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1.
Eur J Med Chem ; 226: 113857, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628234

RESUMO

The Coronavirus disease, 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which poses a major threat to human life and health. Given its continued development, limiting the spread of COVID-19 in the population remains a challenging task. Currently, multiple therapies are being tried around the world to deal with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and a variety of studies have shown that natural products have a significant effect on COVID-19 patients. The combination of SARS-CoV-2 S protein with Angiotensin converting enzyme II(ACE2) of host cell to promote membrane fusion is an initial critical step for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, screening natural products that inhibit the binding of SARS-CoV-2 S protein and ACE2 also provides a feasible strategy for the treatment of COVID-19. Establishment of high throughput screening model is an important basis and key technology for screening S protein-ACE2 blockers. Based on this, the molecular structures of SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2 and their processes in the life cycle of SARS-CoV-2 and host cell infection were firstly reviewed in this paper, with emphasis on the methods and techniques of screening S protein-ACE2 blockers, including Virtual Screening (VS), Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR), Biochromatography, Biotin-avidin with Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay and Gene Chip Technology. Furthermore, the technical principle, advantages and disadvantages and application scope were further elaborated. Combined with the application of the above screening technologies in S protein-ACE2 blockers, a variety of natural products, such as flavonoids, terpenoids, phenols, alkaloids, were summarized, which could be used as S protein-ACE2 blockers, in order to provide ideas for the efficient discovery of S protein-ACE2 blockers from natural sources and contribute to the development of broad-spectrum anti coronavirus drugs.

2.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 10(8): 3671-3681, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584865

RESUMO

Background: The intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) method of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis can provide information regarding many physiological and pathological processes. This study aimed to investigate whether IVIM-derived parameters and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) can act as imaging biomarkers for predicting non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) response to anti-tumor therapy and compare their performances. Methods: This prospective study included 45 patients with NSCLC treated with chemotherapy (29 men and 16 women, mean age 57.9±9.7 years). Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with 13 b-values before and 2-4 weeks after treatment. The IVIM parameter pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*), perfusion fraction (f), diffusion coefficient (D), and ADC from a mono-exponential model were obtained. Responses 2 months after chemotherapy were assessed. The diagnostic performance was evaluated, and optimal cut-off values were determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and the differences of progression-free survival (PFS) in groups of responders and non-responders were tested by Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses. Results: Of 45 patients, 30 (66.7%) were categorized as responders, and 15 as non-responders. Differences in the diffusion coefficient D and ADC between responders and non-responders were statistically significant (all P<0.05). Conversely, differences in f and D* between responders and non-responders were both not statistically significance (all P>0.05). The ROC analyses showed the change in D value (ΔD) was the best predictor of early response to anti-tumor therapy [area under the ROC curve (AUC), 0.764]. The Cox-regression model showed that all ADC and D parameters were independent predictors of PFS, with a range of reduction in risk from 56.2% to 82.7%, and ΔD criteria responders had the highest reduction (82.7%). Conclusions: ADC and D derived from IVIM are potentially useful for the prediction of NSCLC treatment response to anti-tumor therapy. Although ΔD is best at predicting response to treatment, ΔADC measurement may simplify manual efforts and reduce the workload.

3.
Front Physiol ; 12: 629276, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34421629

RESUMO

Background: Chronic cough is a common complaint which affects a large number of patients worldwide. Increased cough sensitivity is a very important cause of chronic persistent cough. However, there are limited clinical diagnosis and treatment for increased cough sensitivity. Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPVl) is a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of channels which is very closely associated with respiratory diseases. However, the mechanism through which TRPV1 that influences downstream events is still poorly understood. Results: Capsaicin induced increase in cough sensitivity by upregulating the protein level of TRPV1, leading to the secretions of Substance P and neurokinin A which stimulated neurogenic inflammation. However, sinomenine, a component of traditional Chinese medicine, significantly attenuated the capsaicin-induced cough by inhibiting the expression of TRPV1 in guinea pigs. In addition, capsaicin increased the expression of SOX5 which mediated the transcriptional upregulation of TRPV1. However, pretreatment with sinomenine reduced the expression of SOX5. Conclusion: These results indicate that capsaicin induced increase in cough sensitivity by activating neurogenic inflammation, while sinomenine attenuated the increase in cough sensitivity by inhibiting the expressions of SOX5 and TRPV1 in guinea pigs. This finding may provide a novel target for the treatment of aggravated cough sensitivity.

