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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1427, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188862

RESUMO

Anthropogenic environments have been implicated in enrichment and exchange of antibiotic resistance genes and bacteria. Here we study the impact of confined and controlled swine farm environments on temporal changes in the gut microbiome and resistome of veterinary students with occupational exposure for 3 months. By analyzing 16S rRNA and whole metagenome shotgun sequencing data in tandem with culture-based methods, we show that farm exposure shapes the gut microbiome of students, resulting in enrichment of potentially pathogenic taxa and antimicrobial resistance genes. Comparison of students' gut microbiomes and resistomes to farm workers' and environmental samples revealed extensive sharing of resistance genes and bacteria following exposure and after three months of their visit. Notably, antibiotic resistance genes were found in similar genetic contexts in student samples and farm environmental samples. Dynamic Bayesian network modeling predicted that the observed changes partially reverse over a 4-6 month period. Our results indicate that acute changes in a human's living environment can persistently shape their gut microbiota and antibiotic resistome.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122894

RESUMO

Tigecycline serves as one of the last-resort antibiotics to treat multidrug-resistant (including carbapenem-resistant) pathogens. However, the recently emerged plasmid-mediated tigecycline resistance mechanisms, Tet(X), challenge the clinical efficacy of this class of antibiotics. In this study, we detected one hundred and eighty tet(X)-harboring Acinetobacter isolates (8.9%, n=180) from 2018 samples collected from the avian farms and adjacent environment in China. Eighteen tet(X)-harboring isolates (10.0%) were found to co-carry the carbapenemase gene bla NDM-1, mostly from waterfowls samples (94.4%, 17/18). Interestingly, among six Acinetobacter strains, the tet(X) and bla NDM-1 were found to co-localize on the same plasmids. Moreover, WGS revealed a novel orthologue of tet(X) in the six tet(X)- and bla NDM-1-co-harboring isolates. Inverse PCR suggested that the two tet(X) genes form a single transposable unit and may be co-transferred. Sequence comparison between six tet(X) and bla NDM-1-co-harboring plasmids showed they shared a highly homologous plasmid backbone, even though they were isolated from different Acinetobacter species (3 A. indicus, 2 A. schindleri, and 1 A. lwoffii) in various sources and from different geological regions, suggesting the horizontal genetic transfer of a common tet(X) and bla NDM-1-co-harboring plasmid among Acinetobacter species in China. Emergence and spread of such plasmids and strains are of great clinical concern, and measures must be implemented to avoid their dissemination.

3.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 81, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gamithromycin is a macrolide approved for the treatment of bovine and swine respiratory diseases. Our study aims to establish the clinical breakpoint and optimum dose regimen for gamithromycin against Haemophilus parasuis in piglets. RESULTS: Gamithromycin was well absorbed and fully bioavailable (87.2-101%) after intramuscular and subcutaneous administrations. The MICs of gamithromycin for 192 clinical H. parasuis isolates ranged from 0.008 to 128 mg/L and the epidemiological cutoff (ECOFF) was calculated as 1.0 mg/L. A large potentiation effect of serum on in vitro susceptibility of gamithromycin was observed for H. parasuis, with broth/serum ratios of 8.93 for MICs and 4.46 for MBCs, respectively. The postantibiotic effects were 1.5 h (1 × MIC) and 2.4 h (4 × MIC), and the postantibiotic sub-MIC effects ranged from 2.7 to 4.3 h. Gamithromycin had rapid and concentration-dependent killing against H. parasuis, and the AUC24h/MIC ratio correlated well with ex vivo efficacy (R2 = 0.97). The AUC24h/MIC targets in serum associated with bacteriostatic, bactericidal and eradication activities were 15.8, 30.3 and 41.2, respectively. The PK/PD-based population dose prediction indicated a probability of target attainment (PTA) for the current marketed dose (6 mg/kg) of 88.9% against H. parasuis. The calculated gamithromycin dose for a PTA ≥ 90% was 6.55 mg/kg. Based on Monte Carlo simulations, the PK/PD cutoff (COPD) was determined to be 0.25 mg/L. CONCLUSION: The determined cutoffs and PK/PD-based dose prediction will be of great importance in gamithromycin resistance surveillance and serve as an important step in the establishment of optimum dose regimen and clinical breakpoints.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091099

