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1.
Acta Biomater ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812073

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent type of primary liver cancer, and is ranked the sixth most common neoplasm and the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Photothermal therapy (PTT) for thermal ablation of local tumors has recently emerged as a therapeutic strategy. However, the relatively high temperature of over 50°C may lead to unexpected heat-related damage to tumor-adjacent normal tissues. Herein, we designed and synthesized ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) inhibitor loaded hollow-structured CuS NPs with surface modification with anti-TGF-ß antibody (CuS-ATMi@TGF-ß NPs). CuS-ATMi@TGF-ß NPs are highly photo-stable, can release encapsulated drugs, and increase the temperature to an effective level in a near-infrared (NIR)-responsive manner. Moreover, CuS-ATMi@TGF-ß NPs specifically target tumors and thereby significantly inhibit tumor growth on contribution to synergistic low-temperature PTT and chemotherapy. This system not only achieved low-temperature PTT but also resulted in reduced damage to normal tissues. Modification with anti-TGF-ß antibody enhanced target specificity and immune activation. The combination of PTT and ATM inhibitor showed synergistic effects and significantly attenuated the growth of the HCC via down regulation of heat shock protein (HSP). CuS-ATMi@TGF-ß NPs are a highly promising platform for targeted tumor ablation via hyperthermia-mediated tumor death with minimal damage to normal tissues at a low temperature. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: We constructed ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) inhibitor-loaded hollow-structured CuS NPs with surface modification with anti-TGF-ß antibody (CuS-ATMi@TGF-ß NPs). CuS-ATMi@TGF-ß NPs not only achieved low-temperature photothermal therapy (PTT) but also resulted in reduced damage to normal tissues and sufficient biocompatibility. The modification with anti-TGF-ß antibody enhanced targeted specificity, cell endocytosis, and immune activation. In addition, the combination of PTT and ATM inhibitor synergistically attenuated the growth of the HCC via downregulation of heat shock protein (HSP). This study provided proof-of-concept for the ATM inhibitor that mediated low-temperature PTT with a potential for future clinical applications.

2.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 171, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinically relevant pancreatic fistula (CRPF) is a serious complication following laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy (LPD). This study aimed to determine if C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) serum levels could be used as early biomarkers to predict CRPF after LPD. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we collected peri-operative data of patients who underwent LPD between January 2019 and November 2019. We compared serum levels of white blood cells (WBC), CRP, and PCT on post-operative days (POD) 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 between the CRPF and non-CRPF groups and analyzed the predictive risk factors for CRPF. RESULTS: Among the 186 patients included in this study, 18 patients (9.7%) developed CRPF, including 15 and 3 patients with grade B and C fistulas, respectively. The mean WBC, CRP, and PCT levels were higher on most PODs in the CRPF group compared to the non-CRPF group. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that CRP levels on POD 2, 5, and 7 can predict CRPF development after LPD, with the area under the curve (AUC) value reaching the highest level on POD 2 (AUC 0.794). PCT levels on POD 2, 3, 5, and 7 were highly predictive of CRPF after LPD. The highest AUC value was achieved on POD 3 [PCT > 2.10 ng/ml (AUC 0.951; sensitivity 88.2%, specificity 92.9%, P < 0.001)]. CONCLUSIONS: Both CRP and PCT levels can be used to predict CRPF development after LPD, with PCT having a higher predictive value.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa , Fístula Pancreática , Pancreaticoduodenectomia , Pró-Calcitonina , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Humanos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Fístula Pancreática/etiologia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/efeitos adversos , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/métodos , Pró-Calcitonina/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591620