4.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 42(8): 1267-1279, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976388

RESUMO

Brexpiprazole (Bre) is a new multi-target antipsychotic drug (APD) approved by the US FDA in 2015, and shows good therapeutic potential. But it lacks assessments on the metabolic side effects, which obstructs the treatment of schizophrenia. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1), an incretin associated with insulin action and metabolism, is involved in the metabolic syndrome (MS) caused by most APDs. In this study, we examined the adverse effects of Bre on glycolipid metabolism in rats and determined whether GLP1 was involved in Bre-caused MS. In the first part of experiments, rats were orally administered Bre (0.5 mg· kg-1· d-1) for 28 days with aripiprazole (1.0 mg· kg-1· d-1) or olanzapine (1.0 mg· kg-1· d-1) as the controls. Compared to vehicle, Bre administration significantly increased the weight gain, serum lipid (TG, TC, LDL, FFA), and blood glucose levels accompanied by the hormonal (insulin, glucagon, GLP1) imbalance, and the impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Moreover, we demonstrated that Bre administration significantly decreased the protein and mRNA levels of GLP1 in pancreas and small intestine by suppressing CaMKIIα, AMPK, and ß-catenin; Bre administration also caused islet dysfunction with decreased GLP1R, PI3K, IRß expression in pancreas, and the interference of IRS1, PI3K, p-AKT, and GLUT4 expression in the liver and skeletal muscle that represented the insulin resistance. In the second part of experiments, rats were orally administered Bre (0.5 mg· kg-1· d-1) for 42 days. We showed that co-administration with the GLP1 receptor (GLP1R) agonist liraglutide (0.125 mg· kg-1· d-1, ip) could ameliorate Bre-caused metabolic abnormalities. Our results demonstrate that GLP1/GLP1R signaling is involved in Bre-induced glycolipid metabolic disorders and co-treatment with liraglutide is an effective intervention against those abnormal metabolisms.


Assuntos
Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Quinolonas/efeitos adversos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiofenos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Liraglutida/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Pâncreas/patologia , Ratos
5.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 129, 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888111

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: The dried rhizome of Ligusticum sinense Oliv.cv. Chaxiong has been used to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, anemia and stroke. A high purity extract from chaxiong (VOC, brownish yellow oil) was extracted and separated. Its main components were senkyunolide A (SA, 33.81%), N-butylphthalide (NBP, 1.38%), Neocnidilide (NOL, 16.53%), Z-ligustilide (ZL, 38.36%), and butenyl phthalide (BP, 2.48%), respectively. Little is known about the pharmacokinetics of these phthalides in Chaxiong, and different preparations to improve the physicochemistry and pharmacokinetics of VOC have not been investigated. METHODS: At different predetermined time points after oral administration or intravenous administration, the concentrations of SA, NBP, NOL, ZL and BP in the rat plasma were determined using LC-MS/MS, and the main PK parameters were investigated. VOC-P188 solid dispersion and VOC-ß-CD inclusion compound were prepared by melting solvent method and grinding method, respectively. Moreover, the physicochemical properties, dissolution and pharmacokinetics of VOC-P188 solid dispersion and VOC-ß-CD inclusion compound in rats were assessed in comparison to VOC. RESULTS: The absorptions of SA, NBP, NOL, ZL and BP in VOC were rapid after oral administration, and the absolute bioavailability was less than 25%. After the two preparations were prepared, dissolution rate was improved at pH 5.8 phosphate buffer solution. Comparing VOC and physical mixture with the solid dispersion and inclusion compound, it was observed differences occurred in the chemical composition, thermal stability, and morphology. Both VOC-P188 solid dispersion and VOC-ß-CD inclusion compound had a significantly higher AUC and longer MRT in comparison with VOC. CONCLUSION: SA, NBP, NOL, ZL and BP in VOC from chaxiong possessed poor absolute oral bioavailability. Both VOC-P188 solid dispersion and VOC-ß-CD inclusion compound could be prospective means for improving oral bioavailability of SA, NBP, NOL, ZL and BP in VOC.

