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1.
mBio ; 12(1)2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563822

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy causes congenital defects such as fetal microcephaly. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) have the potential to suppress ZIKV pathogenicity without enhancement of disease, but the pathways through which they confer protection remain obscure. Here, we report two types of NS1-targeted human MAbs that inhibit ZIKV infection through distinct mechanisms. MAbs 3G2 and 4B8 show a better efficacy than MAb 4F10 in suppressing ZIKV infection in C57BL/6 neonatal mice. Unlike MAb 4F10 that mainly triggers antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), MAbs 3G2 and 4B8 not only trigger ADCC but inhibit ZIKV infection without Fcγ receptor-bearing effector cells, possibly at postentry stages. Destroying the Fc-mediated effector function of MAbs 3G2 and 4B8 reduces but does not abolish their protective effects, whereas destroying the effector function of MAb 4F10 eliminates the protective effects, suggesting that MAbs 3G2 and 4B8 engage both Fcγ receptor-dependent and -independent pathways. Further analysis reveals that MAbs 3G2 and 4B8 target the N-terminal region of NS1 protein, whereas MAb 4F10 targets the C-terminal region, implying that the protective efficacy of an NS1-targeted MAb may be associated with its epitope recognition. Our results illustrate that NS1-targeted MAbs have multifaceted protective effects and provide insights for the development of NS1-based vaccines and therapeutics.IMPORTANCE Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has been linked to congenital microcephaly during recent epidemics. No licensed antiviral drug or vaccine is available. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) inhibit ZIKV pathogenicity but do not enhance the disease as envelope protein-targeted MAbs do. However, the protection mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we show that in the presence or absence of Fcγ receptor-bearing effector cells, NS1-targeted human MAbs 3G2 and 4B8 inhibit ZIKV infection. Compared to MAb 4F10 that has no inhibitory effects without effector cells, 3G2 and 4B8 confer better protection in ZIKV-infected neonatal mice. Destroying the Fc-mediated effector function reduces but does not abolish the protection of 3G2 and 4B8, suggesting that they engage both Fcγ receptor-dependent and -independent pathways. The protective efficacy of NS1-targeted MAbs may be associated with their epitope recognition. Our findings will help to develop NS1-based vaccines and therapeutics.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608760

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of superselective vesical artery embolization (SVAE) in the treatment of intractable hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). METHODS: From January 2010 to December 2018, 26 patients with hematologic malignancy who underwent SVAE for treatment of intractable HC following HSCT were retrospectively reviewed. SVAE was performed with 300-500 µm gelatin-sponge particles initially. Technical success was defined as achieving bilateral SVAE for all the prominent vesical arteries. Therapeutic efficacy was defined as: Complete response (CR): macroscopic hematuria completely disappeared on more than 2 consecutive days after SVAE; Partial response (PR): macroscopic hematuria reduced after SVAE or briefly disappeared after SVAE but reappeared soon within 2 days; No response: no response to SVAE or hematuria aggravated after SVAE; Recurrence: macroscopic hematuria relapsed on follow-up after achieving an initial CR. Adverse events were also registered. RESULTS: There was a mean follow-up of 11.4 months (range, 0.5-83.7). The mean interval for the onset of HC after HSCT was 39.7 ± 19.0 days, and mean duration of hematuria before embolization was 14.9 ± 15.7 days. SVAE was technically successful in all patients. After embolization, macroscopic hematuria regressed within 48 h for all patients. The mean urine erythrocyte counts dropped from 14,213.2 ± 20,999.0/uL before SVAE to 6072.9 ± 12,720.7/uL on 3d after SVAE (P = 0.002) and 3720.2 ± 8988.9/uL on 7 d after SVAE (P = 0.001), respectively. Hematuria completely disappeared prior to discharge in 23 (88.5%) patients (including 20 with one embolization and 3 with 2 embolizations) and remainder 3 patients had PR. No major procedure-related complications were noted, except for post-embolization syndrome in 8 patients, which resolved with symptomatic treatment. On follow-up monthly, hematuria recurrence was seen in 4/23 patients (17.4%) and was managed conservatively in 2 patients and with repeat embolization in the remainder 2 patients. CONCLUSION: For fragile patients with hematologic malignancy, SVAE is safe and effective to treat HC following HSCT, even though repeat embolization may be required to achieve a sustained complete remission of the hematuria.