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The emergence and spread of plasmid-encoded tet(X3/X4) genes that confer high-level tigecycline and eravacycline resistance in Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter spp. pose serious threats to human and animal health. We developed a rapid and robust assay to detect Tet(X3/X4) in Gram-negative bacteria based on eravacycline degradation by the presence of the Tet(X) enzyme in the test strain. METHODS: This tetracycline inactivation method (TIM) is based on the degradation of eravacycline by the Tet(X3/X4)-producing strain, which results in reduced eravacycline activity against an acid-producing thermophile Bacillus stearothermophilus indicator strain. For Tet(X)-negative strains, eravacycline retains its antimicrobial activity. Coupled with a pH-sensitive dye (bromocresol purple), the reduced colorimetric inhibition zone can be measured to determine the production of Tet(X3/X4). One hundred and eighteen isolates, including 30 tet(X4)-positive E. coli, 30 tet(X3)-positive Acinetobacter spp. and 58 tet(X)-negative E. coli and Acinetobacter spp., were examined to evaluate the performance of this TIM. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity for E. coli carrying tet(X4) was 96.7% and 100%, respectively, and for Acinetobacter spp. carrying tet(X3) both were 100%. The TIM assay can be completed within 6.5 h. CONCLUSIONS: The TIM is a simple, rapid and cost-effective method for the detection of plasmid-mediated high-level tigecycline resistance in E. coli and Acinetobacter spp.

5.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 55(1): 105806, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533074

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the colistin-resistant bacterial population in the gut and assess diversity of mcr-1 transmission within a single individual. METHODS: Large numbers of isolates (>100 colonies/chicken cecum sample) were collected from nine randomly selected mcr-1-positive chickens in China and used for comprehensive microbiological, molecular and comparative genomics analyses. RESULTS: Of 1273 colonies, 968 were mcr-1 positive (962 Escherichia coli, two Escherichia fergusonii, two Klebsiella pneumoniae and two Klebsiella quasipneumoniae). One to six colistin-resistant species and three to 10 E. coli pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) clusters could be identified from each sample. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analysis of the representative E. coli strains revealed three to nine sequence types observed in a single chicken host. The mcr-1 genes are located in either chromosomes or plasmids of different types, including IncI2 (n=30), IncHI2 (n=14), IncX4 (n=4), p0111(n=2) and IncHI1(n=1). Strikingly, in single cecum samples, one to five Inc type plasmids harbouring mcr-1 could be identified. Great diversity was also observed for the same IncI2 plasmid within a single chicken host. In addition, up to eight genetic contexts of the mcr-1 gene occurred within a single chicken. CONCLUSIONS: There is extensive heterogeneity and flexibility of mcr-1 transmission in chicken gut due to bacterial species differences, distant clonal relatedness of isolates, many types and variations of mcr-positive plasmids, and the flexible genetic context of the mcr-1 gene. These compelling findings indicate that the gut is a 'melting pot' for active horizontal transfer of the mcr-1 gene.

6.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 64(2)2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712202

RESUMO

We identified fosA3 at a rate of 2.6% in 310 Salmonella isolates from food animals in Guangdong province, China. The fosA3 gene was genetically linked to diverse antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), including mcr-1, bla CTX-M-14/55, oqxAB, and rmtB These gene combinations were embedded in heterogeneous fosA3-containing multidrug resistance regions on the transferable ST3-IncHI2 and F33:A-:B- plasmids and the chromosome. This indicated a great flexibility of fosA3 cotransmission with multiple important ARGs among Salmonella species.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591124

RESUMO

Recently, a novel plasmid-mediated tigecycline resistance mechanism, Tet(X4), has raised a global antimicrobial resistance concern (1, 2).….

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481444

RESUMO

We reported the complete nucleotide sequence of a tet(X4)-carrying plasmid, pSTB20-1T, from a tigecycline-resistant Escherichia coli isolate in China. Sequence analysis indicated that pSTB20-1T contains a hybrid plasmid backbone and a tet(X4)-containing multidrug resistance region, likely originated through recombination of multiple plasmids. tet(X4) was flanked by two ISCR2, which may be responsible for tet(X4) mobilization. The occurrence and transmission of this novel hybrid plasmid may exacerbate the spread of the clinically significant tet(X4) gene.