6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(4): 972-980, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645104

RESUMO

This study aims to establish a method for the determination of the concentration of five main components of phthalide target areas of Chaxiong(CPTA) and its inclusion of ß-CD in the plasma of rats, and determine the pharmacokinetic parameters, absolute bioavailability and relative bioavailability of CPTA/ß-CD inclusion compound in vivo. The plasma concentrations of senkyunolide A, N-butylphthalide, new osthol lactone, Z-ligustilide and butenyl phthalide were determined with UPLC-MS/MS. The content determination was conducted at the chromatographic conditions as follows: Shim-pack GIST C_(18)-AQ HP column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 3 µm), mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid solution(A)-acetonitrile(B), gradient elution, flow rate of 0.3 mL·min~(-1), column temperature of 35 ℃ and injection volume of 2 µL. The mass spectra were obtained with electrospray ion source(ESI), positive ion mode and multi reaction monitoring. CPTA/ß-CD inclusion compound was prepared by grinding method, DAS 2.0 software was used to model the data, and the absolute bioavailability of CPTA and relative bioavailability of inclusion compound were calculated. Finally, the methods for the determination of five components of senkyunolide A, N-butylphthalide, new osthol lactone, Z-ligustilide and butenyl phthalide in CPTA, were successfully established. The linear relationship among the five components was good within their respective ranges, r>0.99. The absolute bioavailability of the five components in rats was 22.30%, 16.32%, 21.90%, 10.16% and 12.43%, respectively. After CPTA/ß-CD inclusion was prepared, the relative bioavailability of the five components was 138.69%, 198.39%, 218.01%, 224.54% and 363.55%, respectively, significantly improved. This method is rapid, accurate and sensitive, so it is suitable for the pharmacokinetic study of extracts in traditional Chinese medicine and their preparations.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Animais , Benzofuranos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 7947342, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33294453

RESUMO

Background: Probiotics as a potential adjuvant therapy may improve the restoration of the intestinal CD4+ T-cell population in HIV-infected patients, whereas findings from clinical trials are inconsistent. This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to quantify the effects of probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic supplementation on CD4 counts in HIV-infected patients. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for relevant articles published up to March 20, 2020. Two authors independently performed the study selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment. Data were pooled by using the random effects model, and weighted mean difference (WMD) was considered the summary effect size. Publication bias was evaluated by a funnel plot and Egger's test. Results: The search strategy identified 1712 citations. After screening, a total of 16 RCTs with 19 trials were included in the meta-analysis. Pooling of the extracted data indicated no significant difference between the probiotics/prebiotics/synbiotics and placebo groups on CD4 counts (WMD = 3.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) -24.72 to 32.45, P = 0.791). In subgroup analysis, a significant increase in CD4 counts was found in the study with high risk of bias (WMD = 188, 95% CI 108.74 to 227.26, P ≤ 0.001). Egger's test showed no evidence of significant publication bias (P = 0.936). Conclusions: In summary, the evidence for the efficacy of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics in improving HIV-infected patients' CD4 counts as presented in currently published RCTs is insufficient. Therefore, further comprehensive studies are needed to reveal the exact effect of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on CD4+ cell counts.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Prebióticos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Simbióticos , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Viés de Publicação , Adulto Jovem
8.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(19): 4667-4675, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Localized primary gastric amyloidosis is a rare disorder characterized by the extracellular deposition of insoluble fibrillary protein in the stomach and can mimic various diseases on endoscopic examination, including gastrointestinal stromal tumors, gastric cancer and ulcers. CASE SUMMARIES: Here, we report a series of three cases of localized gastric amyloidosis mimicking gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma on endoscopic examination that were evaluated over the past ten years in our hospital. The different detection times of this rare disease resulted in three completely different outcomes, indicating the strong importance of early detection, diagnosis and treatment. The difficulties encountered in making an accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis are highlighted, and this report provides clinical experience for the diagnosis of localized primary gastric amyloidosis. CONCLUSION: Localized gastric amyloidosis is a rare metabolic disease that resembles MALT lymphoma. Early detection, diagnosis and treatment of localized gastric amyloidosis result in an excellent prognosis.

