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1.
Environ Int ; 158: 106919, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic diseases have become main killers affecting the health of human, and environmental pollution is a major health risk factor that cannot be ignored. It has been reported that exogenous chemical residues including pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, veterinary drugs and persistent organic pollutants are associated with chronic diseases. However, the evidence for their relationship is equivocal and the underlying mechanisms are unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aim to investigate the linkages between serum exogenous chemical residues and 5 main chronic diseases including obesity, hyperuricemia, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia, and further reveal the metabolic perturbations of chronic diseases related to exogenous chemical residue exposure, then gain potential mechanism insight at the metabolic level. METHODS: LC-MS-based targeted and nontargeted methods were respectively performed to quantify exogenous chemical residues and acquire metabolic profiling of 496 serum samples from chronic disease patients. Non-parametric test, correlation and regression analyses were carried out to investigate the association between exogenous chemical residues and chronic diseases. Metabolome-wide association study combined with the meeting-in-the-middle strategy and mediation analysis was performed to reveal and explain exposure-related metabolic disturbances and their risk to chronic diseases. RESULTS: In the association analysis of 106 serum exogenous chemical residues and 5 chronic diseases, positive associations of serum perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) with hyperuricemia were discovered while other associations were not significant. 240 exposure markers of PFASs and 84 disease markers of hyperuricemia were found, and 47 of them were overlapped and considered as putative effective markers. Serum uric acid, amino acids, cholesterol, carnitines, fatty acids, glycerides, glycerophospholipids, ceramides, and a part of sphingolipids were positively correlated with PFASs and associated with increased risk for hyperuricemia. Creatine, creatinine, glyceryl monooleate, phosphatidylcholine 36:6, phosphatidylethanolamine 40:6, cholesterol and sphingolipid 36:1;2O were significant markers which mediated the associations of the residues with hyperuricemia. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated a significantly positive association between PFASs exposure and hyperuricemia. The most significant metabolic abnormality was lipid metabolism which not only was positively associated with PFASs, but also increased the risk of hyperuricemia.

2.
Appl Opt ; 60(23): 6878-6887, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613169

RESUMO

Effective information mining of fiber-optic distributed acoustic sensors (DAS) is so important that it attracts more and more public attention, and various manual and deep feature extraction methods have been developed. However, either way it has limits; for example, the manual features contain insufficient information, and the deep features could be unreliable because of the overfitting problem. Thus, in this paper, to avoid the disadvantages of each and make full use of the effective information carried by DAS signals, an intelligent target recognition method by utilizing both manual and deep features is proposed. The manual features are first extracted in the time domain, frequency domain, semantic domain, and from dynamic models, which are fused with the deep features extracted by a four-layer 1D convolutional neural network (CNN) through feature engineering. The features are ranked and then selected by a combined weighting method of analysis of variance and maximum information coefficient. Then finally, an optimal classifier is selected by comparing support vector machine, extreme gradient boost, random forest, and native Bayesian. In the test with real field data, four types of features, which include the manual features, the CNN features, and the combined features without and with selection, are compared with these different classifiers. As a result, it shows the combined features without selection can improve the identification ability of DAS compared with the recognition with only manual or deep features. The combined features with selection can further improve the computation efficiency and save up to 90% of time with a performance degradation of less than 1%.

3.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 9967334, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621467

RESUMO

Mycotoxins are key risk factors in human food and animal feed. Most of food-origin mycotoxins could easily enter the organism and evoke systemic toxic effects, such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), fumonisin B1 (FB1), and 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA). For the last decade, the researches have provided much evidences in vivo and in vitro that the brain is an important target organ on mycotoxin-mediated neurotoxic phenomenon and neurodegenerative diseases. As is known to all, glial cells are the best regulator and defender of neurons, and a few evaluations about the effects of mycotoxins on glial cells such as astrocytes or microglia have been conducted. The fact that mycotoxin contamination may be a key factor in neurotoxicity and glial dysfunction is exactly the reason why we reviewed the activation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial function changes of glial cells under mycotoxin infection and summarized the mycotoxin-mediated glial cell proliferation disorders, death pathways, and inflammatory responses. The purpose of this paper is to analyze various pathways in which common food-derived mycotoxins can induce glial toxicity and provide a novel perspective for future research on the neurodegenerative diseases.