10.
Eur J Med Chem ; 181: 111594, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419741

RESUMO

A series of novel acetamine phenyl pleuromutilin derivatives incorporating 2-aminothiophenol moieties into the C14 side chain were synthesized via acylation reactions under mild conditions. The in vitro antibacterial activities of the synthesized derivatives against three Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA ATCC 43300, ATCC 29213 and AD 3) and two Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and 9-1) were evaluated by the broth dilution method. Most of the synthesized derivatives displayed potent activities. Compound 27 was found to be the most active antibacterial derivative against MRSA (minimal inhibitory concentration = 0.015 µg/mL) which may lead to a promising antibacterial drug. Furthermore, compound 27 displayed more rapid bactericidal kinetic than tiamulin in in vitro time-kill studies and possessed a longer PAE than tiamulin against MRSA. The PK properties of compound 27 were then measured. The half life (t1/2), clearance rate (Cl) and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0→∞) of compound 27 were 6.88 h, 21.64 L/h/kg and 0.48 µg h/mL, respectively. The in vivo antibacterial activities of compound 27 against MRSA were further evaluated using thigh infection model and systemic infection model. Compound 27 possessed superior antibacterial efficacy to tiamulin against MRSA infection in both model.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Compostos Policíclicos/química , Compostos Policíclicos/farmacologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Anilina/síntese química , Compostos de Anilina/química , Compostos de Anilina/farmacologia , Compostos de Anilina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Diterpenos/síntese química , Diterpenos/uso terapêutico , Desenho de Drogas , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Compostos Policíclicos/síntese química , Compostos Policíclicos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia
11.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 1219-1222, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429665

RESUMO

Plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance has emerged as one of the principal global issues, posing significant threats to public health. Herein, we reported a mobile tigecycline resistance mechanism Tet(X4) on both plasmid and chromosome in Escherichia coli strains from migratory birds in China. Besides tigecycline, these tet(X4)-positive strains also exhibited elevated MICs to the FDA newly approved tetracycline antibiotics, eravacycline (4 µg/ml) and omadacycline (8 µg/ml). Worrisomely, the tet(X4)-carrying plasmids and chromosome also shared high homology with the plasmids from human. Taken together, Tet(X4) represents another emerging antimicrobial threat and collective efforts from different sectors are needed to control its further spread.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Aves/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas , Tigeciclina/farmacologia , Animais , China , Cromossomos Bacterianos , Escherichia coli/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plasmídeos , Homologia de Sequência , Tetraciclinas/farmacologia
12.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 74(10): 2895-2903, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340044

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The emergence of carbapenemase-positive Enterobacteriaceae poses a serious threat to public health worldwide. Here we conducted a molecular surveillance study on carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) colonization among migratory birds at Qinghai Lake in China. METHODS: A total of 420 samples from migratory birds and their surrounding environment were collected at three sites along the Qinghai Lake bird island. Carbapenem-non-susceptible isolates were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and MALDI-TOF MS. Carbapenemase producers were determined by Carba NP testing. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, transfer ability and PFGE were also performed, and 46 isolates from different pulsotypes were analysed by WGS. RESULTS: Three hundred and fifty isolates were carbapenemase producers based on Carba NP testing, while 233 Klebsiella spp. and 2 Escherichia coli isolates were NDM-5-carriers. PFGE was performed and showed that the isolates were grouped into five pulsotypes; among these, type A was predominant (86.7%, n = 202) and belonged to a novel Klebsiella lineage, ST1697. WGS analysis indicated that ST1697 strains may be a hybrid of the recombination of Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae genomes. CONCLUSIONS: This high frequency of carbapenemase producers in migratory birds is unexpected. These results provide new insight into the spread of antibiotic resistance, and highlight that continued vigilance for MDR carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in migratory birds is urgently needed.