9.
Curr Ther Res Clin Exp ; 93: 100593, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760471

RESUMO

Background: Acute lung injury is a common complication of sepsis in intensive care unit patients. Inflammation is among the main mechanisms of sepsis. Therefore, suppression of inflammation is an important mechanism for sepsis treatment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to exhibit antimicrobial properties. Objective: The present study investigated the effects of MSCs on sepsis-induced acute lung injury. Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice underwent a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) operation to induce sepsis and then received either normal saline or MSCs (1 × 106 cells intravenously) at 3 hours after surgery. Survival after surgery was assessed. Lung injury was assessed by histology score, the presence of lung edema, vascular permeability, inflammatory cell infiltration, and cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Finally, we tested nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells activation in lung tissue. Results: As expected, CLP caused lung injury as indicated by significant increases in the histopathology score, lung wet to dry weight ratio, and total protein concentration. However, mice treated with MSCs had amelioration of the lung histopathologic changes, lung wet to dry weight ratio, and total protein concentration. The levels of cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6, interleukin 1ß, and interleukin 17 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were dramatically decreased after MSCs treatment. In contrast, expression of interleukin 10 was increased after MSCs treatment. Moreover, mice treated with MSCs had a higher survival rate than the CLP group. Neutrophil infiltration into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was attenuated after MSCs injection, but the amounts of macrophages observed in the MSC group showed no significant differences compared with the CLP group. In addition, MSCs treatment significantly reduced nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells activation in lung tissue. Conclusions: Based on the above findings, treatment with MSCs dampened the inflammatory response and inhibited nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells activation in the mouse CLP model. Thus, MSCs may be a potential new agent for the treatment of sepsis-induced acute lung injury. (Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 2020; 81:XXX-XXX).

10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(21): e20376, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common non-cancerous disease of the prostate and leads to lower urinary tract symptoms in middle-aged and elderly males. Fire needle therapy could improve the lower urinary tract symptoms associated with mild-moderate BPH in clinical practice. The aim of the present pilot study is to assess the preliminary effects of fire needle therapy on mild-moderate BPH. METHODS: The present study is a prospective parallel randomized controlled pilot trial. A total of 60 eligible participants will be randomly assigned to a treatment or control group at a 1:1 ratio. The treatment group will receive fire needle therapy and the control group will receive watchful waiting with lifestyle advice and education regarding BPH. Participants will receive intervention for 4 weeks, with a follow-up period of 4 additional weeks. Adverse events will be recorded to assess the safety and tolerability of fire needle therapy for mild-moderate BPH. The primary outcome will be the change in the International Prostate Symptom Score. The secondary outcomes will include the change in the mean number of nightly urinations, the maximum urinary flow rate, the average flow rate, and the prostate volume as measured by a B-mode ultrasound device. All outcome measures will be observed at baseline and at 4 and 8 weeks following the beginning of treatment. DISCUSSION: The present study will provide evidence of the preliminary effects of fire needle therapy on mild-moderate BPH and indicate an optimal sample size for future studies.