4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5349, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504081

RESUMO

There is great interest in the development of micromotors which can convert energy to motion in sub-millimeter dimensions. Micromachines take the micromotor concept a step further, comprising complex systems in which multiple components work in concert to effectively realize complex mechanical tasks. Here we introduce light-driven micromotors and micromachines that rely on optoelectronic tweezers (OET). Using a circular micro-gear as a unit component, we demonstrate a range of new functionalities, including a touchless micro-feed-roller that allows the programming of precise three-dimensional particle trajectories, multi-component micro-gear trains that serve as torque- or velocity-amplifiers, and micro-rack-and-pinion systems that serve as microfluidic valves. These sophisticated systems suggest great potential for complex micromachines in the future, for application in microrobotics, micromanipulation, microfluidics, and beyond.

5.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; : 1-7, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550864

RESUMO

We previously reported an in vitro enzymatic pathway for conversion of nonfood cellulose to starch (PNAS,110 (18): 7182-7187, 2013), in which the two sequential enzymes cellobiose phosphorylase (CBP) from Clostridium thermocellum and potato alpha-glucan phosphorylase (PGP) from Solanum tuberosum were the two key enzymes responsible for the whole conversion rate. In this work CBP and PGP were fused to form a large enzyme and it turned out that the fusion protein could exhibit a good bifunctionality when PGP moiety was put at the N-terminus and CBP moiety at the C-terminus (designated as PGP-CBP). Although the coupled reaction rate of PGP-CBP was decreased by 23.0% compared with the free enzymes, substrate channeling between the two active sites in PGP-CBP was formed, demonstrated by the introduction of the competing enzyme of PGP to the reaction system. The potential of PGP-CBP fusion enzyme being applied to the conversion of cellulose to amylose was discussed.

6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(29): e26700, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Senile insomnia seriously affects the quality of life of the elderly. With the increase of the proportion of insomnia in the elderly, compared with the elderly with normal sleep quality, the elderly with long-term insomnia are more likely to have dizziness, fatigue, and decreased immunity. Acupuncture has shown good effects in the treatment of insomnia. At present, there is a lack of systematic review on acupuncture in the treatment of senile insomnia. We conduct this study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture in the treatment of senile insomnia. METHODS: We will search Chinese and English databases: China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Scientific and Journal Database, Wan Fang database (Wanfang), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library to identify articles of randomized clinical trials of acupuncture for senile insomnia. All above electronic databases will be searched from inception to September 1, 2021. RevMan 5.3 software will be used to conduct this systematic review. RESULTS: The study will prove the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for senile insomnia. CONCLUSION: We plan to submit this systematic review to a peer-reviewed journal. INPLASY REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202160106.


Assuntos
Idoso Fragilizado , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/terapia , Terapia por Acupuntura , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa
7.
FEBS J ; 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453409

RESUMO

Magnaporthe oryzae is a hemibiotrophic fungus that also needs host nutrients for propagation during infection. During its interaction with rice, reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate important signaling reactions impacting both the pathogen and the host. In M. oryzae, the accumulation of ROS is important for the formation and maturation of the infectious structure appressorium. On the other hand, upon M. oryzae infection, rice generates further ROS to restrict invasive hyphae (IH) spreading. Despite ROS receptors remaining to be identified, M. oryzae recruits several strategies to respond and suppress ROS accumulation through the secretion of various effector molecules. These findings suggest that the balance between the generation and scavenging of ROS is sophisticatedly controlled during M. oryzae-rice interaction. In this review, we discuss advances to understand the regulation mechanisms for the generation, accumulation, and transduction of ROS.

8.
Water Res ; 202: 117410, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358905

RESUMO

Excessive total nitrogen (TN) in the aqueous environment causes a notable negative impact on agriculture, human health, and the economy on a global scale. Conventional analytical techniques for determining TN in water usually involve long and tedious procedures with extensive sample preparation for digestion and titration. In recent years, lab-on-a-chip platforms have enabled in-situ measurements of water pollutants such as nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium. However, the digestion of organic nitrogen compounds in aqueous solutions still remains to be a challenge for portable analytical systems. In this paper, a portable TN analytical system is developed for on-site measurement of TN in a short assay time. It contains a TN reaction chamber for nitrogen digestion and reduction, and an optical measurement chamber for colorimetric determination of total nitrite. The ultraviolet-C (UVC)-thermal digestion method and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-standard nitrate-nitrite determination method are implemented on the TN analytical system. Thorough investigations are performed to explore the optimum reaction conditions and reagent volumes in the process of TN oxidation, nitrate reduction, and nitrite detection, including oxidation time, temperature and substrate, oxidizer concentrations, nitrate reduction time, nitrite colorimetric reaction time, and reagents stability over time. Our system can complete fast oxidation and colorimetric determination of TN within 36 min, with a measurement range of 1 µg/L to 10 g/L and a limit of detection of 1.2 mg/L (lower than the World Health Organization standard of 10 mg/L). This portable TN analytical system enables the digestion and measurement of TN in a quick, portable, and low-cost manner.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Nitratos/análise , Nitritos/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Global Spine J ; : 21925682211039186, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409875