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore the long-term clinical results of Renal denervation (RDN) from the adventitia of the renal artery plus unilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy to treat patients with resistant hypertension caused by unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA). Sixty patients with resistant hypertension caused by APA who were treated at Henan Provincial People's Hospital from December 2016 to March 2018 were selected and randomly assigned to undergo RDN from the adventitia of the renal artery plus adrenalectomy (RDN group, n = 30) or adrenalectomy alone (control group, n = 30). Office blood pressure (BP), antihypertensive medication usage and other laboratory characteristics were followed every 6 months through 36 months. Follow-up data were available at 36 months for 23 of 30 subjects in the RDN group and for 21 of 30 subjects who were in the control group. At 36 months postprocedure, the reduction in the RDN group was 42.2 ± 21.6 mmHg and that in the control group was 29.8 ± 13.5 mmHg (p = .029 between the groups). During the follow-up to 36 months postprocedure, no patients in either the RDN group or the control group died due to surgical complications, and the RDN group had no procedural complications, including renal artery dissection, perforation, and renal artery stenosis. There was no change in the mean eGFR of the two groups, and no serious adverse events were reported. In conclusion, RDN from the adventitia of the renal artery plus unilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy resulted in sustained lowering of BP at 3 years in a selected population of subjects with resistant hypertension caused by unilateral APA without serious safety concerns.

5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 209: 111786, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340956

RESUMO

A total of 90 wooden toys were collected, and six wood preservatives (chlorophenols and lindane) were analyzed by using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to assess the exposure risk of children to wood preservatives through oral contact with wooden toys. The detection rates of six preservatives ranged from 2.2% to 22.2%. The contents of the preservatives ranged from 0.6 µg/kg to 9.6 µg/kg. 2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) had higher detection rates and contents than other preservatives. Thus, their migration behaviors from toys to saliva were further investigated. In 11 positive samples, the max migration ratios of 2,4-DCP and 2,4,6-TCP ranged from 7.1% to 20.3% and from 11.1% to 24.8%, respectively. For children aged 3-36 months, the daily average 2,4-DCP exposure level associated with wooden toys ranged from 2.7 pg/(kg day) to 46.9 pg/(kg day), and the daily average 2,4,6-TCP exposure ranged from 3.6 pg/(kg day) to 69.4 pg/(kg day). The contribution to exposure provided by the saliva mobilization pathway was more than that provided by the ingestion of scraped-off toys, and the exposure level of 2,4,6-TCP was greater than that of 2,4-DCP. The max hazard quotient for 2,4-DCP was 1.9 × 10-4, and the max cancer risk for 2,4,6-TCP was 1.2 × 10-9. The above results indicated that although wood preservatives were distributed in wooden toys, exposure arising from directly mouthing these materials currently does not pose unacceptable risks to children.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Jogos e Brinquedos , Madeira/química , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Clorofenóis/análise , Clorofenóis/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hexaclorocicloexano/análise , Hexaclorocicloexano/toxicidade , Humanos , Lactente , Medição de Risco , Saliva/química
6.
Pharm Biol ; 59(1): 11-20, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356727

RESUMO

CONTEXT: α-Hederin, a potent bioactive compound of Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel (Ranunculaceae), has many pharmacological uses, but its effect on cancer cell metabolism is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the role of α-hederin in the glucose metabolism of lung cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell Counting Kit 8 and colony formation assays were employed to assess the antiproliferative effects of α-hederin. Glucose uptake, ATP generation, and lactate production were measured. Glycolysis-related proteins were detected using western blotting, and a sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) inhibitor was used to verify A549 cell proliferation. Sixty male BALB/c nude mice were divided into normal control, 5-FU (25 mg/kg), and α-hederin (5 and 10 mg/kg) groups to assess the antitumor effect for 32 days. Glycolysis-related protein expression was evaluated using immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS: α-Hederin inhibited A549 (IC50 = 13.75 µM), NCI-H460 (IC50 = 17.57 µM), and NCI-H292 (IC50 = 18.04 µM) proliferation; inhibited glucose uptake and ATP generation; and reduced lactate production. Furthermore, α-hederin (10 and 15 µM) markedly inhibited hexokinase 2, glucose transporter 1, pyruvate kinase M2, lactate dehydrogenase A, monocarboxylate transporter, c-Myc, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, and activated SIRT6 protein expression. Using a SIRT6 inhibitor, we demonstrated that α-hederin inhibits glycolysis by activating SIRT6. A tumour xenograft mouse model of lung cancer confirmed that α-hederin (5 and 10 mg/kg) inhibits lung cancer growth by inhibiting glycolysis in vivo. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: α-Hederin inhibits A549 cell growth by inhibiting SIRT6-dependent glycolysis. α-Hederin might serve as a potential agent to suppress cancer.