Assuntos
Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/terapia , Hiperplasia Prostática/terapia , Terapia por Acupuntura , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Protocolos Clínicos , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Endod ; 46(5): 648-654, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201071

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the cytobiological effects of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs) in vitro and to further explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS: SCAPs were isolated from immature third molars. Different concentrations of PRF conditioned medium (one eighth, one quarter, and one half PRF) were prepared. After pretreatment with PRF, the proliferation rate and migration capacity of SCAPs were examined by the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and wound healing assay, respectively. Alizarin red S staining was performed to examine mineralized nodule formation. Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of osteo-/odontogenic markers and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway in SCAPs. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. P values <.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The Cell Counting Kit-8 assay showed that one eighth PRF improved the proliferation rate and the migration capacity of SCAPs (P < .005), whereas one quarter PRF and one half PRF showed no significant difference compared with the control group. The expression of osteo-/odontogenic markers and the capacity to form mineralized nodules of SCAPs were promoted by one eighth PRF and one quarter PRF. In addition, PRF activated ERK signaling, and the ERK inhibitor attenuated PRF-induced osteo-/odontogenesis of SCAPs. CONCLUSIONS: PRF improved the osteo-/odontogenic differentiation of SCAPs by activating the ERK pathway; meanwhile, PRF improved the proliferation and migration of SCAPs, and one eighth PRF achieved the most obvious promotion effect. The favorable cytobiological effects of PRF on SCAPs might serve as basis for PRF applications in regenerative endodontic treatment.


Assuntos
MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular , Fibrina Rica em Plaquetas , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Papila Dentária , Odontogênese , Osteogênese , Transdução de Sinais , Células-Tronco
12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 9634328, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185227

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the prevalence of HIV and associated factors for participating HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) among older clients of female sex workers (CFSWs) in Liuzhou City and Fuyang City in China. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted and the study employed 978 male CFSWs, aged 50 years and above from October 2016 to December 2017. All participants were required to complete a questionnaire and provide blood samples for HIV testing. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the influential factors of using VCT program and tested for HIV. Results: The HIV infection prevalence rate was 1.2% and 0.5%, while 52.3% and 54.6% participants had ever utilized VCT service and tested for HIV in Liuzhou City and Fuyang City, respectively. The older CFSWs who ever heard of VCT program were more likely to uptake VCT program in both cities (ORLiuzhou = 2.224, ORFuyang = 2.421). Participants, whose marital status was married or cohabiting (ORLiuzhou = 0.548, ORFuyang = 0.495), who have stigma against individuals who are living with HIV/AIDS (ORLiuzhou = 0.273, ORFuyang = 0.371), whose monthly income is more than 500 yuan (ORLiuzhou = 0.622, ORFuyang = 0.600), and whose age is more than 60 years old (ORLiuzhou = 0.639, ORFuyang = 0.554), were less likely to visit VCT clinics. Those who are worried about HIV-infected participants were more likely to utilize VCT services in Fuyang City (AOR = 1.838, 95%CI : 1.146-2.948). Conclusion: Combine strategy will be needed to promote the utilization of VCT service, based on the socioeconomic characteristics of older male CFSWs in different cities of China.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Estigma Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
J Endod ; 46(4): 502-508, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088011