3.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 21(1): 66, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mining massive prescriptions in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) accumulated in the lengthy period of several thousand years to discover essential herbal groups for distinct efficacies is of significance for TCM modernization, thus starting to draw attentions recently. However, most existing methods for the task treat herbs with different surface forms orthogonally and determine efficacy-specific herbal groups based on the raw frequencies an herbal group occur in a collection of prescriptions. Such methods entirely overlook the fact that prescriptions in TCM are formed empirically by different people at different historical stages, and thus full of herbs with different surface forms expressing the same material, or even noisy and redundant herbs. METHODS: We propose a two-stage approach for efficacy-specific herbal group detection from prescriptions in TCM. For the first stage we devise a hierarchical attentive neural network model to capture essential herbs in a prescription for its efficacy, where herbs are encoded with dense real-valued vectors learned automatically to identify their differences on the semantical level. For the second stage, frequent patterns are mined to discover essential herbal groups for an efficacy from distilled prescriptions obtained in the first stage. RESULTS: We verify the effectiveness of our proposed approach from two aspects, the first one is the ability of the hierarchical attentive neural network model to distill a prescription, and the second one is the accuracy in discovering efficacy-specific herbal groups. CONCLUSION: The experimental results demonstrate that the hierarchical attentive neural network model is capable to capture herbs in a prescription essential to its efficacy, and the distilled prescriptions significantly could improve the performance of efficacy-specific herbal group detection.

4.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e042085, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371042

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To date, no specific antivirus drugs or vaccines have been available to prevent or treat the COVID-19 pandemic. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy may be a promising therapeutic approach that reduces the high mortality in critical cases. This protocol is proposed for a systematic review and meta-analysis that aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MSC therapy on patients with COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Ten databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journals Database (VIP), Wanfang database, China Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) and Chinese Biomedical Literature Service System (SinoMed) will be searched from inception to 1 December 2020. All published randomised controlled trials, clinical controlled trials and case series that meet the prespecified eligibility criteria will be included. The primary outcomes include mortality, incidence and severity of adverse events, respiratory improvement, days from ventilator, duration of fever, progression rate from mild or moderate to severe, improvement of such serious symptoms as difficulty breathing or shortness of breath, chest pain or pressure, and loss of speech or movement, biomarkers of laboratory examination and changes in CT. The secondary outcomes include dexamethasone doses and quality of life. Two reviewers will independently perform study selection, data extraction and assessment of bias risk. Data synthesis will be conducted using RevMan software (V.5.3.5). If necessary, subgroup and sensitivity analysis will be performed. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system will be used to assess the strength of evidence. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not necessary since no individual patient or privacy data have been collected. The results of this review will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal or an academic conference presentation. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020190079.


Assuntos
/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(47): e23038, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217804

RESUMO

BACKGROUD: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease that involves the rectum, colon and ileum. Gancao Xiexin decoction (GCXXD) is a classic herbal formula in Shanghanlun. More and more research evidence shows that GCXXD has a certain therapeutic effect on UC. Therefore, we designed this study protocol aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of GCXXD combine with mesalazine for UC. METHODS: We will systematically search 6 databases, including PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CNKI, VIP, Wang-fang database up to July 2020 to obtain eligible studies. The primary outcomes will focus on the clinical effectiveness. Review Manager 5.3 software will be used for data analysis. RESULTS: This study will provide the systematic evidence of UC treated with GCXXD combine with mesalazine. CONCLUSION: The findings of this meta-analysis will provide evidence to judge whether GCXXD combine with mesalazine is a more effective intervention compare to mesalazine only for patient of UC. INPLASY REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202080008.