7.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346281

RESUMO

Organic semiconductors including conjugated polymers and small molecules can be applied in many fields due to their unique advantages, such as light weight, solution processability, easy functionalization etc. During the past ten years, we mainly focused on the design and synthesis of conjugated polymer donor materials and small molecular acceptor materials for organic solar cells and hole transport materials for perovskite solar cells. To obtain planar conjugated polymers, low cost small molecular acceptors, and dopant-free hole transport polymers, we adopted intramolecular noncovalent interactions (INCIs) as the design strategy. In this brief review, we will demonstrate that the INCI strategy is very efficient in the design of high performance photovoltaic materials.

8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 950, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance in M. genitalium is a growing clinical problem. We investigated the mutations associated with macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance, two commonly used medical regimens for treatment in China. Our aim is to analyze the prevalence and diversity of mutations among M. genitalium-positive clinical specimens in Guangzhou, south China. METHODS: A total of 154 stored M. genitalium positive specimens from men and women attending a STI clinic were tested for macrolide and fluoroquinolone mutations. M. genitalium was detected via TaqMan MGB real-time PCR. Mutations associated with macrolide resistance were detected using primers targeting region V of the 23S rRNA gene. Fluoroquinolone resistant mutations were screened via primers targeting topoisomerase IV (parC) and DNA gyrase (gyrA). RESULTS: 98.7% (152/154), 95.5% (147/154) and 90.3% (139/154) of M. genitalium positive samples produced sufficient amplicon for detecting resistance mutations in 23S rRNA, gyrA and parC genes, respectively. 66.4% (101/152), 0.7% (1/147) and 77.7% (108/139) samples manifested mutations in 23S rRNA, gyrA and parC genes, respectively. A2072G (59/101, 58.4%) and S83I (79/108, 73.1%) were highly predominating in 23S rRNA and parC genes, respectively. Two samples had amino acid substitutions in gyrA (M95I and A96T, respectively). Two samples had two amino acid substitutions in parC (S83I + D87Y). 48.6% (67/138) of samples harbored both macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance-associated mutations. The most common combination of mutations was A2072G (23S rRNA) and S83I (parC) (40/67, 59.7%). One sample had three amino acid changes in 23S rRNA, gyrA and parC genes (A2072G + A96T + S83I). CONCLUSIONS: The high antimicrobial resistance rate of M. genitalium in Guangzhou is a very worrying problem and suggests that antimicrobial resistance testing and the development of new antibiotic regimens are crucially needed.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapêutico , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Mutação , Infecções por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Mycoplasma genitalium/genética , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , China/epidemiologia , DNA Girase/genética , DNA Topoisomerase IV/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma genitalium/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 23S/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/microbiologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373184

RESUMO

The rapid advance of fused-ring electron acceptors (FREAs) has made them a potential substitute to fullerene-based acceptors and offered new avenues for the construction of organic solar cells (OSCs). Nonfused-ring acceptors (NFRAs) could significantly reduce the synthetic cost while achieving reasonable power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). Widely used fullerene acceptors have been applied as a second acceptor to regulate the morphology, absorption, and electron transport. To take full advantage of both nonfullerene and fullerene acceptors at the same time, we rationally designed and synthesized two novel NFRAs with phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as the lateral pendent. With the incorporation of fullerene pendent in PCBM-C6 and PCBM-C10, varied UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) quenching behaviors were observed, and isotropic diffraction patterns were obtained via grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) measurements. The bulky, spherical, and electronic isotropic fullerene pendent could effectively suppress severe molecular aggregation and form the preferred blend morphology. This strategy significantly improved the efficiencies for exciton separation and charge collection relative to the control acceptor CH3COO-C6. Finally, the Voc, Jsc, and fill factor (FF) of PCBM-C10-based devices were simultaneously improved and an enhanced PCE of 13.55% was accomplished.