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The dentinogenesis potential of stem cells during dentin-pulp tissue regeneration may be compromised by microorganism components. Here we aimed to investigate the cell viability and osteo-/odontogenic differentiation of stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP) exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to evaluate the molecular mechanism in vitro. METHODS: CCK8 assay was used to assess the SCAP proliferation rate on exposure to different concentrations of LPS in medium. Dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1), runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx-2), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression and mineralized nodule formation were detected by Western blotting and alizarin red S staining to evaluate SCAP osteo-/odontogenic differentiation. Autophagosomes in SCAP and the autophagy-related markers Beclin 1, autophagy-related gene 5 (Atg5), and microtubule-associated proteins light chain 3 (LC3) were detected by transmission electron microscopy and Western blotting, respectively. Effects of the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine on LPS-treated SCAP osteo-/odontogenic differentiation were also examined. RESULTS: SCAP cell viability was decreased by 5 µg/mL LPS treatment on day 3. LPS (5 µg/mL) inhibited SCAP osteo-/odontogenic differentiation and decreased DMP-1, Runx-2, and ALP expression. Moreover, LC3, Atg5, and Beclin 1 expression and autophagosome number were elevated. Conversely, autophagy inhibition rescued the number of mineralized nodules and DMP-1, Runx-2, and ALP expression in the LPS-treated SCAP. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicated that autophagy was involved in the suppression of SCAP osteo-/odontogenic differentiation in an LPS-induced inflammatory environment. This study discloses autophagy modulation as a potential new strategy to improve SCAP osteo-/odontogenic differentiation in an inflammatory environment.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Papila Dentária , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Lipopolissacarídeos , Odontogênese , Células-Tronco
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994109

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the protective effects of resveratrol on acute kidney injury (AKI) in septic rats. METHODS: A septic rat model was established by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). A total of 108 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into an observation group, a 6 h resveratrol intervention group and a 12 h resveratrol intervention group. Then each group was subdivided into Sham, Sham + Res, CLP and CLP + Res groups. After surgery, the survival and morphological changes in kidney tissues were observed. Serum creatinine and urea nitrogen levels, expression of GRP78, BiP, IRE1 and p65 in kidney tissues, and serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6 and IL-10 were investigated. RESULTS: The survival rate of CLP + Res group (75.00%) significantly exceeded that of the CLP group (41.67%) (P<0.05). At postoperative 12 h, resveratrol significantly decreased serum creatinine and urea nitrogen levels (P<0.05). Resveratrol evidently relieved renal tubular swelling and luminal narrowing in CLP rats, and significantly reduced the high expressions of GRP78, BiP, phosphorylated IRE1 and p65 proteins (P<0.05). P65 was mainly located in the cytoplasm of Sham, Sham + Res and CLP + Res groups, and in the nucleus of the CLP group. At postoperative 12 h, resveratrol significantly reduced serum levels TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6 in CLP rats (P<0.05), whereas elevated that of IL-10 (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Resveratrol significantly decreased the mortality rate of septic rats and alleviated AKI, probably by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress, inhibiting activation of the NF-κB pathway and mitigating the inflammatory response.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Resveratrol/uso terapêutico , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/patologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sepse/etiologia , Sepse/patologia
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(23): 5804-5818, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496122

RESUMO

The purpose of the study is to analyze the outcomes of randomized controlled trial(RCT) of Chinese herbal medicine formula(CHMF) in the treatment of vascular cognitive impairment caused by cerebral small vessel disease(CSVD-VCI), and provide suggestions for future studies in this field. Three English databases, four Chinese databases, and two online registration websites of clinical trials were searched with use of the search strategy established in advance. Relevant RCTs published in recent ten years were screened, and necessary information was extracted to assess the risk of bias and analyze the outcomes of these RCTs. As a result, a total of 10 461 articles were retrieved, of which 8 681 were kept after de-duplication, and 41 RCTs were included after screening, with a generally higher risk of bias. The outcomes of included RCTs were classified into 9 categories, namely, clinical symptom outcomes, neuroimaging outcomes, neuroelectrophysiological outcomes, blood biochemical outcomes, hemorheology outcomes, physical signs, syndrome scores of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), clinical effective rate, and safety outcomes. Among them, the most frequently reported outcomes of included RCTs were blood biochemical outcomes, and clinical symptom outcomes showed the highest reporting rate. Besides, 9 RCTs reported syndrome scores of TCM as the outcomes and illustrated corresponding evaluation criteria. The analysis showed that the application of RCT outcomes in this field had clinical rationality and limitations, and there were also some deficiencies in the trial design level, namely, no distinction between primary and secondary outcomes, insufficient blind methods, not detailed description of outcomes, disunity of evaluation tools, and despised endpoint outcomes. These limitations and deficiencies were negatively affecting the quality of RCTs of CHMF in the treatment of CSVD-VCI. Therefore, we suggest that future researchers should be well prepared in the top-level design stage, and actively construct the core outcome set of this field, so as to improve the quality of clinical trials.