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective. OBJECTIVES: To present rarely reported complex fractures of the upper cervical spine (C1-C2) and discuss the clinical results of the posterior temporary C1-2 pedicle screws fixation for C1-C2 stabilization. METHODS: A total of 19 patients were included in the study (18 males and 1 female). Their age ranged from 23 to 66 years (mean age of 39.6 years). The patients were diagnosed with complex fractures of the atlas and the axis of the upper cervical spine and underwent posterior temporary C1-2 pedicle screws fixation. The patients underwent a serial postoperative clinical examination at approximately 3, 6, 9 months, and annually thereafter. The neck disability index (NDI) and the range of neck rotary motion were used to evaluate the postoperative clinical efficacy of the patients. RESULTS: The average operation time and blood loss were 110 ± 25 min and 50 ± 12 ml, respectively. The mean follow-up was 38 ± 11 months (range 22 to 60 months). The neck rotary motion before removal, immediately after removal, and the last follow-up were 68.7 ± 7.1°, 115.1 ± 11.7°, and 149.3 ± 8.9° (P < 0.01). The NDI scores before and after the operation were 42.7 ± 4.3, 11.1 ± 4.0 (P < 0.01), and the NDI score 2 days after the internal fixation was removed was 7.3 ± 2.9, which was better than immediately after the operation (P < 0.01), and 2 years after the internal fixation was removed. The NDI score was 2.0 ± 0.8, which was significantly better than 2 days after the internal fixation was taken out (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Posterior temporary screw fixation is a good alternative surgical treatment for unstable C1-C2 complex fractures.

10.
Talanta ; 234: 122631, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364440

RESUMO

Some metabolites have been found to play key roles in inflammation and immunity events that are associated with diseases such as cancer, diabetes and cytokine release syndrome. Characterization upon the inflammation and immunity-related metabolites (IIMs) will be helpful to the assessment of related pathological states. Although these metabolites have been partially reported in previous studies, the methods for specific measurement of them remain lacking. In the present study, a liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry based method was developed for the targeted analyses of 45 IIMs including amino acids, organic acids, phosphatidylcholines (PCs), polyunsaturated fatty acids and hormones selected based on the literature knowledge. Direct extraction with dansyl-chloride in acetonitrile was proved to be the most efficient and time-saving strategy, in which precipitation, extraction and derivatization were integrated. IIMs derivatized for 4 min and quenched for 2 min revealed the most comprehensive abundance. Based on the defined conditions, all the IIMs had a low limit of detection smaller than 1 ng/mL with the linear range greater than three orders of magnitude. The relative standard derivations of intra-day and inter-day precisions were ranged from 2.2% to 13.4% and 1.7% to 19.5%, respectively. The recovery rates and accuracy in low concentration were 98.9% ± 5.6% and 106.7% ± 11.6%, in medium concentration were 97.1% ± 6.8% and 106.9% ± 9.5%, and in high concentration were 98.4% ± 8.9% and 98.1% ± 8.1%, respectively. Matrix effect and stability were ranged from -37.8% to 35.6% and 2.9% to 14.2%, respectively. To show the usefulness of the method, serum IIMs in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected patients and healthy subjects were determined and compared. Bile acids, lipoxygenase-mediated lipid mediators and non-enzymatic products showed global increases, whereas most of LysoPCs and cyclooxygenase-mediated prostaglandin D2 decreased in HBV serum samples. This study provided a robust approach for the characterization of IIMs.