6.
PeerJ ; 8: e9946, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083112

RESUMO

Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors among women worldwide and has a high morbidity and mortality. This research aimed to identify hub genes and small molecule drugs for breast cancer by integrated bioinformatics analysis. After downloading multiple gene expression datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, 283 overlapping differentially expressed genes (DEGs) significantly enriched in different cancer-related functions and pathways were obtained using LIMMA, VennDiagram and ClusterProfiler packages of R. We then analyzed the topology of protein-protein interaction (PPI) network with overlapping DEGs and further obtained six hub genes (RRM2, CDC20, CCNB2, BUB1B, CDK1, and CCNA2) from the network via STRING and Cytoscape. Subsequently, we conducted genes expression verification, genetic alterations evaluation, immune infiltration prediction, clinicopathological parameters analysis, identification of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory molecules, and survival analysis for these hub genes. Meanwhile, 29 possible drug candidates (e.g., Cladribine, Gallium nitrate, Alvocidib, 1ß-hydroxyalantolactone, Berberine hydrochloride, Nitidine chloride) were identified from the DGIdb database and the GSE85871 dataset. In addition, some transcription factors and miRNAs (e.g., E2F1, PTTG1, TP53, ZBTB16, hsa-miR-130a-3p, hsa-miR-204-5p) targeting hub genes were identified as key regulators in the progression of breast cancer. In conclusion, our study identified six hub genes and 29 potential drug candidates for breast cancer. These findings may advance understanding regarding the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of breast cancer.

7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22595, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sleep deprivation on semen analyses, hormone levels and testicular histopathology in men. METHODS: this review will be included in a qualified case-control study. The search strategy will be implemented in PubMed, Embase, Web of science, Cochrane library, China National knowledge Infrastructure database, Wanfang Database, and the Cochrane library. We will solicit both English and Chinese case-control studies published from its beginning to July 31, 2020. The 2 examiners will independently screen, select research, extract data and evaluate quality. We use Revman5.3 software to generate funnel map, heterogeneity assessment, data analysis, subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: in the current meta-analysis, we will provide some more practical and targeted results for the study of the effects of sleep on the male reproductive system, and sum up the main limitations of previous studies. CONCLUSION: this study will provide new evidence for the effect of sleep on male reproductive system.


Assuntos
Genitália Masculina/fisiopatologia , Análise do Sêmen/estatística & dados numéricos , Privação do Sono/complicações , Sono/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Masculino , Análise do Sêmen/psicologia , Privação do Sono/psicologia
8.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 891: 173652, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069671

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine whether abscisic acid (ABA) can protect against liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA) in vivo by inhibiting apoptosis and inflammatory responses. To this end, three times per week, mice were injected intraperitoneally with TAA (200 mg/kg) for 8 weeks to induce liver fibrosis. After the fourth week of treatment, histological changes, the serum biochemical index, inflammation, and hepatocyte apoptosis factors (e.g., caspase-3, B-cell lymphoma 2 [Bcl-2], Bcl-2-associated X [Bax]) were detected to clarify its underlying mechanism. The results clearly indicated that ABA improves TAA-induced hepatic injury and collagen accumulation in mice. Otherwise, ABA significantly reduced liver fibrosis by regulating caspase-3 and Bcl-2, α-smooth muscle actin, and collagen I. ABA inhibited the nuclear factor kappa B pathway, significantly alleviating oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, ABA may be a potential therapeutic agent for preventing liver damage.

9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4207, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826924

RESUMO

The rapid spread of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 greatly threatens global public health but no prophylactic vaccine is available. Here, we report the generation of a replication-incompetent recombinant serotype 5 adenovirus, Ad5-S-nb2, carrying a codon-optimized gene encoding Spike protein (S). In mice and rhesus macaques, intramuscular injection with Ad5-S-nb2 elicits systemic S-specific antibody and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses. Intranasal inoculation elicits both systemic and pulmonary antibody responses but weaker CMI response. At 30 days after a single vaccination with Ad5-S-nb2 either intramuscularly or intranasally, macaques are protected against SARS-CoV-2 challenge. A subsequent challenge reveals that macaques vaccinated with a 10-fold lower vaccine dosage (1 × 1010 viral particles) are also protected, demonstrating the effectiveness of Ad5-S-nb2 and the possibility of offering more vaccine dosages within a shorter timeframe. Thus, Ad5-S-nb2 is a promising candidate vaccine and warrants further clinical evaluation.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Adenoviridae/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Relação Dose-Resposta Imunológica , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Sistema Respiratório/patologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32714403