13.
Nat Microbiol ; 4(9): 1457-1464, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235960

RESUMO

Tigecycline is one of the last-resort antibiotics to treat complicated infections caused by both multidrug-resistant Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria1. Tigecycline resistance has sporadically occurred in recent years, primarily due to chromosome-encoding mechanisms, such as overexpression of efflux pumps and ribosome protection2,3. Here, we report the emergence of the plasmid-mediated mobile tigecycline resistance mechanism Tet(X4) in Escherichia coli isolates from China, which is capable of degrading all tetracyclines, including tigecycline and the US FDA newly approved eravacycline. The tet(X4)-harbouring IncQ1 plasmid is highly transferable, and can be successfully mobilized and stabilized in recipient clinical and laboratory strains of Enterobacteriaceae bacteria. It is noteworthy that tet(X4)-positive E. coli strains, including isolates co-harbouring mcr-1, have been widely detected in pigs, chickens, soil and dust samples in China. In vivo murine models demonstrated that the presence of Tet(X4) led to tigecycline treatment failure. Consequently, the emergence of plasmid-mediated Tet(X4) challenges the clinical efficacy of the entire family of tetracycline antibiotics. Importantly, our study raises concern that the plasmid-mediated tigecycline resistance may further spread into various ecological niches and into clinical high-risk pathogens. Collective efforts are in urgent need to preserve the potency of these essential antibiotics.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Plasmídeos/genética , Tigeciclina/farmacologia , Animais , Galinhas , China/epidemiologia , Microbiologia Ambiental , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plasmídeos/química , Suínos , Tetraciclinas/metabolismo , Tetraciclinas/farmacologia , Tigeciclina/metabolismo
14.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 15, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723461

RESUMO

Objectives: The mobile colistin resistance gene mcr-1 is a serious threat to global human and animal health. The composite transposon Tn6330 and its circular intermediate were proposed to be involved in the spread of mcr-1 but their roles remain poorly understood. Methods: To further explore the intermediates during the transposition of Tn6330, we engineered Escherichia coli strains that carry an intact Tn6330 transposon or its deletion derivatives. PCR assays were performed to detect IR-IR junctions and possible circular intermediates. We carried out transposition experiments to calculate transposition frequency. The transposition sites were characterized by whole genome sequence and ISMapper-based analyses. Results: The presence of an intact Tn6330 was demonstrated to be essential for the successful transposition of mcr-1, although both Tn6330 and Tn6330-ΔIR could form circular intermediates. The insertion sequence junction structure was observed in all constructed plasmids but the ISApl1 dimer was only formed in one construct containing an intact Tn6330. The average frequency of mcr-1 transposition in an E. coli strain possessing an intact Tn6330 was ∼10-6 per transformed cell. We identified 27 integration sites for the Tn6330 transposition event. All the transposition sites were flanked by 2 bp target duplications and preferentially occurred in AT-rich regions. Conclusion: These results indicate that mcr-1 transposition relies on the presence of an intact Tn6330. In addition, formation of the tandem repeat ISApl1 2 could represent a crucial intermediate. Taken together, the current investigations provide mechanistic insights in the transposition of mcr-1.

15.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 74(1): 87-95, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30346547

RESUMO

Objectives: The emergence of NDM- and MCR-1-co-producing Escherichia coli has compromised the use of carbapenems and colistin, which are critically important in clinical therapy, and represents a severe threat to public health worldwide. Here, we demonstrate synergism of colistin combined with existing antibiotics as a potential strategy to overcome XDR E. coli co-harbouring NDM and MCR-1 genes. Methods: To comprehensively evaluate their combined activity, antibiotic combinations were tested against 34 different E. coli strains carrying both NDM and MCR-1 genes. Antibiotic resistance profiles and molecular characteristics were investigated by susceptibility testing, PCR, MLST, S1-PFGE and WGS. Antibiotic synergistic efficacy was evaluated through in vitro chequerboard experiments and dose-response assays. A mouse model was used to confirm active combination therapies. Additionally, combinations were tested for their ability to prevent high-level colistin-resistant mutants (HLCRMs). Results: Combinations of colistin with rifampicin, rifabutin and minocycline showed synergistic activity against 34 XDR NDM- and MCR-1-co-producing E. coli strains, restoring, in part, susceptibility to both colistin and the partnering antibiotics. The therapeutic effectiveness of colistin combined with rifampicin or minocycline was demonstrated in a mouse model. Furthermore, colistin plus rifampicin showed significant activity in preventing the occurrence of HLCRMs. Conclusions: The synergism of colistin in combinations with rifampicin, rifabutin or minocycline offers viable therapeutic alternatives against XDR NDM- and MCR-positive E. coli.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Colistina/administração & dosagem , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Colistina/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 74(2): 334-341, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445474