10.
Front Genet ; 11: 591806, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33250924

RESUMO

Abiotic stress adversely inhibits the growth and development of plants, by changing the expression of multiple genes. Circular RNAs (circRNAs), as a class of non-coding RNAs, function in transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation. Yet, the involvement of circRNAs in abiotic stress response is rarely reported. In this study, the participation and function of circRNAs in low-temperature (LT)-induced stress response were investigated in tomato leaves. We generated genome-wide profiles of circRNAs and mRNAs in tomato leaves grown at 25°C room temperature (RT) and 12°C LT. Our results show that 1,830 circRNAs were identified in tomato leaves in both RT and LT treatments, among which 1,759 were differentially induced by the LT treatment. We find that the identified circRNAs are mainly located at exons of genes, but less distributed at introns of genes or intergenic regions. Our results suggest that there are 383 differentially expressed circRNAs predicted to function as putative sponges of 266 miRNAs to target 4,476 mRNAs in total. Moreover, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis assays indicate that multiple pathways were enriched in both differentially expressed genes induced by LT and parental genes of differentially expressed circRNAs induced by LT, revealing the key functions of circRNAs and the corresponding targeted genes in response to LT stress. Our results suggest that circRNAs may be involved in regulating metabolism (i.e., carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid, and energy), signal transduction, and environmental adaptation-related pathways and that these circRNAs were predicted to regulate the expression of transcription factors, genes in signal transduction pathways, and genes related to the Ca2+ channel through targeting the corresponding proteins, such as WRKY, NAC, cytochrome P450, and calmodulin binding protein. Taken together, our study uncovers that multiple circRNAs are isolated and differently regulated in response to LT stress and provides the resource and potential networks of circRNA-miRNA-mRNA under LT stress for further investigations in tomato leaves.

11.
Life Sci ; 265: 118796, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220292

RESUMO

AIMS: In tumor cells, shikonin treatment has been reported to inhibit glycolysis by suppressing the activity of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) and to induce apoptosis by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) shows variable sensitivity to shikonin treatment, and the mechanism for these differences remains unclear. We evaluated the effects of shikonin on metabolic and oxidative pathways in sensitive and refractory HCC cell lines to identify mechanisms of differential sensitivity. MAIN METHODS: Cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated by MTT assay, PI/Annexin V and JC-1 staining. Mitochondrial function was further evaluated by measurements of ROS and mitochondrial mass. Oxygen consumption rates, NAD+/NADH, ATP and lactate were measured as indicators of energy metabolism and glycolysis. Protein expression associated with glycolysis and apoptosis was evaluated by western blotting, RT-qPCR and immunofluorescence staining. KEY FINDINGS: The sensitivity to shikonin treatment was significantly higher for HepG2 cells than for HCCLM3 cells, with less dramatic effects in HCCLM3 cells on apoptosis, ROS, and oxidative phosphorylation. Shikonin up-regulated mitochondrial biogenesis to increase mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in HepG2 cells, but displayed the opposite trend in HCCLM3 cells. Mechanistically, shikonin promoted nuclear expression of PKM2 and HIF1α in HCCLM3 cells, with upregulation of glycolysis-related gene transcription and glycolysis. SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that PKM2 rewires glucose metabolism, which explains the differential sensitivity to shikonin-induced apoptosis in HCC cells. Our findings elucidate mechanisms for differential responses to shikonin, provide potential biomarkers, and indicate a theoretical basis for targeting glycolytic enzymes in refractory HCC.

12.
J Hazard Mater ; : 124633, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243653

RESUMO

There is a growing demand for heavy metal removal by membrane technology in real applications. However, few studies were reported concerning antimony (Sb) removal by membrane technology. Herein, a novel thin film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane comprising an alginate (SA) selective layer and a polyether sulfone (PSF) support membrane incorporating chitosan functionalized iron nanocomposite has been firstly developed for Sb removal via electrostatic self-assembly. The support matrix membrane contained iron nanocomposite (denoted as CIM) retained high water flux and porosity, and it reached a maximum removal capacity of 16.5 and 13.6 mg/g for Sb(III) and Sb(V) with nanofiller loading rate of 20% during static experiments, respectively. The coated SA top layer endowed the hybrid membrane (denoted as SA-CIM) to have a lower membrane flux, and have stronger retention abilities for Sb species than that by CIM during dynamic filtration experiments. The SA-CIM membranes also possess tolerable reversibility towards Sb removal. Benefiting from the negatively-charged dense selective layer and high adsorption capacity of the iron nanocomposites, the SA-CIM membranes demonstrated an enhanced removal capacity for Sb species via steric hindrance effect, electrostatic repulsion and adsorption. Our study offers a simple method to remove Sb by a novel polysaccharide functionalized hybrid membrane.

