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1.
J Diabetes Complications ; 35(5): 107888, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640264

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the long-term outcomes of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients with and without diabetes in southern China. METHODS: This retrospective and observational cohort study included all adult patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who received PD in our center from January 2009 to December 2017 and were followed until December 2019. Clinical outcomes were compared by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and cumulative incidence function, and risk factors were estimated using Cox regression analyses and competing risk models. RESULTS: Of 401 patients receiving PD, 120 (29.9%) had type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), and 281 (70.1%) did not have diabetes mellitus (NDM). Patients with DM were older and had more cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidities than patients without DM. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with DM had shorter survival (Log-rank 3.215, P < 0.0001) compared with patients without DM. Patients with DM had a lower death-censored technique survival (Log-rank 2.029, P = 0.0180), however, there was no significant difference in peritonitis-free period (Log rank 1.375, P = 0.1133). These results were reproduced after taking competing events into account. Both on multivariate Cox analysis and on multivariate competing risk regression, diabetes was an independent predictor for increased mortality and technique failure, but not for peritonitis-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: Patients undergoing PD with DM had increased risk of mortality and technique failure, and closer monitoring and additional focus in patients with DM treated by PD are, therefore, warranted.

2.
J Integr Med ; 19(2): 111-119, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shenyankangfu Tablet (SYKFT) is a Chinese patent medicine that has been used widely to decrease proteinuria and the progression of chronic kidney disease. OBJECTIVE: This trial compared the efficacy and safety of SYKFT, for the control of proteinuria in primary glomerulonephritis patients, against the standard drug, losartan potassium. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTION: This was a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Primary glomerulonephritis patients, aged 18-70 years, with blood pressure ≤ 140/90 mmHg, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 45 mL/min per 1.73 m2, and 24-hour proteinuria level of 0.5-3.0 g, were recruited in 41 hospitals across 19 provinces in China and were randomly divided into five groups: SYKFT, losartan potassium 50 mg or 100 mg, SYKFT plus losartan potassium 50 mg or 100 mg. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was change in the 24-hour proteinuria level, after 48 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: A total of 735 participants were enrolled. The percent decline of urine protein quantification in the SYKFT group after 48 weeks was 8.78% ± 2.56% (P = 0.006) more than that in the losartan 50 mg group, which was 0.51% ± 2.54% (P = 1.000) less than that in the losartan 100 mg group. Compared with the losartan potassium 50 mg group, the SYKFT plus losartan potassium 50 mg group had a 13.39% ± 2.49% (P < 0.001) greater reduction in urine protein level. Compared with the losartan potassium 100 mg group, the SYKFT plus losartan potassium 100 mg group had a 9.77% ± 2.52% (P = 0.001) greater reduction in urine protein. With a superiority threshold of 15%, neither was statistically significant. eGFR, serum creatinine and serum albumin from the baseline did not change statistically significant. The average change in TCM syndrome score between the patients who took SYKFT (-3.00 [-6.00, -2.00]) and who did not take SYKFT (-2.00 [-5.00, 0]) was statistically significant (P = 0.003). No obvious adverse reactions were observed in any group. CONCLUSION: SYKFT decreased the proteinuria and improved the TCM syndrome scores of primary glomerulonephritis patients, with no change in the rate of decrease in the eGFR. SYKFT plus losartan potassium therapy decreased proteinuria more than losartan potassium therapy alone. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02063100 on ClinicalTrials.gov.

3.
Am J Nephrol ; 52(1): 8-16, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relation of tissue and circulating advanced glycation end products (AGEs) with mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients remains inconclusive. We aimed to investigate the association of serum AGEs (CML) and tissue AGEs estimated by skin autofluorescence (SAF) with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, and examine the possible modifiers for the association in HD patients with by far the largest sample size in any similar studies. METHODS: A total of 1,634 HD patients were included from the China Cooperative Study on Dialysis (CCSD), a multicenter prospective cohort study. The primary and secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality and CVD mortality, respectively. RESULTS: The median follow-up duration was 5.2 years. Overall, there was a positive relation of baseline SAF levels with the risk of all-cause mortality (per 1 AU increment, adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12, 1.50) and CVD mortality (per 1 AU increment, adjusted HR, 1.36; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.62). Moreover, a stronger positive association between baseline SAF (per 1 AU increment) and all-cause mortality was found in participants with shorter dialysis vintage, or lower C-reactive protein levels (Both p interactions <0.05). Nevertheless, there was no significant association between serum CML and the risk of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing long-term HD, baseline SAF, but not serum CML, was significantly associated with the risk of all-cause and CVD death.