Assuntos
Soro , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Inflamação
11.
Neurol Res ; : 1-10, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431446

RESUMO

To systematically compare 27 ICH models with regard to mortality and functional outcome at 1-month, 3-month and 1-year after ICH. The validation cohort was derived from the Beijing Registration of Intracerebral Hemorrhage. Poor functional outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale score (mRS) ≥3 at 1-month, 3-month and 1-year after ICH, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test were used to assess model discrimination and calibration. A total number of 1575 patients were included. The mean age was 57.2 ± 14.3 and 67.2% were male. The median NIHSS score on admission was 11 (IQR: 3-21). For predicting mortality at 3-month after ICH, AUROC of 27 ICH models ranged from 0.604 to 0.856. In pairwise comparison, the ICH-FOS (0.856, 95%CI = 0.835-0.878, P < 0.001) showed statistically better discrimination than other models for mortality at 3-month after ICH (all P < 0.05). For predicting poor functional outcome (mRS≥3) at 3-month after ICH, AUROC of 27 ICH models ranged from 0.602 to 0.880. In pairwise comparison with other prediction models, the ICH-FOS was superior in predicting poor functional outcome at 3-month after ICH (all P < 0.001). The ICH-FOS showed the largest Cox and Snell R-square. Similar results were verified for mortality and poor functional outcome at 1-month and 1-year after ICH. Several risk models are externally validated to be effective for risk stratification and outcome prediction after ICH, especially the ICH-FOS, which would be useful tools for personalized care and clinical trial in ICH.

12.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 205: 114288, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371449

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) is associated with cellular metabolism alterations leading to changes of the metabolome. So far, studies investigating these alterations mainly focused on comparisons of metabolite profiles of PCa patients and healthy controls. In the present study we compared for the first time metabolite profiles in a significant number of paired urine samples collected before and eight weeks after radical prostatectomy (rPX) in 34 patients with PCa. Our comprehensive non-targeted liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric metabolomics approach covered > 3000 metabolite ion masses. We annotated 23 metabolites showing significant changes eight weeks after rPX. While the levels of uridine and six acylcarnitines in urine were increased before surgery, lower levels were detected for 16 metabolites, like e.g. citrate, phenyl-lactic acid, choline, myo-inositol, emphasizing a relevant pathophysiological role of these biomarkers and the associated metabolic pathways. These results have important implications for potential use of metabolome analyses for detection of prostate cancer and related pathologic and molecular features.


Assuntos
Metaboloma , Neoplasias da Próstata , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(30): e26762, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397721

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Reliable biomarkers are of great significance for the treatment and diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study identified potential prognostic epithelial-mesenchymal transition related lncRNAs (ERLs) by the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) database and bioinformatics.The differential expression of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) was obtained by analyzing the lncRNA data of 370 HCC samples in TCGA. Then, Pearson correlation analysis was carried out with EMT related genes (ERGs) from molecular signatures database. Combined with the univariate Cox expression analysis of the total survival rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, the prognostic ERLs were obtained. Then use "step" function to select the optimal combination of constructing multivariate Cox expression model. The expression levels of ERLs in HCC samples were verified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.Finally, we identified 5 prognostic ERLs (AC023157.3, AC099850.3, AL031985.3, AL365203.2, CYTOR). The model showed that these prognostic markers were reliable independent predictors of risk factors (P value <.0001, hazard ratio [HR] = 2.400, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.667-3.454 for OS). In the time-dependent receiver operating characteristic analysis, this prognostic marker is a good predictor of HCC survival (area under the curve of 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, and 5 years are 0.754, 0.720, 0.704, and 0.662 respectively). We analyzed the correlation of clinical characteristics of these prognostic markers, and the results show that this prognostic marker is an independent factor that can predict the prognosis of HCC more accurately. In addition, by matching with the Molecular Signatures Database, we obtained 18 ERLs, and then constructed the HCC prognosis model and clinical feature correlation analysis using 5 prognostic ERLs. The results show that these prognostic markers have reliable independent predictive value. Bioinformatics analysis showed that these prognostic markers were involved in the regulation of EMT and related functions of tumor occurrence and migration.Five prognostic types of ERLs identified in this study can be used as potential biomarkers to predict the prognosis of HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Prognóstico
14.
Anal Chem ; 93(32): 11099-11107, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347447