RESUMO

Streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) caused insulin secretion disorder and hyperglycemia, further causing tissue and organ damage. In recent years, studies on ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) and its saponins (Ginsenosides) have proved to possess antidiabetic pharmacological activities, but the mechanism of nonsaponins on STZ-induced T2DM is still unclear. Arginyl-fructosyl-glucose (AFG) is a representative nonsaponin component produced in the processing of red ginseng. The present study was designed to assess the possible healing consequence of AFG on STZ-induced T2DM in mice and also to explore its fundamental molecular contrivances. T2DM-related indexes, fasting blood glucose levels, and body weight, histological changes, biochemical considerations, biomarkers, the mRNA countenance intensities of inflammatory facts, and variations in correlated protein manifestation in adipose tissue and liver tissue were calculated. Consequences specified that AFG usage successfully amends STZ-induced insulin conflict and liver grievance in T2DM. Systematically, AFG action diminished STZ-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in the liver. In addition, we demonstrated that AFG also attenuates apoptosis and insulin secretion disorders in T2DM by adjusting the PI3K/AKT/GSK3ß signaling pathway. At the end, these discoveries recommend that AFG averts the development of T2DM through numerous types of machinery and proposes that AFG can also be used in order to treat T2DM in the future.

11.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; 39(8): 2653-2663, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730215

RESUMO

Segmentation of pneumonia lesions from CT scans of COVID-19 patients is important for accurate diagnosis and follow-up. Deep learning has a potential to automate this task but requires a large set of high-quality annotations that are difficult to collect. Learning from noisy training labels that are easier to obtain has a potential to alleviate this problem. To this end, we propose a novel noise-robust framework to learn from noisy labels for the segmentation task. We first introduce a noise-robust Dice loss that is a generalization of Dice loss for segmentation and Mean Absolute Error (MAE) loss for robustness against noise, then propose a novel COVID-19 Pneumonia Lesion segmentation network (COPLE-Net) to better deal with the lesions with various scales and appearances. The noise-robust Dice loss and COPLE-Net are combined with an adaptive self-ensembling framework for training, where an Exponential Moving Average (EMA) of a student model is used as a teacher model that is adaptively updated by suppressing the contribution of the student to EMA when the student has a large training loss. The student model is also adaptive by learning from the teacher only when the teacher outperforms the student. Experimental results showed that: (1) our noise-robust Dice loss outperforms existing noise-robust loss functions, (2) the proposed COPLE-Net achieves higher performance than state-of-the-art image segmentation networks, and (3) our framework with adaptive self-ensembling significantly outperforms a standard training process and surpasses other noise-robust training approaches in the scenario of learning from noisy labels for COVID-19 pneumonia lesion segmentation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Aprendizado Profundo , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Algoritmos , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pandemias
12.
J Virol ; 94(17)2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581096

RESUMO

Human adenovirus type 55 (HAdV55) represents an emerging respiratory pathogen and causes severe pneumonia with high fatality in humans. The cellular receptors, which are essential for understanding the infection and pathogenesis of HAdV55, remain unclear. In this study, we found that HAdV55 binding and infection were sharply reduced by disrupting the interaction of viral fiber protein with human desmoglein-2 (hDSG2) but only slightly reduced by disrupting the interaction of viral fiber protein with human CD46 (hCD46). Loss-of-function studies using soluble receptors, blocking antibodies, RNA interference, and gene knockout demonstrated that hDSG2 predominantly mediated HAdV55 infection. Nonpermissive rodent cells became susceptible to HAdV55 infection when hDSG2 or hCD46 was expressed, but hDSG2 mediated more efficient HAd55 infection than hCD46. We generated two transgenic mouse lines that constitutively express either hDSG2 or hCD46. Although nontransgenic mice were resistant to HAdV55 infection, infection with HAdV55 was significantly increased in hDSG2+/+ mice but was much less increased in hCD46+/+ mice. Our findings demonstrate that both hDSG2 and hCD46 are able to mediate HAdV55 infection but hDSG2 plays the major roles. The hDSG2 transgenic mouse can be used as a rodent model for evaluation of HAdV55 vaccine and therapeutics.IMPORTANCE Human adenovirus type 55 (HAdV55) has recently emerged as a highly virulent respiratory pathogen and has been linked to severe and even fatal pneumonia in immunocompetent adults. However, the cellular receptors mediating the entry of HAdV55 into host cells remain unclear, which hinders the establishment of HAdV55-infected animal models and the development of antiviral approaches. In this study, we demonstrated that human desmoglein-2 (hDSG2) plays the major roles during HAdV55 infection. Human CD46 (hCD46) could also mediate the infection of HAdV55, but the efficiency was much lower than for hDSG2. We generated two transgenic mouse lines that express either hDSG2 or hCD46, both of which enabled HAd55 infection in otherwise nontransgenic mice. hDSG2 transgenic mice enabled more efficient HAdV55 infection than hCD46 transgenic mice. Our study adds to our understanding of HAdV55 infection and provides an animal model for evaluating HAdV55 vaccines and therapeutics.