4.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 106(3): e21769, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590536

RESUMO

Upon entry into the hemocoel of host insects, entomopathogenic fungi switch to yeast-like hyphal bodies that are not recognized by host hemocytes and replicate extensively in the hemolymph. The mechanism by which hyphal bodies evade host cellular immunity is not well understood. This study compares Metarhizium rileyi conidia and hyphal bodies with respect to elicitation of the immune response of Helicoverpa armigera and recognition by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). We found that the ability of host hemocytes to phagocytize and nodulate hyphal bodies was weaker than those responses against conidia, suggesting that hyphal bodies are more able to evade host cellular immunity. Additionally, we found that the binding affinity of H. armigera ß-1,3-glucan recognition proteins was much lower for hyphal bodies than for conidia. We observed no agglutination response of H. armigera C-type lectin 3 (HaCTL3) against hyphal bodies, and HaCTL3 bound significantly less to hyphal bodies than to conidia, indicating that host PRRs have a lower affinity for hyphal bodies than for conidia. This study provides direct evidence that the mechanism whereby entomopathogenic fungi escape host cellular immunity involves the inability of host PRRs to sufficiently recognize hyphal bodies to elicit the cellular immune response.


Assuntos
Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Imunidade Celular , Metarhizium/imunologia , Mariposas/imunologia , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/metabolismo , Aglutinação/fisiologia , Animais , Hemócitos/metabolismo , Hemolinfa/citologia , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Hifas/imunologia , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Mariposas/microbiologia , Fagocitose , Esporos Fúngicos/imunologia
5.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245209, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444408

RESUMO

Kidneys are one of the targets for SARS-CoV-2, it is reported that up to 36% of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection would develop into acute kidney injury (AKI). AKI is associated with high mortality in the clinical setting and contributes to the transition of AKI to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Up to date, the underlying mechanisms are obscure and there is no effective and specific treatment for COVID-19-induced AKI. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms and interactions between Quercetin and SARS-CoV-2 targets proteins by using network pharmacology and molecular docking. The renal protective effects of Quercetin on COVID-19-induced AKI may be associated with the blockade of the activation of inflammatory, cell apoptosis-related signaling pathways. Quercetin may also serve as SARS-CoV-2 inhibitor by binding with the active sites of SARS-CoV-2 main protease 3CL and ACE2, therefore suppressing the functions of the proteins to cut the viral life cycle. In conclusion, Quercetin may be a novel therapeutic agent for COVID-19-induced AKI. Inhibition of inflammatory, cell apoptosis-related signaling pathways may be the critical mechanisms by which Quercetin protects kidney from SARS-CoV-2 injury.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Renal Aguda/virologia , /fisiopatologia , Quercetina/farmacologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas/métodos , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , /isolamento & purificação
6.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 117: 103986, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359739

RESUMO

Entomopathogenic fungi have high potential for controlling insect pests, although the slow killing speed has blocked their widespread application. To increase the virulence of entomopathogenic fungi, genetic modification can be employed. Egf1.0 is an immunosuppressive protein encoded by polydnavirus, carried by parasitoid wasp Microplitis demolitor, which blocks the prophenoloxidase (PPO) activation response of host insects. In this study, we explored the feasibility of genetically modifying entomopathogenic fungi with increased virulence by expressing Egf1.0. In comparison with the wild-type parents, the median lethal concentration (LC50) of Beauveria bassiana expressing Egf1.0 against Helicoverpa armigera was reduced by 2.7-fold, and the median lethal time (LT50) was reduced by 22.8%. In vitro assay showed that recombinant Egf1.0 was able to inhibit the PPO activation response of H. armigera. In vivo assay revealed that the expression of Egf1.0 in B. bassiana caused a higher degree of suppression to PPO activation response of H. armigera. These assays suggested that the increased virulence of the transgenic fungi is due to the increased ability to suppress the host insect's immune response. Moreover, colony growth, conidia yield, and germination assays revealed that the expression of Egf1.0 in B. bassiana had no effect on its growth and development. In conclusion, the expression of Egf1.0 can significantly enhance the pathogenicity of B. bassiana against host insects.