13.
J Int Med Res ; 48(11): 300060520969473, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161814

RESUMO

Sarcomatoid intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (S-iCCA) is a rare histological variant of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA). The diagnosis of S-iCCA is based on histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations, and S-iCCA often has a poorer prognosis than that of ordinary iCCA. In this article, we present the case of a 64-year-old man with S-iCCA who presented with intermittent right upper abdominal pain. The aim of this case report and literature review is to strengthen the understanding of S-iCCA among clinicians and reduce the incidence of missed clinical diagnoses.

14.
Hepatobiliary Surg Nutr ; 9(5): 691-692, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163528
15.
Adv Mater ; : e2003164, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164236

RESUMO

Exciton lifetime (τ) is crucial for the migration of excitons to donor/acceptor interfaces for subsequent charge separation in organic solar cells (OSCs); however, obvious prolongation of τ has rarely been achieved. Here, by introducing a solid additive 9-fluorenone-1-carboxylic acid (FCA) into the active layer, which comprises a nonfullerene acceptor, 3,9-bis(2-methylene-((3-(1,1-dicyanomethylene)-6/7-methyl)-indanone))-5,5,11,11-tetrakis(4-hexylphenyl)-dithieno[2,3-d:2',3'-d']-s-indaceno[1,2-b:5,6-b']dithiophene (IT-M), τ is substantially prolonged from 491 to 928 ps, together with obvious increases in fluorescence intensity and quantum yield. Time-resolved transient infrared spectra indicate the presence of an intermolecular vibrational coupling between the electronic excited state of IT-M and the electronic ground state of FCA, which is first observed here and which can suppress the internal conversion process. IT-M-based OSCs display an improved short-circuit current and fill factor after the addition of FCA. Thus, the power conversion efficiency is increased, particularly for devices with a large donor/acceptor ratio of 1:4, whose efficiency is increased by 56%. This study describes a novel method, which is also applicable to other nonfullerene acceptors, for further improving the performance of OSCs without affecting their morphology and light absorption properties.

16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(47): 53021-53028, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170610

RESUMO

As a well-known electron-withdrawing group, benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (BT) has been intensively studied and adopted to construct polymer donors with tunable band gaps. However, polymer solar cells (PSCs) with BT-based polymer donors, limited by the weak absorption and inflexible energy level of fullerene derivatives, usually suffer mediocre power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). Here, through subtly tailoring a BT unit with asymmetric fluoro and alkyloxy groups and judiciously pairing a BT-based polymer donor with three narrow band gap non-fullerene acceptors (e.g., IEICO-4F, ITOIC-2F, and IDTCN-O), active layers with complementary absorption spectra, small lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) offsets, and preferred morphologies have been achieved. Consequently, PSCs with excellent Jsc values (over 20 mA/cm2) and high PCEs up to 12.33% have been obtained. To the best of our knowledge, the value of 12.33% is among the highest PCEs for BT-based polymers in binary PSCs so far. This work demonstrates that the cooperative effect of energy levels, absorption spectra, and morphologies between the donors and acceptors is crucial for governing the performance of organic photovoltaics.

17.
iScience ; 23(9): 101541, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083768

RESUMO

In this work, pattern recognition and characterization of the neuromuscular dynamics of driver upper limb during naturalistic driving were studied. During the human-in-the-loop experiments, two steering tasks, namely, the passive and active steering tasks, were instructed to be completed by the subjects. Furthermore, subjects manipulated the steering wheel with two distinct postures and six different hand positions. The neuromuscular dynamics of subjects' upper limb were measured using electromyogram signals, and the behavioral data, including the steering torque and steering angle, were also collected. Based on the experimental data, patterns of muscle activities during naturalistic driving were investigated. The correlations, amplitudes, and responsiveness of the electromyogram signals, as well as the smoothness and regularity of the steering torque were discussed. The results reveal the mechanisms of neuromuscular dynamics of driver upper limb and provide a theoretical foundation for the design of the future human-machine interface for automated vehicles.