RESUMO

As a vital hub, a mitochondrion houses metabolic pathways that play important roles in cellular physiology. Aberrant metabolites occurring in mitochondria are closely associated with the emergence and progression of various mitochondria-related diseases. Therefore, a simple and versatile approach to efficiently purify intact mitochondria is urgently needed to precisely and comprehensively characterize the composition and abundance of the mitochondrial metabolome in different physiological and pathological states. In this work, novel immunoaffinitive magnetic composites MagG@PD@Avidin@TOM20 were prepared to achieve highly selective isolation of intact mitochondria from three different hepatocytes (LO2, HepG2, and Huh7). The prepared composites inherit combined merits, including strong magnetic responsiveness, excellent stability, and specific and high affinity between antibody TOM20 and mitochondrial outer membrane protein. These mitochondria attached on MagG@PD@Avidin@TOM20 were characterized by the western blot and fluorescence microscopy to confirm their purity and integrity, which are vital for reliable mitochondrial metabolic analysis. Subsequently, ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics analysis was conducted to characterize the metabolomes in the immunopurified mitochondria and whole cells. Notably, the metabolite profiles of whole cells and mitochondria including itaconic acid, acetylcarnitine, malic acid, etc., were significantly different. These data underscore the importance of determining metabolites at the mitochondrial level, which would supplement us new knowledge at the subcellular level.


Assuntos
Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Grafite , Indóis , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Polímeros
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(32): e26865, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of insomnia is very high and seriously affects the lives of its patients. Long-term insomnia can induce other diseases and even cause sudden death. Tian Meng oral liquid is a type of Chinese patent medicine that has been used in the clinical treatment of insomnia and has certain clinical effects. However, its wide application is limited by the lack of evidence-based medical evaluation. METHODS: Using retrieval strategies, randomized controlled trials on Tian Meng oral liquid for insomnia were obtained from China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WanFang, Chinese Scientific Journals Database PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library, regardless of publication date or language. Studies were screened based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the Cochrane risk bias assessment tool was used to evaluate the quality of the studies. The meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 and STATA 14.2 software. Ultimately, the evidentiary grade for the results will be evaluated. RESULTS: This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tian Meng oral liquid in the treatment of insomnia and to provide a more reasonable option for clinical medication. CONCLUSION: Our findings will provide a strong basis for the effectiveness and safety of Tian Meng oral liquid in the treatment of insomnia.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/terapia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Metanálise como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217844

RESUMO

The present study investigated the effects of dietary Astragalus Propinquus schischkin polysaccharides on growth, immune responses, antioxidants responses and inflammation-related genes expression in Channa argus. Channa argus were randomly divided into 5 groups and fed 5 levels diets of A. propinquus schischkin polysaccharides (0, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg) for 56 days. The results showed, dietary A. propinquus schischkin polysaccharides addition can increase the final body weight, weight gain and specific growth rate, decrease the feed conversion ratio of Channa argus. And dietary A. propinquus schischkin polysaccharides supplementation can increase the levels of serum superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, lysozyme, complement 3, complement 4, immunoglobulin M and alkaline phosphatase, decrease the levels of serum malondialdehyde, cortisol, aspartate aminotransferase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase. Furthermore, dietary A. propinquus schischkin polysaccharides can decrease the gene expression levels of interleukin-1ß, interleukin-, tumor necrosis factor-α and nuclear factor-κB, increase the gene expression levels of glucocorticoid receptor in liver, spleen, kidney, intestine. To sum up, dietary A. propinquus schischkin polysaccharides can accelerate growth, enhance immune responses and antioxidants responses, regulate inflammation-related genes expression in Channa argus and the optimum amount is 1000 mg/kg.

17.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 190: 113264, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225055

RESUMO

Field-effect-transistor (FET) biosensors capable of rapidly detecting disease-relevant biomarkers have long been considered as a promising tool for point-of-care (POC) diagnosis. Rolled-up nanotechnology, as a batch fabrication strategy for generating three-dimensional (3D) microtubes, has been demonstrated to possess unique advantages for constructing FET biosensors. In this paper, we report a new approach combining the two fascinating technologies, the FET biosensor and the rolled-up microtube, to develop a microfluidic diagnostic biosensor. We integrated an excellent biosensing III-nitride material-indium nitride (InN)-into a rolled-up microtube and used it as the FET channel. The InN possesses strong, intrinsic, and stable electron accumulation (~1013 cm-2) on its surface, thereby providing a high device sensitivity. Multiple rolled-up InN microtube FET biosensors fabricated on the same substrate were integrated with a microfluidic channel for convenient fluids handling, and shared the same external electrode (inserted into the microchannel outlet) for gating voltage modulation. Using human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody as a model disease marker, we characterized the analytical performance of the developed biosensor and achieved a limit of detection (LOD) of 2.5 pM for serum samples spiked with HIV gp41 antibodies. The rolled-up InN microtube FET biosensor represents a new type of III-nitride-based FET biosensor and holds significant potential for practical POC diagnosis.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Humanos , Índio , Microfluídica , Transistores Eletrônicos
18.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(32): 6396-6405, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313290

