome of a male yellow-footed antechinus Antechinus flavipes. The genome assembly has a total length of 3.2 Gb with a contig N50 of 51.8 Mb and a scaffold N50 of 636.7 Mb. We anchored and oriented 99.7% of the assembly on seven pseudochromosomes and found that repetitive DNA sequences occupy 51.8% of the genome. Draft genome assemblies of three related species in the subfamily Phascogalinae, two additional antechinus species (A. argentus and A. arktos) and the iteroparous sister species Murexia melanurus, were also generated. Preliminary demographic analysis supports the hypothesis that climate change during the Pleistocene isolated species in Phascogalinae and shaped their population size. A transcriptomic profile across the A. flavipes breeding season allowed us to identify genes associated with aspects of the male die-off. The chromosome-level A. flavipes genome provides a steppingstone to understanding an enigmatic life-history strategy and a resource to assist the conservation of antechinuses.

12.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476677

RESUMO

Selenium-enriched polysaccharide (SeEPS) was prepared by reducing Se(IV) to elemental selenium and organic selenium in polysaccharide medium by the obtained Enterobacter cloacae strain Z0206 under aerobic conditions. In the present study, we focused on investigating the role of short-term supplementation of SeEPS at supernutritional doses in the regulation of growth performance, liver damage, antioxidant capacity, and selenium (Se) accumulation in C57 mice. Thirty-two C57 mice were randomly divided into four groups: the control group was gavaged with equal volume of phosphate-buffered saline, while the sodium selenite (Na2SeO3), selenomethionine (SeMet), and SeEPS groups were gavaged with 0.5 mg Se/kg BW of Na2SeO3, SeMet, and selenium-enriched polysaccharide (n = 8), respectively. We examined liver injury indicators, antioxidant capacity in the serum and liver, selenium deposition at different sites, selenoprotein levels, and selenocysteine-synthesizing and degradation-associated gene expression in mouse livers. SeEPS supplementation dramatically increased average daily weight gain but reduced the feed-to-gain ratio (F/G) of mice (P < 0.05). Compared to Na2SeO3 and SeMet supplementation, SeEPS supplementation at supernutritional doses did not cause the liver damage. SeEPS supplementation also markedly enhanced total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activities but reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the liver and serum (P < 0.05), while significantly increasing selenocysteine-synthesizing and degradation-related gene (SEPHS2, SEPSECS, Secisbp, Scly) expression at the mRNA level (P < 0.05), thus upregulating the mRNA levels of selenoproteins (SELENOP, SELENOK) (P < 0.05). We suggest that SeEPS could be a potential replacement for inorganic selenium to improve animals' growth performance, promote antioxidant capacity, and regulate selenium deposition.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476872

RESUMO

Modulating the emission wavelengths of materials has always been a primary focus of fluorescence technology. Nanocrystals (NCs) doped with lanthanide ions with rich energy levels can produce a variety of emissions at different excitation wavelengths. However, the control of multi-modal emissions of these ions has remained a challenge. Herein, we present a new composition of Er 3+ -based lanthanide NCs with color-switchable output under irradiation with 980, 808, or 1535 nm light for information security. The variation of excitation wavelengths changes the intensity ratio of visible (Vis)/near-infrared (NIR-II) emissions. Taking advantage of the Vis/NIR-II multi-modal emissions of NCs and deep learning, we successfully demonstrated the storage and decoding of visible light information in pork tissue.

14.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480146

RESUMO

Colitis is a common disease of the colon that is very difficult to treat. Probiotic bacteria could be an effective treatment. The probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) was engineered to synthesize the ketone body (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) for sustainable production in the gut lumen of mice suffering from colitis. Components of heterologous 3HB synthesis routes were constructed, expressed, optimized, and inserted into the EcN genome, combined with deletions in competitive branch pathways. The genome-engineered EcN produced the highest 3HB level of 0.6 g/L under microaerobic conditions. The live therapeutic was found to colonize the mouse gastrointestinal tract over 14 days, elevating gut 3HB and short-chain-length fatty acid (SCFA) levels 8.7- and 3.1-fold compared to those of wild-type EcN, respectively. The sustainable presence of 3HB in mouse guts promoted the growth of probiotic bacteria, especially Akkermansia spp., to over 31% from the initial 2% of all the microbiome. As a result, the engineered EcN termed EcNL4 ameliorated colitis induced via dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in mice. Compared to wild-type EcN or oral administration of 3HB, oral EcNL4 uptake demonstrated better effects on mouse weights, colon lengths, occult blood levels, gut tissue myeloperoxidase activity and proinflammatory cytokine concentrations. Thus, a promising live bacterium was developed to improve colonic microenvironments and further treat colitis. This proof-of-concept design can be employed to treat other diseases of the colon.

15.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 8685-8691, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472875

RESUMO

The ferroic domain, in metal halide perovskites (MHPs) at a low symmetry phase, was reported to affect optoelectronic properties. Building the relationship between ferroic domains and optoelectronic properties of MHPs will be a non-trivial task for understanding the charge transport mechanism. Here, high-quality CsPbBr3 single-crystal films (SCFs) were successfully grown by a cast-capping method. Through the phase transition process by heating and cooling the sample, dense domains in CsPbBr3 SCFs were formed and observed by an in situ polarized optical microscope. These domains were identified as 90° rotation twins by electron backscattered diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Interestingly, the photocurrent response was dramatically enhanced after introducing ferroelastic domains. The highest responsivity, external quantum efficiency, and detectivity are 380 mA/W, 130%, and 12.9 × 1010 Jones, respectively, which are surprisingly 25.03, 25, and 7.8 times higher than those of the as-grown CsPbBr3 SCF, respectively, which may be attributed to the function of the domain wall of separating electrons and holes.