RESUMO

Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and transmission of 16S rRNA methylase genes among Salmonella isolates from food animals in China. Methods: A total of 310 Salmonella isolates collected from food animals in seven provinces of China during 2016-17 were screened for 16S RMTase genes. The clonal relationship of the 16S RMTase-producing isolates and their plasmid contents were also characterized. Results: rmtB and armA were respectively identified in 12 and 1 Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana (Salmonella Indiana) isolates from farmed ducks. These 13 isolates concurrently expressed high-level resistance to amikacin, cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin. They were assigned to seven distinct PFGE patterns and the high similarity among 10 of the 12 rmtB-carrying isolates suggests clonal expansion. The rmtB gene was co-transferred with blaCTX-M-27-qepA and qepA in eight and two of the isolates, respectively, and was located on F2:A1:B1 plasmids with sizes of 135 and 100 kb, respectively. These 10 rmtB-bearing plasmids showed four restriction patterns with a high similarity. Four representative rmtB-bearing plasmids were fully sequenced and they exhibited remarkable similarity and possessed typical FII backbones. The primary differences were located in the region between blaTEM-1 and ycgA. Furthermore, a novel MDR region (13.5 kb) was identified that contained qepA, rmtB and blaCTX-M-27. Conclusions: This is the first report, to our knowledge, of the prevalence and complete sequences of plasmids simultaneously containing rmtB, qepA and blaCTX-M-27. These findings underscore a major public health threat posed by epidemic F2:A1:B1 plasmids bearing qepA-rmtB-blaCTX-M-27 that are circulating in XDR Salmonella Indiana clonal isolates from waterfowl husbandry.

17.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 2925, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30538695

RESUMO

We investigated cfr-positive and -negative MRSA strains isolated from animals and humans in different geographical areas of China, from 2011 to 2016. Twenty cfr-positive strains (15.6%) were identified from 128 MRSA strains including 17 from food animals and three from humans. The resistance rates and prevalence of the tested antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the cfr-positive MRSA isolates were higher than that in the cfr-negative MRSA isolates. All cfr-positive MRSA isolates were co-carrying fexA and ermC, and had significantly higher optrA incidence rate vs. the cfr-negative isolates (P < 0.05). In addition, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) assays showed that ST9 and spa-type t899 were the most prevalent ST and spa types in the study strains. However, all of the 20 cfr-positive and 10 randomly selected cfr-negative MRSA isolates were clonally unrelated as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analyses. Importantly, the cfr gene was successfully transferred to a recipient Staphylococcus aureus strain RN4220 from 13 of the 20 cfr-positive MRSA isolates by electroporation. Among these 13 cfr-positive MRSA isolates, two different genetic contexts surrounding cfr were determined and each was associated with one type of cfr-carrying plasmids. Of note, the predominant genetic context of cfr was found to be a Tn558 variant and locate on large plasmids (∼50 kb) co-harboring fexA in 11 of the 13 MRSA isolates. Furthermore, the cfr gene was also identified on small plasmids (∼ 7.1 kb) that co-carried ermC in two of the 13 MRSA isolates. Our results demonstrated a high occurrence of multi-drug resistance in cfr-positive MRSA isolates, and the spread of cfr might be attributed to horizontal dissemination of similar cfr-carrying transposons and plasmids.

18.
Infect Drug Resist ; 11: 995-1005, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30087569

RESUMO

Background: CMY-2 is the most prevalent pAmpC ß-lactamase, but the chromosomal blaCMY-2 gene transfer via horizontal transmission has been seldom reported. This study aimed to describe an ISEcp1-mediated transposition of a chromosomal blaCMY-2 gene from Escherichia coli into a small endogenous ColE1-like plasmid, resulting in elevated resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. Methods: Three ESCs-resistant ST641 E. coli strains EC6413, EC4103 and EC5106 harbored the blaCMY-2 gene. S1-PFGE, I-ceu I-PFGE, Southern blotting and electroporation experiments were performed to investigate the location and transferability of blaCMY-2. The genetic context and gene expression of blaCMY-2 in the original isolates and the corresponding electroporants were explored by PCR mapping, primer walking strategy and RT-qPCR. Results: The blaCMY-2-containing region (ISEcp1-blaCMY-2-∆blc-∆yggR-∆tnp1-orf7-orf8-orf9-∆tnp2-∆hsdR) was transposed into endogenous ColE1-like plasmid pSC137 in the process of electroporation at very low frequencies (10-8-10-9). The transpositions resulted in novel larger blaCMY-2-harboring ColE1-like plasmids with size of 14,845 bp, enabling increase in MICs of 2 to 8-fold for cefotaxime, ceftiofur, and ceftazidime in recipient strains over their respective original counterparts. Transcriptional level analysis revealed that the increased blaCMY-2 expression was correlated with elevated MIC values of cephalosporins. The blaCMY-2 transposition unit was identical to that in a clinical isolate E. coli TN44889 from France isolated in 2004. Conclusions: Our results firstly demonstrated that ISEcp1 mediated a transposition of chromosome-borne blaCMY-2 into an endogenous ColE1-like plasmid by electroporation. Amplification of the blaCMY-2 gene facilitates the strain adaptation to a changed environment with an elevated antibiotic pressure.