RESUMO

Exploring and developing a new type of nanoplatform with diagnosis and treatment to effectively cure tumors and reduce side effects has become a hot spot for researchers and is of great significance. Herein, a cancer theranostic nanoplatform with dual-imaging, dual-phototherapy and laser-responsiveness to tumor microenvironment was successfully assembled by liposome (Lip) co-loaded with oil-soluble Au4Cu4 nanoclusters (NCs) and water-soluble Au25 NCs via a simple film hydration method and subsequent extraction process. The prepared Au4Cu4/Au25@Lip nanoplatform with core-shell structure and about 50 nm of uniform sphere shape presented highly biocompatible, stability and passive targeting due to the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Furthermore, the Lip composed of lecithin and cholesterol has good affinity with the cell membrane, which can realize the effective accumulation of photosensitizers at the tumor site, so that improving phototherapy effect and reducing the damage to normal tissue. The loaded oil-soluble Au4Cu4 NCs were firstly and pleasantly surprised to find possessed not only ideal photodynamic effect, but also preferable catalysis towards endogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) decomposition to produce oxygen (O2) for improving the tumor hypoxic environment besides the excellent photoluminescence ability while the water-soluble Au25 NCs own outstanding photothermogenesis effect and also photoluminescence performance. The in vitro and in vivo experiment results proved that in the Au4Cu4/Au25@Lip nanoplatform, the performances of both NCs were complementary, which presenting considerable photothermal/fluorescence imaging (PTI/FI)-guided synergistic photothermal therapy (PTT)/O2-enhanced photodynamic therapy (PDT) effect for the tumor under the irradiation of near infrared (NIR) laser. This work provides a useful inspiration and paves a new way for the assembly of NCs or namomaterials with different properties into an integrated anti-tumor theranostic nanoplatform.

19.
Sci Robot ; 6(55)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193562

RESUMO

Learning from the locomotion of natural organisms is one of the most effective strategies for designing microrobots. However, the development of bioinspired microrobots is still challenging because of technical bottlenecks such as design and seamless integration of high-performance actuation mechanism and high-density energy source for untethered locomotion. Directly harnessing the activation energy and intelligence of living tissues in synthetic micromachines provides an alternative route to developing biohybrid microrobots. Here, we propose an approach to engineering the genetic and nervous systems of a nematode worm, Caenorhabditis elegans, and creating an untethered, highly controllable living soft microrobot (called "RoboWorm"). A living worm is engineered through optogenetic and biochemical methods to shut down the signal transmissions between its neuronal and muscular systems while its muscle cells still remain optically excitable. Through dynamic modeling and experimental verification of the worm crawling, we found that the phase difference between the worm body curvature and the muscular activation pattern generates the thrust force for crawling locomotion. By reproducing the phase difference via optogenetic excitation of the worm body muscles, we emulated the major worm crawling behaviors in a controllable manner. Furthermore, with real-time visual feedback of the worm crawling, we realized closed-loop regulation of the movement direction and destination of single worms. This technology may facilitate scientific studies on the biophysics and neural basis of crawling locomotion of C. elegans and other nematode species.

20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(30)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282012

RESUMO

The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, with low precipitation, low oxygen partial pressure, and temperatures routinely dropping below -30 °C in winter, presents several physiological challenges to its fauna. Yet it is home to many endemic mammalian species, including the plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae). How these small animals that are incapable of hibernation survive the winter is an enigma. Measurements of daily energy expenditure (DEE) using the doubly labeled water method show that pikas suppress their DEE during winter. At the same body weight, pikas in winter expend 29.7% less than in summer, despite ambient temperatures being approximately 25 °C lower. Combined with resting metabolic rates (RMRs), this gives them an exceptionally low metabolic scope in winter (DEE/RMRt = 1.60 ± 0.30; RMRt is resting metabolic rate at thermoneutrality). Using implanted body temperature loggers and filming in the wild, we show that this is achieved by reducing body temperature and physical activity. Thyroid hormone (T3 and T4) measurements indicate this metabolic suppression is probably mediated via the thyroid axis. Winter activity was lower at sites where domestic yak (Bos grunniens) densities were higher. Pikas supplement their food intake at these sites by eating yak feces, demonstrated by direct observation, identification of yak DNA in pika stomach contents, and greater convergence in the yak/pika microbiotas in winter. This interspecific coprophagy allows pikas to thrive where yak are abundant and partially explains why pika densities are higher where domestic yak, their supposed direct competitors for food, are more abundant.

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