7.
J Invest Dermatol ; 2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259831

RESUMO

The progression of diabetic complications does not halt despite termination of hyperglycemia, suggesting a "metabolic memory" phenomenon. However, whether metabolic memory exists in and affects the healing of diabetic wounds, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms, remain unclear. In this study, we found that wound healing was delayed and angiogenesis was decreased in diabetic mice, despite normalization of glycemic control. Thus, we hypothesized that transient hyperglycemic spikes may be a risk factor for diabetic wound healing. We showed that transient hyperglycemia caused persistent damage to the vascular endothelium. Transient hyperglycemia directly upregulated DNMT1 expression, leading to the hypermethylation of Ang-1 and reduced Ang-1 expression, which, in turn, induced long-lasting activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and subsequent endothelial dysfunction. An in vivo study further showed that inhibition of DNMT1 promoted angiogenesis and accelerated diabetic wound healing by regulating the Ang-1/NF-κB signaling pathway. These results highlight the dramatic and long-lasting effects of transient hyperglycemic spikes on wound healing and suggest that DNMT1 is a novel target for diabetic vascular complications.

8.
Patient Prefer Adherence ; 14: 2243-2252, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244222

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to simplify the version-1 Chinese and Western medication adherence scale for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to a version-2 scale using item response theory (IRT) analyses, and to further evaluate the performance of the version-2 scale. Materials and Methods: Firstly, we refined the version-1 scale using IRT analyses to examine the discrimination parameter (a), difficulty parameter (b) and maximum information function peak (Imax). The final scale refinement from version-1 to version-2 scale was also decided upon clinical considerations. Secondly, we analyzed the reliability and validity of version-2 scale using classical test theory (CTT), as well as difficulty, discrimination and Imax of version-1 and version-2 scale using IRT in order to conduct scale evaluation. Results: For scale refinement, the 26-item version-1 scale was reduced to a 15-item version-2 scale after IRT analyses. For scale evaluation using CTT, internal consistency reliability (total Cronbach α = 0.842) and test-rest reliability (r = 0.909) of version-2 scale were desirable. Content validity indicated 3 components of knowledge, belief and behaviors. We found meritorious construct validity with 3 detected components as the same construct of medication knowledge (items 1-9), medication behavior (items 13-15), and medication belief (items 10-12) based upon exploratory factor analysis. The correlation between the version-2 scale and Morisky, Green and Levine scale (MGL scale) was weak (Pearson coefficient = 0.349). For scale evaluation with IRT, the findings showed enhanced discrimination and decreased difficulty of most retained items (items 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15), decreased Imax of items 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 11, 14, as well as increased Imax of items 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15 in the version-2 scale than in the version-1 scale. Conclusion: The original Chinese and Western medication adherence scale was refined to a 15-item version-2 scale after IRT analyses. The scale evaluation using CTT and IRT showed the version-2 scale had the desirable reliability, validity, discrimination, difficulty, and information providedoverall. Therefore, the version-2 scale is clinically feasible to assess the medication adherence of CKD patients.

9.
Magn Reson Chem ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084084

RESUMO

The local structure, d-d transition band, and spin Hamiltonian parameters (SHPs) are theoretically studied for the V4+ probe in Na2 O-PbO-Bi2 O3 -SiO2 (NPBS) glass ceramics containing V2 O5 dopant with various concentration x (0 ≤ x ≤ 5 mol%) by using the perturbation formulas of the SHPs for tetragonally compressed octahedral 3d1 clusters. The first decreasing (or increasing) and then increasing (or decreasing) d-d transition band (= 10 Dq ) and hyperfine structure constants A// and A⊥ (or g factors g// and g⊥ ) with x can be suitably simulated with the similarly varying Fourier type concentration functions of cubic field parameter Dq , covalence factor N, core polarization constant κ, and reduction factor H (or relative tetragonal compression ratio ρ), with the minima (or maxima) at the middle concentration x = 3 mol%, respectively. The above concentration variations of SHPs and the related quantities may originate from the modifications of local crystal field strength, tetragonal compression, and electron cloud distribution near the impurity V4+ with x, corresponding to the highest [V4+ ]/[V5+ ] ratio at 3 mol%. Present studies would be helpful to explore novel sodium lead bismuth silicate glass ceramics by modifying the concentration of V2 O5 dopant.

