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1.
Food Chem ; 305: 125507, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622805

RESUMO

The contributions of many polyphenols other than catechins and flavonols to the astringency of tea are often neglected. Here, the contributions of polyphenols were assessed through targeted metabolic profiling using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 86 polyphenols were identified from 47 green tea samples with varying astringency scores, of which 76 compounds were relatively quantified. A correlation matrix analysis revealed that monohydroxyflavonol and acyl derivatives of polyphenols, except for galloylated catechins, had negative correlations with the other polyphenols. Principal component analysis revealed a distinct separation of monohydroxyflavonol and acyl derivatives of polyphenols from the other polyphenols. The results suggest metabolic differences in terms of hydroxylation, glycosylation, acylation, and condensation reactions of polyphenols between the different tea samples, particularly between the samples obtained in spring and autumn. The correlation analysis showed that metabolic fluxes toward the aforementioned four reactions of polyphenols played unique roles in the astringency of tea infusions.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682097

RESUMO

Janus nanoparticles with anisotropic feature concentrated multiple properties on a single carrier providing synergistic effects. In this study, dual-functionalized Janus nanoparticles (HA-JMSN/DOX-DMMA) were constructed with tumor targeting ligand (HA) modified on the one side and charge reversal group (DMMA) on the other side. The drug release of HA-JMSN/DOX-DMMA was positively correlated with the acidity of the environment. The cytotoxicity and cell uptake of HA-JMSN/DOX-DMMA was superior to the isotropous nanoparticles. The endocytosis pathway of HA-JMSN/DOX-DMMA involved the clathrin-mediated endocytosis (HA) and the micropinocytosis (DMMA) at the same time, which indicated that they both participated in the interaction between nanoparticles and tumor cells. After injected intravenously in mice, the distribution of HA-JMSN/DOX-DMMA in tumor was enhanced significantly. The antitumor therapy study in vivo showed that HA-JMSN/DOX-DMMA inhibited tumor growth and improved the survival rate of tumor-bearing mice effectively. In general, HA-JMSN/DOX-DMMA could take synergistic effect of active targeting and charge reversal to deliver drug in tumor cells and kill them efficiently, which was a promising anti-tumor nanodrug.

3.
Orthop Surg ; 11(5): 850-856, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663290

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the superior-level facet joint violations (FJV) between robot-assisted (RA) percutaneous pedicle screw placement and conventional open fluoroscopic-guided (FG) pedicle screw placement in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study without randomization. One-hundred patients scheduled to undergo RA (n = 50) or FG (n = 50) transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion were included from February 2016 to May 2018. The grade of FJV, the distance between pedicle screws and the corresponding proximal facet joint, and intra-pedicle accuracy of the top screw were evaluated based on postoperative CT scan. Patient demographics, perioperative outcomes, and radiation exposure were recorded and compared. Perioperative outcomes include surgical time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative length of stay, conversion, and revision surgeries. RESULTS: Of the 100 screws in the RA group, 4 violated the proximal facet joint, while 26 of 100 in the FG group had FJV (P = 0.000). In the RA group, 3 and 1 screws were classified as grade 1 and 2, respectively. Of the 26 FJV screws in the FG group, 17 screws were scored as grade 1, 6 screws were grade 2, and 3 screws were grade 3. Significantly more severe FJV were noted in the FG group than in the RA group (P = 0.000). There was a statistically significant difference between RA and FG for overall violation grade (0.05 vs 0.38, P = 0.000). The average distance of pedicle screws from facet joints in the RA group (4.16 ± 2.60 mm) was larger than that in the FG group (1.92 ± 1.55 mm; P = 0.000). For intra-pedicle accuracy, the rate of perfect screw position was greater in the RA group than in the FG group (85% vs 71%; P = 0.017). No statistically significant difference was found between the clinically acceptable screws between groups (P = 0.279). The radiation dose was higher in the FG group (30.3 ± 11.3 vs 65.3 ± 28.3 µSv; P = 0.000). The operative time in the RA group was significantly longer (184.7 ± 54.3 vs 117.8 ± 36.9 min; P = 0.000). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the open FG technique, minimally invasive RA spine surgery was associated with fewer proximal facet joint violations, larger facet to screw distance, and higher intra-pedicle accuracy.

4.
Cell Cycle ; 18(22): 3095-3110, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564203

RESUMO

There is growing evidence of the position of microRNAs (miRs) in Alzheimer's disease (AD), thus our objective was to discuss the impact of miR-129-5p regulating nerve injury and inflammatory response in AD rats by modulating SOX6 expression. The AD rat model was established by injecting Aß25-35 into the brain. The pathological changes, ultrastructure, number of neurons, cell degeneration and apoptosis of hippocampal tissue were observed in vivo. MiR-129-5p, SOX6, IL-1ß, TNF-α, Bcl-2 and Bax expression in serum and hippocampal tissues were detected by ELISA, RT-qPCR or western blot analysis. The successfully modeled hippocampal neuronal cells of AD were transfected with miR-129-5p mimic, SOX6-siRNA or their controls to figure out their roles in proliferation, apoptosis and inflammatory reaction in vitro. Low expression of SOX6 and high expression of miR-129-5p in vivo of rats would shorten the escape latent period and increase the times of crossing platforms, alleviate the pathological injury, inhibit neuronal apoptosis and reduce the inflammatory reaction. Up-regulation of miR-129-5p and down-regulation of SOX6 promoted proliferation, suppressed apoptosis and degraded the inflammatory reaction of neuronal cells in vitro. Up-regulation of SOX6 reversed the expression of miR-129-5p to reduce the damage and inflammatory response of the cell model of AD. Our study presents that up-regulation of miR-129-5p or down-regulation of SOX6 can reduce nerve injury and inflammatory response in rats with AD. Thus, miR-129-5p may be a potential candidate for the treatment of AD.