Assuntos
Adenovírus Humanos/fisiologia , Adenovírus Humanos/patogenicidade , Desmogleína 2/genética , Desmogleína 2/metabolismo , Proteína Cofatora de Membrana/genética , Proteína Cofatora de Membrana/imunologia , Células A549 , Adulto , Animais , Células CHO , Linhagem Celular , Cricetulus , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas Virais
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(15): e19669, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Traditional Chinese formula Danggui Shaoyao San (DSS) has been considered a potential therapeutic approach for AD. However, no systemic review regarding its efficacy and safety has been conducted. Herein, we propose a protocol for the study that aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DSS in patients with AD. METHODS: Sixteen electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane database, Web of science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP, Wanfang database, China Biomedical Literature Database, Chinese Clinical Trial Registry System, Koreanstudies Information Service System, Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System, Research Information Sharing Service, DBpia, Korean Traditional Knowledge Portal, Japanese CiNii databases and J-STAGE databases will be searched from the inception up to February 29, 2020. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that meet the pre-specified eligibility criteria will be included. RevMan software (V.5.3.5) will be used to perform data synthesis following data extraction and publication risk assessment. Subgroup and sensitivity analysis will be performed according to the condition of included RCTs. The primary outcomes include changes in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog), and Activities of Daily Living scale (ADL). Additional outcomes are clinical effective rate and adverse event rate. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system will be used to assess the strength of the evidence. RESULTS: This study will provide a well-reported and high-quality synthesis of RCTs on the efficacy and safety of DSS for the treatment of AD. CONCLUSION: This systematic review protocol will be helpful for providing evidence of whether DSS is an effective and safe therapeutic approach for patients with AD. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not necessary as this protocol is only for systematic review and does not involve privacy data or conduct an animal experiment. This protocol will be disseminated by a peer-review journal or conference presentation. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020150450.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Atividades Cotidianas , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/etiologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Segurança , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Viruses ; 12(3)2020 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168853

RESUMO

A novel fowl adenovirus 4 (FAdV-4) has caused significant economic losses to the poultry industry in China since 2015. We established an easy-to-use reverse genetics system for modification of the whole right and partial left ends of the novel FAdV-4 genome, which worked through cell-free reactions of restriction digestion and Gibson assembly. Three recombinant viruses were constructed to test the assumption that species-specific viral genes of ORF4 and ORF19A might be responsible for the enhanced virulence: viral genes of ORF1, ORF1b and ORF2 were replaced with GFP to generate FAdV4-GFP, ORF4 was replaced with mCherry in FAdV4-GFP to generate FAdV4-GX4C, and ORF19A was deleted in FAdV4-GFP to generate FAdV4-CX19A. Deletion of ORF4 made FAdV4-GX4C form smaller plaques while ORF19A deletion made FAdV4-CX19A form larger ones on chicken LMH cells. Coding sequence (CDS) replacement with reporter mCherry demonstrated that ORF4 had a weak promoter. Survival analysis showed that FAdV4-CX19A-infected chicken embryos survived one more day than FAdV4-GFP- or FAdV4-GX4C-infected ones. The results illustrated that ORF4 and ORF19A were non-essential genes for FAdV-4 replication although deletion of either gene influenced virus growth. This work would help function study of genes on the right end of FAdV-4 genome and facilitate development of attenuated vaccines.