10.
Cancer Manag Res ; 12: 9679-9689, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116827

RESUMO

Introduction: Clinical studies have indicated a relationship between diabetic nephropathy (DN) and the incidence and prevalence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the mechanism linking diabetic nephropathy and renal cell carcinoma has not yet to be identified. Methods: In this study, a total of 42 male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to a DN group (n=35) and a control group (n=7). All animals in the DN group were unilaterally nephrectomized and treated with streptozotocin with the development of blood glucose levels >16.7mmol/L and dominant proteinuria and were compared to controls without such changes. Histopathologic alterations in the kidneys were examined by HE staining and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry. Differentially expressed genes were identified and validated by RNA-seq and PCR. Results: As the results, except for two rats that failed to develop the DN model and were excluded from the analysis, 33 rats in the DN group with overt signs of DN demonstrated significantly higher food and water intake, urine production, and urine protein and urinary protein/creatinine ratio than controls. Overall, 15.2% (n=5/33) of DN animals developed RCC while none tumors were observed in the control group (n=0/7). RNA-seq analysis in these animals indicated different TRPV5 gene expression and calcium pathway expression in DN animals with developing tumors, when compared with animals with no obvious tumors. In addition, DN animals diagnosed with RCC showed increased expression of GLUT2 and c-met, when compared to controls and DN animals without tumors. Discussion: In conclusion, the disordered calcium metabolism, especially disturbed TRPV5 mediated Ca2+ signal, may have been related to the development of RCC in DN rats. Further studies related to the detailed mechanism are still needed.

11.
Vaccine ; 38(47): 7422-7432, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A lower conversion vaccination rate and a more rapid decline in antibody titers over time in dialysis patients raise concerns about the effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination (PV) in this population, which has not been systematically reviewed. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase and three Chinese databases from inception until February 29th, 2020 for interventional, cohort and case-control studies evaluating PV alone or combined with influenza vaccination (IV) on outcomes (all-cause mortality, pneumonia, cardiovascular events, antibody response and safety). Independent reviewers completed citation screening, data extraction, risk assessment, meta-analysis, and GRADE rating of the quality of evidence. RESULTS: Five cohort studies and one quasirandomized control trial enrolling 394,299 dialysis patients with high to moderate quality were included. Compared with unvaccinated individuals, those receiving PV had lower risk of all-cause mortality [Adjusted relative risk (RR) 0.73, 95% CI 0.67-0.79, I2 = 31.1%, GRADE low certainty] and cardiovascular events (adjusted RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.69-0.93, I2 = 47.2%, GRADE low certainty) without serious adverse effect reported. Compared with no vaccination, lower all-cause mortality was observed in those receiving PV combined with IV (Adjusted RR 0.71, 95%CI 0.67-0.75, I2 = 63.3%), PV alone (Adjusted RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.78-0.94,I2 = 0%], and IV alone (Adjusted RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.73-0.79, I2 = 0%]. There was no difference between pneumococcal vaccinated patients vs non-vaccinated patients with respect to pneumonia. Immune response to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-13 was weaker in polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine-23-pre-vaccinated compared with vaccine-naive patients. CONCLUSIONS: The use of pneumococcal vaccine especially combined with influenza vaccination is associated with lower risks of all-cause mortality but may be affected by residual confounding/healthy vaccinee bias.

12.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(9): e1008901, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997722

RESUMO

The immune system of a host functions critically in shaping the composition of the microbiota, and some microbes are involved in regulating host endocrine system and development. However, whether the immune system acts on endocrine and development by shaping the composition of the microbiota remains unclear, and few molecular players or microbes involved in this process have been identified. In the current study, we found that RNA interference of a C-type lectin (HaCTL3) in the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera suppresses ecdysone and juvenile hormone signaling, thus reducing larval body size and delaying pupation. Depletion of HaCTL3 also results in an increased abundance of Enterocuccus mundtii in the hemolymph, which may escape from the gut. Furthermore, HaCTL3 and its controlled antimicrobial peptides (attacin, lebocin, and gloverin) are involved in the clearance of E. mundtii from the hemolymph via phagocytosis or direct bactericidal activity. Injection of E. mundtii into larval hemocoel mimics HaCTL3-depleted phenotypes and suppresses ecdysone and juvenile hormone signaling. Taken together, we conclude that HaCTL3 maintains normal larval growth and development of H. armigera via suppressing the abundance of E. mundtii in the hemolymph. Our results provide the first evidence of an immune system acting on an endocrine system to modulate development via shaping the composition of microbiota in insect hemolymph. Thus, this study will deepen our understanding of the interaction between immunity and development.