Assuntos
Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais , Disfunção Cognitiva , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Fitoterapia
16.
Synth Syst Biotechnol ; 4(3): 150-156, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508512

RESUMO

Alignment-based database search and sequence comparison are commonly used to detect horizontal gene transfer (HGT). However, with the rapid increase of sequencing depth, hundreds of thousands of contigs are routinely assembled from metagenomics studies, which challenges alignment-based HGT analysis by overwhelming the known reference sequences. Detecting HGT by k-mer statistics thus becomes an attractive alternative. These alignment-free statistics have been demonstrated in high performance and efficiency in whole-genome and transcriptome comparisons. To adapt k-mer statistics for HGT detection, we developed two aggregative statistics T s u m S and T s u m * , which subsample metagenome contigs by their representative regions, and summarize the regional D 2 S and D 2 * metrics by their upper bounds. We systematically studied the aggregative statistics' power at different k-mer size using simulations. Our analysis showed that, in general, the power of T s u m S and T s u m * increases with sequencing coverage, and reaches a maximum power >80% at k = 6, with 5% Type-I error and the coverage ratio >0.2x. The statistical power of T s u m S and T s u m * was evaluated with realistic simulations of HGT mechanism, sequencing depth, read length, and base error. We expect these statistics to be useful distance metrics for identifying HGT in metagenomic studies.

17.
Materials (Basel) ; 12(18)2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547280

RESUMO

The high-strength bolt shear connector in prefabricated concrete slab has advantages in applications as it reduces time during the construction of steel-concrete composite building structures and bridges. In this research, an innovative and advanced bolt shear connector in steel-concrete composite structures is proposed. To investigate the fundamental mechanical behavior and the damage form, 22 static push-off tests were conducted with consideration of different bolt dimensions, the reserved hole constraint condition, and the dimension of slab holes. A finite element (FE) model was established and verified by using test results, and then the model was utilized to investigate the influence of concrete strength, bolt dimension, yield strength, bolt pretension, as well as length-to-diameter ratio of high strength bolts on the performances of shear connectors. On the basis of FE simulation and test results, new design formulas for the calculation of shear resistance behavior were proposed, and comparisons were made with current standards, including AISC, EN 1994-1-1, GB 50017-2017, and relevant references, to check the calculation efficiency. It is confirmed that the proposed equation is in better agreement with the experimental results.

18.
Int J Endocrinol ; 2019: 6976712, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534454

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Owing to its unique anatomical structure and metabolism, epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) has attracted amount of attention in coronary artery disease (CAD) research. Here, we analyzed differences in proteome composition in epicardial (EAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissues (SAT) from patients with or without CAD. Methods: EAT and SAT samples were collected from 6 CAD patients and 6 non-CAD patients. Isobaric Tagging for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis combined with liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed to identify the differentially expressed proteins. Results: In total, 2348 proteins expressed in EAT and 2347 proteins expressed in SAT were separately identified. 385 differentially expressed proteins were found in EAT and 210 proteins were found in SAT in CAD patients compared to non-CAD patients. Many proteins differentially expressed in EAT of CAD patients were involved in biological functions associated with CAD development such as cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, inflammatory response, and lipid metabolism. Differential expressions of proteins (MMP9, S100A9, and clusterin) in EAT or SAT were involved in several signaling pathways such as mitochondrial dysfunction, acute phase inflammation, and LXR/RXR activation, which was confirmed by western blotting, and similar results were obtained. Conclusions: The largest profiles of differentially expressed proteins in EAT and SAT between CAD patients and non-CAD patients were identified. The significant signal pathways, mitochondrial dysfunction, and LXR/RXR activation, which differential proteins were involved in, were firstly found to play roles in EAT of CAD patients, and clusterin was firstly found to be upregulated in EAT of CAD patients.