15.
Placenta ; 92: 54-61, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148246

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: ADAMTS-7, a member of the disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS) family, was recently identified to be associated with cell migration and invasion. However, its function on trophoblasts remains unknown. In this study, we are aimed to investigate the role of ADAMTS-7 on trophoblasts in human first trimester gestation. METHODS: The expression of ADAMTS-7 in trophoblasts and HTR8/SVneo cells is examined by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR. BrdU incorporation and Annexin V/PI staining are utilized to measure the effect of ADAMTS-7 on the proliferation and apoptosis of HTR8/SVneo cells, respectively. In addition, we detect the role of ADAMTS-7 on the invasion ability of HTR8/SVneo cells using matrigel invasion assays. The activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and integrinß1 induced by ADAMTS-7 were determined by Western blot. RESULTS: ADAMTS-7 and its substrate cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) were expressed in both primary human trophoblasts and human trophoblast cell lines. TGF-ß1 induced a continuous and significant decrease of ADAMTS-7. Inversely, IL-1ß up-regulated the ADAMTS-7 level in a dosage dependent manner. In addition, knockdown of ADAMTS-7 inhibited the growth and invasion of HTR8/SVneo cells. To the contrary, ADAMTS-7 overexpression promoted the growth and invasion of HTR8/SVneo cells. ADAMTS-7 knockdown led to a decreased level of FAK Tyr-397 phosphorylation. DISCUSSION: Our results suggest that ADAMTS-7 may regulate trophoblasts invasion through focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling.

16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(10): e19313, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growing body of scientific researches in recent years have suggested the promising effect of meditation on improving cognitive impairment of Alzheimer disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This paper aims to provide a protocol for systematic review to evaluate the efficacy of meditation on cognition performance of patient with AD and MCI. METHODS: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Chinese Biological Medicine Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang database, and VIP information database will be searched systematically and electronically from establishment to March 2020. All published randomized controlled trials related will be included. Assessment of bias risk and data analyses will be implemented by Review Manager (V.5.3.5). The strength of the evidence will be assessed by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. RESULTS: A high-quality synthesis of current evidence of meditation for patient with AD and mild cognitive impairment will be provided in this study. CONCLUSION: This protocol of systematic review will be helpful for providing evidence of whether meditation is an effective and safe intervention for cognitive impairment of patient with AD and MCI. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is unnecessary since this protocol is only for systematic review and does not involve privacy data or conduct an animal experiment. This protocol will be disseminated by a peer-review journal or conference presentation. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42019145932.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Meditação , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
17.
Diagn Interv Radiol ; 26(3): 223-229, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209506

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify the treatment options and prognostic factors for patients with initially unresectable ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Between June 2012 to December 2016, 94 consecutive patients with initially unresectable ruptured HCC were analyzed retrospectively in this study. Patients were followed until December 2017. Predictors of short-term (≤30 days) and long-term (>30 days) survival were identified by using logistic regression model and Cox proportional hazard model, respectively. RESULTS: Of the 94 patients, initial hemostasis treatment was achieved by transarterial embolization (TAE) in 59 patients, surgical hemostasis in 14, and conservative treatment in 21. Twenty-five (26.6%) patients died within 30 d after tumor rupture. In the multivariate analysis, patients treated with aggressive initial treatment strategies (TAE or surgical hemostasis) (P < 0.001) or those with better Child-Pugh class (P = 0.003) and absence of shock on admission (P = 0.001) had a better chance of short-term survival. Of the 69 patients who survived more than 30 days after initial treatment, the median survival time was 268 d. In the multivariate analysis, among the 69 who survived, early modified LCSGJ stage (P = 0.003) and staged hepatectomy as definitive treatment (P < 0.001) were significant predictors of increased long-term survival. CONCLUSION: Short-term survival of patients with initially unresectable ruptured HCC could achieve with better Child-Pugh class, absence of shock and aggressive initial treatment strategies. After survived the emergency phase of tumor rupture, long-term survival was significantly increased with early modified LCSGJ stage and staged hepatectomy therapy.