Assuntos
Homeostase/fisiologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Insetos/metabolismo , Fagocitose/fisiologia
13.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 412, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal choice of treatment, with hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD), for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, is still controversial. Only a few studies comparing HD and PD have been conducted in China, which has the largest number of dialysis patients in the world. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on ESRD patients who began renal replacement treatment from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2017 in Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine. Propensity scoring match was applied to balance the baseline conditions and multivariate Cox regression analysis to compare the mortality between HD and PD patients, and evaluated the correlation between mortality and various baseline characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 436 HD patients and 501 PD patients were included in this study, and PD patients had better survival than HD patients, but the difference was not statistically significant. For younger ESRD patients (≤60-year-old), the overall survival of PD was better than that of HD, but HD was associated with a lower risk of death in older patients (> 70-year-old). This difference was still significant after adjustment for a variety of confounding factors. Female gender, age at dialysis initiation, cardiovascular disease, cholesterol, and HD were risk factors of all-cause mortality in the younger subgroup, while PD was risk factor in the older subgroup. CONCLUSION: PD may be a better choice for younger ESRD patients, and HD for the older patients.

14.
Postgrad Med ; : 1-9, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758047

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A questionnaire which provides desirable reliability and validity has been previously developed to assess the disease awareness of diagnosed chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. However, conventional paper questionnaires often have disadvantages, including recall bias. To substantially improve this, we therefore aimed to explore the feasibility of developing a smartphone-based electronic version (e-version) based upon its original paper version and subsequently tested its validity, reliability, and applicability. METHODS: A pilot study was conducted at Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine in Guangzhou, China, during August 2019. The e-version had identical content to the paper version and was adapted in terms of layout and assisted functions via the Wechat-incorporated Wen-Juan-Xing platform. Eligible patients with diagnosed CKD were invited to participate and were assigned the e-version. Randomly selected respondents received a test-retest of the same e-version 2 weeks after their first completion. In some instances, psychometric properties, including validity and reliability of the e-version, were examined. In others, its clinical application was also tested, which included comparisons among the clinical profiles of patients who had/had not responded to the questionnaire as well as patients with above or below average questionnaire scores. RESULTS: Of the 225 patients screened, 217 were enrolled to participate, with a response rate of 52.5%. Desirable reliability (Cronbachα = 0.962, ICC for total scores = 0.948), while good convergent validity (Cronbachα = 0.962) and low discriminant validity (one extracted component), of the e-version were detected. Performing inter-group comparisons highlighted statistical differences in terms of higher education level (z = -2.436, P = 0.015) and earlier CKD stages (z = -1.978, P = 0.048), with these patients often preferring to respond. No significant differences were detected in the clinical profiles between respondents who obtained an above or below average questionnaire score. CONCLUSION: The e-version is reliable but was not shown to be a valid approach. Audiences with higher education levels and less advanced disease condition may prefer to respond to the e-version. Adaptation of this e-questionnaire, from its original paper version, may not be a direct transition and meticulous modifications may be required during the transition process. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR1900024633).

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856112

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study investigated the correlation of nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) expression with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computerised tomography scan (PET/CT)-related parameters and compared the diagnostic value of NPM1 with that of the positive biomarker TTF1 in lung adenocarcinoma patients. METHODS: Forty-six lung adenocarcinoma patients who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT before pulmonary surgery were retrospectively analysed. Metabolic parameters including SUVmax, SUVmean, metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were calculated from 18F-FDG PET imaging data. The expression levels of NPM1 and TTF1 were assessed using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and immunohistochemistry of tumour tissues and adjacent normal lung tissues. We examined the association between the frequency of NPM1 and TTF1 expression and the metabolic parameters. RESULTS: Lung adenocarcinoma samples expressed higher levels of NPM1 than adjacent normal lung epithelial tissues. NPM1 showed higher specificity and sensitivity for lung adenocarcinoma compared with TTF1 (p < 0.001). SUVmax, SUVmean and TLG correlated with NPM1 expression (p < 0.001). MTV was inversely correlated with TTF1 (p < 0.01). SUVmax was the primary predictor of NPM1 expression by lung adenocarcinoma (p < 0.01). A cutoff value for the SUVmax of 3.93 allowed 90.9% sensitivity and 84.6% specificity for predicting NPM1 overexpression in lung adenocarcinoma. CONCLUSION: NPM1 overexpression correlated with 18F-FDG PET/CT metabolic parameters and improved diagnostic accuracy in lung adenocarcinoma. SUVmax on 18F-FDG PET/CT may estimate NPM1 expression for targeted therapy of lung adenocarcinoma.