19.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 40(12): 1603-1610, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341257

RESUMO

Cyclosporine (CsA) is characterized by a narrow therapeutic window and high interindividual pharmacokinetic variability, particularly in juvenile patients. The aims of this study were to build a population pharmacokinetic model of CsA in Chinese children with hematopathy who received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and to identify covariates affecting CsA pharmacokinetics. A total of 86 Chinese children aged 8.4 ± 3.8 years (range 1.1-16.8 years) who received allo-HSCT were enrolled. Whole blood samples were collected before allo-HSCT. Genotyping was performed using an Agena MassARRAY system. A total of 1010 trough plasma concentration values of CsA and clinical data were collected. The population pharmacokinetic model of CsA was constructed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM) software. The stability and performance of the final model were validated using bootstrapping and normalized prediction distribution errors. We showed that a one-compartment model with first-order elimination adequately described the pharmacokinetics of CsA. The typical values for clearance (CL) and volume of distribution (V) were 42.3 L/h and 3100 L, respectively. Body weight, postoperative days, CYP3A4*1 G genotype, estimated glomerular filtration rate and coadministration of triazole antifungal drugs were identified as significant covariates for CL. Weight and postoperative days were significant covariates for the V of CsA. Our model can be adopted to optimize the CsA dosing regimen for Chinese children with hematopathy receiving allo-HSCT.


Assuntos
Ciclosporina/farmacocinética , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Imunossupressores/farmacocinética , Transplante Homólogo , Adolescente , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ciclosporina/uso terapêutico , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/genética , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Polimorfismo Genético , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos , Triazóis/uso terapêutico
20.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(2): 203-209, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106540

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the mechanism of acupuncture in regulating chronic inflammation through dopamine in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: 32 SD rats were randomly divided into control, model, sham acupuncture and acupuncture groups (n=8) . COPD condition was induced by eight-week exposure to cigarette smoking and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of the rats, except for those in the control group. From the beginning of the 7th week, the acupuncture group received bilateral electroacupuncture on the Zusanli (ST-36), while the sham acupuncture group received bilateral electroacupuncture on the non-points, 30 min/time, 1/day, for 2 weeks prior to exposure to cigarette smoking. Post treatment changes in plasma dopamine and inflammatory factors [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8)], lung function [total lung capacity (TLC), functional residual capacity (FRC), the 50 µs forced expiratory volume (FEV) vs. forced vital capacity (FVC)( FEV50/FVC), the 100 µs FEV vs. FVC (FEV100/FVC), total airway resistance (RL), lung dynamic compliance (Cdyn)], and the ratio of total alveolus area to tissue area (A/t) and cell counts in the alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured. Pearson correlations between plasma dopamine and the above indicators were calculated. RESULTS: Acupuncture increased plasma dopamine and improved the inflammatory factors, lung function, A/t and BALF cell counts. Compared with the model rats, the rats that received acupuncture had higher levels of TNF-α and IL-1ß, A/t and BALF cell counts, and lung function (FEV50/FVC, FEV100/FVC, RL, Cdyn) (P<0.05). The effects of acupuncture were superior on the ST-36 points compared with the non-points. Significant correlations between lung function (FRC, RL, Cdyn) and inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8) were found (P<0.001) . TLC was correlated with IL-8, IL-1ß and A/t (P<0.05). Plasma dopamine was correlated with FRC, TLC, FEV50/FVC, FEV100/FVC (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Acupuncture can alleviate inflammation, improve lung function and raise plasma dopamine level in COPD rats, and the effect of acupuncture on lung function may be related to reducing inflammatory factors and increasing dopamine level.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Dopamina/sangue , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Pontos de Acupuntura , Animais , Eletroacupuntura , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
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