18.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 102: 103490, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877512

RESUMO

Mechanical failure of zirconia-based full-arch implant-supported fixed dental prostheses (FAFDPs) remains a critical issue in prosthetic dentistry. The option of full-arch implant treatment and the biomechanical behaviour within a sophisticated screw-retained prosthetic structure have stimulated considerable interest in fundamental and clinical research. This study aimed to analyse the biomechanical responses of zirconia-based FAFDPs with different implant configurations (numbers and distributions), thereby predicting the possible failure sites and the optimum configuration from biomechanical aspect by using finite element method (FEM). Five 3D finite element (FE) models were constructed with patient-specific heterogeneous material properties of mandibular bone. The results were reported using volume-averaged von-Mises stresses (σVMVA) to eliminate numerical singularities. It was found that wider placement of multi-unit copings was preferred as it reduces the cantilever effect on denture. Within the limited areas of implant insertion, the adoption of angled multi-unit abutments allowed the insertion of oblique implants in the bone and wider distribution of the multi-unit copings in the prosthesis, leading to lower stress concentration on both mandibular bone and prosthetic components. Increasing the number of supporting implants in a FAFDPs reduced loading on each implant, although it may not necessarily reduce the stress concentration in the most posterior locations significantly. Overall, the 6-implant configuration was a preferable configuration as it provided the most balanced mechanical performance in this patient-specific case.

19.
Antiviral Res ; 169: 104547, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251958

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection can cause neonatal microcephaly and neurological disorders. Currently, there is no designated drug for treating ZIKV infection and preventing neonatal microcephaly. In this study, we evaluated the effect of chloroquine, an anti-malaria drug, in ZIKV infected cells and mouse models. Chloroquine significantly inhibited ZIKV infection in multiple mammalian cell lines. Chloroquine treatment significantly improved the survival of ZIKV-infected 1-day old suckling SCID Beige mice and reduced viremia in adult SCID Beige mice. Importantly, chloroquine protected the fetus from maternal infection by reducing placenta to fetus viral transmission. We found that chloroquine exerts at least two mechanisms in protecting against ZIKV infection: 1) inhibiting endosomal disassembly of the internalized virus and thus reducing the release of viral RNA to the cytoplasm for replication; 2) inhibiting ZIKV RNA replication through blocking ZIKV induced autophagy. Our study suggests that chloroquine treatment warrants to be considered as a mitigation strategy for treating ZIKV infection and preventing ZIKV-associated microcephaly in pregnant women.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Endossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Viral/antagonistas & inibidores , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Zika virus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Feto , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Placenta , Gravidez , Células Vero , Viremia/tratamento farmacológico , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
20.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 749-759, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130109

RESUMO

The Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak and its link to microcephaly triggered a public health concern. To examine antibody response in a patient infected with ZIKV, we used single-cell PCR to clone 31 heavy and light chain-paired monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind to ZIKV envelope (E) proteins isolated from memory B cells of a ZIKV-infected patient. Three mAbs (7B3, 1C11, and 6A6) that showed the most potent and broad neutralization activities against the African, Asian, and American strains were selected for further analysis. mAb 7B3 showed an IC50 value of 11.6 ng/mL against the circulating American strain GZ02. Epitope mapping revealed that mAbs 7B3 and 1C11 targeted residue K394 of the lateral ridge (LR) epitope of the EDIII domain, but 7B3 has a broader LR epitope footprint and recognizes residues T335, G337, E370, and N371 as well. mAb 6A6 recognized residues D67, K118, and K251 of the EDII domain. Interestingly, although the patient was seronegative for DENV infection, mAb 1C11, originating from the VH3-23 and VK1-5 germline pair, neutralized both ZIKV and DENV1. Administration of the mAbs 7B3, 1C11, and 6A6 protected neonatal SCID mice infected with a lethal dose of ZIKV. This study provides potential therapeutic antibody candidates and insights into the antibody response after ZIKV infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Imunização Passiva , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Zika virus/imunologia , Adulto , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , China , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos/imunologia , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/isolamento & purificação , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Testes de Neutralização , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia
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