16.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 1092, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848732

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is often accompanied with colon mucosal barrier damage and gut microbiota disturbance, which strongly associate with up-regulated inflammation and kidney tubulointerstitial fibrosis. However, few interventions could protect the damaged barrier effectively. Rheum palmatum L or rhubarb is a common herbal medicine which is widely used to protect the colon mucosal barrier. In previous studies, we found that rhubarb intervention may reduce renal inflammation and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, via gut microbiota modification. However, whether intestinal barrier function could be improved by rhubarb intervention and the relationship with intestinal flora are still unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of rhubarb enema on intestinal barrier, and further analyzed the relationship with gut microbiota in 5/6 nephrectomy rats. Results indicated that rhubarb enema improved the intestinal barrier, regulated gut microbiota dysbiosis, suppressed systemic inflammation, and alleviated renal fibrosis. More specifically, rhubarb enema treatment inhibited the overgrowth of conditional pathogenic gut bacteria, including Akkermansia, Methanosphaera, and Clostridiaceae in CKD. The modification of gut microbiota with rhubarb intervention displayed significant correlation to intestinal barrier markers, TLR4-MyD88-NF-κB inflammatory response, and systemic inflammation. These results revealed that rhubarb enema could restore intestinal barrier by modifying several functional enteric bacteria, which may further explain the renal protection mechanism of the rhubarb enema.

17.
Insect Sci ; 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677271

RESUMO

Mermithid nematodes, such as Ovomermis sinensis, are used as biological control agents against many insect pests, including cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera). However, given the host's robust immune system, the infection rate of O. sinensis is low, thus restricting its widespread use. To understand the host defense mechanisms against mermithid nematodes, we identified and characterized a protein involved in the recognition of O. sinensis, the potential O. sinensis-binding protein C-type lectin 1 (HaCTL1a and/or HaCTL1b), which was eluted from the surface of O. sinensis after incubation with H. armigera plasma. HaCTL1b is homologous to the previously reported HaCTL1a protein. HaCTL1 was predominantly expressed in hemocytes and was induced by the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone through ecdysone receptor (HaEcR) or ultraspiracle (HaUSP), or both. Binding assays confirmed the interactions of the HaCTL1 proteins with O. sinensis but not with Romanomermis wuchangensis, a parasitic nematode of mosquito. Moreover, the HaCTL1 proteins were secreted into the hemocoel and promoted hemocyte-mediated encapsulation and phagocytosis. A knockdown of HaEcR and/or HaUSP resulted in compromised encapsulation and phagocytosis. Thus, HaCTL1 appears to modulate cellular immunity in the defense against parasitic nematodes, and the 20-hydroxyecdysone-HaEcR-HaUSP complex is involved in regulating the process.

18.
J Cancer ; 11(16): 4851-4860, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32626532

RESUMO

Background: To investigate the expression of methyltransferase 3 (METTL3) and its relationship with 18F-FDG uptake in patients with esophageal carcinoma (ESCA). Materials and methods: This study analyzed the expression of METTL3 in ESCA and its relationship with clinicopathological features by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on 57 tumor tissues of ESCA patients who underwent PET/CT scan before surgery to evaluate the expression of METTL3, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), and hexokinase 2 (HK2) in tumor tissues and peritumoral tissues. Analyze the relationship between SUVmax with METTL3, HK2, and GLUT1 expression. Results: The expression of METTL3, GLUT1, and HK2 was significantly increased in ESCA tissues compared with normal tissues (p < 0.001). The expression of METTL3 was correlated with tumor size and histological differentiation (p < 0.05), and there was no significant difference between age, sex, pathological types, tumor staging, or lymph node metastasis (p > 0.05). The SUVmax was significantly higher in tumors with high METTL3 expression (17.822±6.249) compared to low METTL3 expression (9.573±5.082) (p < 0.001). There was a positive correlation between the SUVmax and METTL3 expression in ESCA (r2 = 0.647, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis confirmed the association between SUVmax and METTL3 expression (p < 0.05). GLUT1 and HK2 expression in ESCA was positively correlated with 18F-FDG uptake and METTL3 status (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The high expression of METTL3 is related to the high SUVmax in ESCA, and METTL3 may increase 18F-FDG uptake by regulating GLUT1 and HK2.