19.
Eur J Med Chem ; 157: 188-197, 2018 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096652

RESUMO

Thiazolidinone derivatives have been previously shown significant anti-cancer activities. Two amino-thiazolidinone complexes, [Pt(HTone)Cl] (1) and [Cu(HTone)Cl] (3) (HTone = (Z)-2-((E)-(1-(pyridin-2-yl)ethylidene)hydrazono)thiazolidin-4-one) and one ethyl-modified [Pt(ETone)Cl2] (2) (ETone = (Z)-3-ethyl-2-((E)-(1-(pyridin-2-yl)ethylidene) hydrazono)thiazolidin-4-one)], were designed and synthesized in order to explore novel metal-based antitumor agents. MTT assay indicated that 1 and 3 were markedly cytotoxic to MCF-7, HepG-2 and NCI-H460 tumor cells, superior to both cisplatin and the HTone ligand. Massive dead cells were observed as early as 6 h when treated with 1, indicating rapid action of 1 as compared to that of other compounds. More interestingly, Hoechst 33342 staining and flow cytometry analysis illustrated that only complex 1 could induce obvious cell apoptosis within 12 h, which was associated with the high-expression of Bax and cleavage of caspase-3 from 35 kDa to 17 kDa. By means of ICP-MS assay, we found complex 1 could largely accumulate in tumor cells in a short time. Additionally, complex 1 showed no cross resistance against the cisplatin-resistant cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Organoplatínicos/farmacologia , Tiazolidinas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Organoplatínicos/síntese química , Compostos Organoplatínicos/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiazolidinas/química , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
20.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 73(7): 1899-1907, 2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29897466

RESUMO

Objectives: The chloramphenicol/florfenicol resistance gene cfr, which mediates cross-resistance to linezolid and other classes of antimicrobial agents, represents a global therapeutic challenge due to its dissemination among MDR nosocomial pathogens, including MRSA. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of the linezolid/rifampicin combination in a murine pneumonia model caused by cfr-positive and cfr-negative clinical MRSA strains. Methods: Synergistic activity between linezolid and rifampicin was evaluated by chequerboard and time-kill assays. Pharmacokinetic profiles in plasma and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) as well as the therapeutic efficacy of linezolid alone and in combination with rifampicin were investigated in a murine pneumonia model. The Emax Hill equation was used to model the dose-response relationship. Results: Increased susceptibility of the study MRSA strains to linezolid was observed with the rifampicin combination (MIC decreased 2- to 16-fold versus linezolid alone). The combination had synergistic activity (fractional inhibitory concentration index ≤0.5) against all cfr-positive MRSA isolates. Linezolid demonstrated excellent pulmonary penetration with an ELF/fplasma AUC ratio of 2.68 ±âŸ0.17. The addition of rifampicin significantly improved the efficacy of linezolid in the pneumonia model due to cfr-positive and cfr-negative MRSA strains. The fAUC/MIC targets of linezolid associated with stasis, 1 log10 kill and 2 log10 kill were 15.9, 38.8 and 175 in plasma, and 43.5, 108 and 415 in ELF, respectively. Importantly, the linezolid fAUC/MIC targets in both plasma and ELF were 2.4-6.7 times lower in combined linezolid/rifampicin therapy versus linezolid monotherapy (P < 0.005). Conclusions: Combination of linezolid with rifampicin significantly improved the efficacy of linezolid in the murine pneumonia model caused by MRSA strains in the presence and absence of the cfr gene.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Linezolida/uso terapêutico , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos
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