18.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 572492, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33117731

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer is considered a lethal disease with a low survival rate due to its late-stage diagnosis, few opportunities for resection and lack of effective therapeutic strategies. Multiple, highly complex effects of gut microbiota on pancreatic cancer have been recognized as potential strategies for targeting tumorigenesis, development and treatment in recent decades; some of the treatments include antibiotics, probiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation. Several bacterial species are associated with carcinogenesis of the pancreas, while some bacterial metabolites contribute to tumor-associated low-grade inflammation and immune responses via several proinflammatory factors and signaling pathways. Given the limited evidence on the interplay between gut microbiota and pancreatic cancer, risk factors associated with pancreatic cancer, such as diabetes, chronic pancreatitis and obesity, should also be taken into consideration. In terms of treatment of pancreatic cancer, gut microbiota has exhibited multiple effects on both traditional chemotherapy and the recently successful immunotherapy. Therefore, in this review, we summarize the latest developments and advancements in gut microbiota in relation to pancreatic cancer to elucidate its potential value.

19.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 10: 42, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110490

RESUMO

Background: Fungal and bacterial microbiota play an important role in development of asthma. We aim to characterize airway microbiome (mycobiome, bacteriome) and functional genes in asthmatics and controls. Methods: Sputum microbiome of controls, untreated asthma patients and inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) receiving patients was detected using high throughput sequencing. Metagenomic sequencing was used to examine the functional genes of microbiome. Results: 1. Mycobiome: α diversity was lower in untreated asthma group than that in controls. Mycobiome compositions differed among the three groups. Compared with controls, untreated asthma group has higher abundance of Wallemia, Mortierella and Fusarium. Compared with untreated asthma patients, ICS receiving patients has higher abundance of Fusarium and Mortierella, lower frequency of Wallemia, Alternaria and Aspergillus. 2. Bacteriome: α diversity was lower in untreated asthma group than that in controls. There are some overlaps of bacteriome compositions between controls and untreated asthma patients which were distinct from ICS receiving patients. Untreated asthma group has higher Streptococcus than controls. 3. Potential fungal and bacterial biomarkers of asthma: Trametes, Aspergillus, Streptococcus, Gemella, Neisseria, etc. 4. Correlation network: There are dense and homogenous correlations in controls but a dramatically unbalanced network in untreated asthma and ICS receiving patients, which suggested the existence of disease-specific inter-kingdom and intra-kingdom alterations. 5. Metagenomic analysis: functional pathways were associated with the status of asthma, microbiome and functional genes showed different correlations in different environment. Conclusion: We showed mycobiome and bacteriome dysbiosis in asthma featured by alterations in biodiversity, community composition, inter-kingdom and intra-kingdom network. We also observed several functional genes associated with asthma.

20.
Thorac Cancer ; 11(11): 3155-3167, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HS-1-associated protein-1 (HAX1) has been reported to be overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues. However, the underlying mechanism of HAX1 in NSCLC has not previously been demonstrated. The present study investigated the role and underlying mechanism of HAX1 in NSCLC. METHODS: The HAX1 expression were confirmed in NSCLC tissues through TCGA database and qRT-PCR. Moreover, we performed qRT-PCR, Western blotting, Transwell assays, TUNEL assays and so on to evaluate the role of HAX1 in A549 and H1299 cell lines. RESULTS: mRNA expression of HAX1 was overexpressed in NSCLC tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues according to The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. QRT-PCR assays showed that HAX1 mRNA expression was upregulated in NSCLC tissues. The high HAX1 mRNA levels were found to be positively associated with tumor size, TNM stage and lymphatic metastasis. Silencing of HAX1 promoted apoptosis and reduced invasion of A549 and H1299 cells by inhibiting the AKT/mTOR and MDM2/P53 signal pathway. AKT agonist SC79 could inhibit apoptosis and promote proliferation, migration and invasion of A549 and H1299 cells transfected with si-HAX1. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provided a better understanding of HAX1 mechanism in NSCLC and potential therapeutic target for NSCLC.

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