19.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 288, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergo open surgical techniques for peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter placement. An alternative method to PD catheter implantation is the half-percutaneous ("Half-Perc") technique based on a modified trocar that is performed by a nephrologist. The single-center, retrospective, observational, cohort study presented here aimed to compare the effects of the "Half-Perc" technique with the traditional open surgery on peritoneal catheter insertion. METHODS: From January 2015 to January 2018, 240 ESRD patients who received initial PD catheter placement were divided into two groups based on the "Half-Perc" technique or open surgery. All patients were followed up for 365 days or until loss of initial PD catheter or death. Prism 5 software was used to analyze baseline characteristics, operation-related parameters, mechanical complications and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: The "Half-Perc" technique showed shorter operation time, shorter incision length, lower postoperative pain scores and quick initiation of the PD program compared to the open surgery. After the 365-day follow-up, the "Half-Perc" group showed a higher rate of catheter dysfunction (4% versus 0.9%) that was corrected by conservative treatment in most patients and a lower rate of peritonitis (4% versus 9.6%) but mechanical complications and clinical outcomes did not differ between the two groups. There was also no significant difference based on overall patient mortality or catheter removal. One-year initial catheter survival and true catheter survival were not statistically different between the groups. CONCLUSION: The "Half-Perc" placement of the PD catheter using a modified metal trocar appears to be a non-inferior alternative method and carries minimal invasiveness and risk compared to open surgical placement.

20.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(7): e16018, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a growing trend in the use of mobile health (mHealth) technologies in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and telemedicine, especially during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. Tongue diagnosis is an important component of TCM, but also plays a role in Western medicine, for example in dermatology. However, the procedure of obtaining tongue images has not been standardized and the reliability of tongue diagnosis by smartphone tongue images has yet to be evaluated. OBJECTIVE: The first objective of this study was to develop an operating classification scheme for tongue coating diagnosis. The second and main objective of this study was to determine the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of tongue coating diagnosis using the operating classification scheme. METHODS: An operating classification scheme for tongue coating was developed using a stepwise approach and a quasi-Delphi method. First, tongue images (n=2023) were analyzed by 2 groups of assessors to develop the operating classification scheme for tongue coating diagnosis. Based on clinicians' (n=17) own interpretations as well as their use of the operating classification scheme, the results of tongue diagnosis on a representative tongue image set (n=24) were compared. After gathering consensus for the operating classification scheme, the clinicians were instructed to use the scheme to assess tongue features of their patients under direct visual inspection. At the same time, the clinicians took tongue images of the patients with smartphones and assessed tongue features observed in the smartphone image using the same classification scheme. The intra-rater agreements of these two assessments were calculated to determine which features of tongue coating were better retained by the image. Using the finalized operating classification scheme, clinicians in the study group assessed representative tongue images (n=24) that they had taken, and the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of their assessments was evaluated. RESULTS: Intra-rater agreement between direct subject inspection and tongue image inspection was good to very good (Cohen κ range 0.69-1.0). Additionally, when comparing the assessment of tongue images on different days, intra-rater reliability was good to very good (κ range 0.7-1.0), except for the color of the tongue body (κ=0.22) and slippery tongue fur (κ=0.1). Inter-rater reliability was moderate for tongue coating (Gwet AC2 range 0.49-0.55), and fair for color and other features of the tongue body (Gwet AC2=0.34). CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our study has shown that tongue images collected via smartphone contain some reliable features, including tongue coating, that can be used in mHealth analysis. Our findings thus support the use of smartphones in telemedicine for detecting changes in tongue coating.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Fotografação , Smartphone , Telemedicina , Doenças da Língua/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus , Técnica Delfos , Humanos , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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