16.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 9961727, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484326

RESUMO

The feature selection problem is a fundamental issue in many research fields. In this paper, the feature selection problem is regarded as an optimization problem and addressed by utilizing a large-scale many-objective evolutionary algorithm. Considering the number of selected features, accuracy, relevance, redundancy, interclass distance, and intraclass distance, a large-scale many-objective feature selection model is constructed. It is difficult to optimize the large-scale many-objective feature selection optimization problem by using the traditional evolutionary algorithms. Therefore, this paper proposes a modified vector angle-based large-scale many-objective evolutionary algorithm (MALSMEA). The proposed algorithm uses polynomial mutation based on variable grouping instead of naive polynomial mutation to improve the efficiency of solving large-scale problems. And a novel worst-case solution replacement strategy using shift-based density estimation is used to replace the poor solution of two individuals with similar search directions to enhance convergence. The experimental results show that MALSMEA is competitive and can effectively optimize the proposed model.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Evolução Biológica , Humanos , Resolução de Problemas
17.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 43(4): 501-506, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494518

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the effects of osthole on the proliferation,apoptosis,and autophagy of human tongue cancer Tca8113 cells and explore its possible mechanism of action. Methods Tca8113 cells were cultured in vitro and divided into a control group without drugs and the experimental groups with 40,80,120,and 160 µmol/L osthole.The inhibitory effect of osthole on the proliferation of Tca8113 cells was detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and colony formation assay.Hoechst33342 staining method and annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide method were employed to detect the effect of osthole on the apoptosis of Tca8113 cells within 24 hours.Western blot was performed to detect the expression of apoptosis-related proteins(Bcl-2,Bax,and cleaved caspase-3)and autophagy-related proteins(LC3 and p62)in Tca8113 cells exposed to osthole. Results Osthole significantly inhibited the proliferation and induced the apoptosis of Tca8113 cells in a concentration-dependent manner,and it reduced the cell colony formation.Western blot results showed that osthole could up-regulate the expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 and down-regulate that of Bcl-2.At the same time,it increased the expression of LC3Ⅱ and P62 and reduced that of LC3Ⅰ. Conclusion Osthole may inhibit the proliferation of Tca8113 cells by promoting cell apoptosis and blocking autophagy flow to inhibit autophagy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Língua , Apoptose , Autofagia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Cumarínicos , Humanos
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(37)2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503999

RESUMO

The ancestors of marine mammals once roamed the land and independently committed to an aquatic lifestyle. These macroevolutionary transitions have intrigued scientists for centuries. Here, we generated high-quality genome assemblies of 17 marine mammals (11 cetaceans and six pinnipeds), including eight assemblies at the chromosome level. Incorporating previously published data, we reconstructed the marine mammal phylogeny and population histories and identified numerous idiosyncratic and convergent genomic variations that possibly contributed to the transition from land to water in marine mammal lineages. Genes associated with the formation of blubber (NFIA), vascular development (SEMA3E), and heat production by brown adipose tissue (UCP1) had unique changes that may contribute to marine mammal thermoregulation. We also observed many lineage-specific changes in the marine mammals, including genes associated with deep diving and navigation. Our study advances understanding of the timing, pattern, and molecular changes associated with the evolution of mammalian lineages adapting to aquatic life.

19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505516

RESUMO

α-Chiral alkyl primary amines are virtually universal synthetic precursors for all other α-chiral N-containing compounds ubiquitous in biological, pharmaceutical, and material sciences. The enantioselective amination of common alkyl halides with ammonia is appealing for potential rapid access to α-chiral primary amines, but has hitherto remained rare due to the multifaceted difficulties in using ammonia and the underdeveloped C(sp3)-N coupling. Here we demonstrate sulfoximines as excellent ammonia surrogates for enantioconvergent radical C-N coupling with diverse racemic secondary alkyl halides (>60 examples) by copper catalysis under mild thermal conditions. The reaction efficiently provides highly enantioenriched N-alkyl sulfoximines (up to 99% yield and >99% ee) featuring secondary benzyl, propargyl, α-carbonyl alkyl, and α-cyano alkyl stereocenters. In addition, we have converted the masked α-chiral primary amines thus obtained to various synthetic building blocks, ligands, and drugs possessing α-chiral N-functionalities, such as carbamate, carboxylamide, secondary and tertiary amine, and oxazoline, with commonly seen α-substitution patterns. These results shine light on the potential of enantioconvergent radical cross-coupling as a general chiral carbon-heteroatom formation strategy.

20.
Lab Invest ; 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497367

RESUMO

Transient receptor potential canonical 3 (TRPC3) is a nonselective cation channel, and its dysfunction is the basis of many clinical diseases. However, little is known about its possible role in the bladder. The purpose of this study was to explore the function and mechanism of TRPC3 in partial bladder outlet obstruction (PBOO)-induced detrusor overactivity (DO). We studied 31 adult female rats with DO induced by PBOO (the DO group) and 40 sham-operated rats (the control group). Here we report that the expression of TRPC3 in the bladder of DO rats increased significantly. Furthermore, PYR10, which can selectively inhibit the TRPC3 channel, significantly reduced bladder excitability in DO and control rats, but the decrease of the bladder excitability of DO rats was more obvious. PYR10 significantly reduced the intracellular calcium concentration in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in DO and control rats. Finally, Na+/Ca2+ exchanger 1 (NCX1) colocalizes with TRPC3 and affects its expression and function. Collectively, these results indicate that TRPC3 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DO through a synergistic effect with NCX1. TRPC3 and NCX1 may be new therapeutic targets for DO.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...