5.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 13: 3307-3319, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571832

RESUMO

Purpose: Hyaluronic acid-poly(ethylene glycol)-distearoyl phosphoethanolamine (HA-PEG-DSPE) modified and tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) contained nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) were prepared loading ropivacaine and dexmedetomidine to improve the topical anesthetic analgesic anesthesia efficiency. Methods: NLCs were prepared by the solvent diffusion method. The average particle size, zeta potential, release behavior, and cytotoxicity of the NLCs were tested. Ex vivo skin permeation was studied using a Franz diffusion cell mounted with depilated rat skin. Local anesthesia antinociceptive efficiency was evaluated by rat tail flick latency study in vivo. Results: NLCs have sizes of about 100 nm, with negative zeta potentials. All the NLCs formulations were found to be significantly less cytotoxic than free drugs at equivalent concentrations. The cumulative amount of drugs penetrated through rat skin from NLCs was 2.0-4.7 folds higher than that of the drugs solution. The in vivo anesthesia antinociception study displayed that NLCs showed stronger and longer anesthesia antinociceptive effect when compared with single drugs loaded NLCs and drugs solution even at a lower dosage of drugs. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that the HA modified, TPGS contained, dual drugs loaded NLCs could perform a synergistic effect and may reduce the amount of drugs, which can lower the toxicity of the system and at the meanwhile, increase the anesthesia antinociceptive efficiency.

6.
Chem Asian J ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596025

RESUMO

Exploiting high-performance and inexpensive electrocatalysts for methanol electro-oxidation is conductive to promoting the commercial application of direct methanol fuel cells. Here, we present a facile synthesis of echinus-like PdCu nanocrystals (NCs) via a one-step and template-free method. The echinus-like PdCu NCs possess numerous straight and long branches which can provide abundant catalytic active sites. Owing to the novel nanoarchitecture and electronic effect of the PdCu alloy, the echinus-like PdCu NCs display high electrocatalytic performance toward methanol oxidation reaction in an alkaline medium. The mass activity of echinus-like PdCu NCs is 1202.1 mA mgPd -1 , which is 3.7 times that of Pd/C catalysts. In addition, the echinus-like structure, as a kind of three-dimensional self-supported nanoarchitecture, endows PdCu NCs with significantly enhanced stability and durability. Hence, the echinus-like PdCu NCs hold prospect of being employed as electrocatalysts for direct alcohol fuel cells.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568094

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled trial. OBJECTIVE: To compare robot-assisted and conventional implantation techniques by evaluating the accuracy and safety of implanting screws in cervical vertebrae. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Cervical spinal surgery is difficult and dangerous as screw misplacement might lead not only to decreased stability but also neurological, vascular, and visceral injuries. A new robot-assisted surgical procedure has been introduced to improve the accuracy of implant screw positioning. METHODS: We randomly assigned 135 patients with newly diagnosed cervical spinal disease and who required screw fixation using either robot-assisted or conventional fluoroscopy-assisted cervical spinal surgery. The primary outcomes were the discrepancies between the planned trajectories and the actual screw positions. RESULTS: Altogether, 127 patients underwent the assigned intervention (61 robot-assisted and 66 conventional fluoroscopy-assisted). The baseline characteristics including the screw types, were similar in the two groups. Altogether, 390 screws were planed and placed in the cervical vertebrae, and 94.9% were acceptable. The robot-assisted group had a better screw placement accuracy than the conventional fluoroscopy-assisted group with associated p values <0.001 [0.83 (0.44, 1.29) vs 1.79 (1.41, 2.50) mm]. The Gertzbein and Robbins scales also showed a significant difference between the two groups (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the robot-assisted group experienced significantly less blood loss during surgery than the conventional fluoroscopy-assisted group [200 (50, 375) vs 350 (100, 500) ml; p=0.002] and shorter length of stay after surgery (p = 0.021). These two groups did not differ significantly regarding the duration of the operation (p = 0.525). Neurological injury occurred in one case in the conventional fluoroscopy-assisted group. CONCLUSIONS: The accuracy and clinical outcomes of cervical spinal surgery using the robot-assisted technique tended to be superior to those with the conventional fluoroscopy-assisted technique in this prospective, randomized, controlled trial. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2.

8.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 5738368, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485296

RESUMO

Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs), the most serious complication of diabetes mellitus, can induce high morbidity, the need to amputate lower extremities, and even death. Although many adjunctive strategies have been applied for the treatment of DFUs, the low treatment efficiency, potential side effects, and high cost are still huge challenges. Recently, nanomaterial-based drug delivery systems (NDDSs) have achieved targeted drug delivery and controlled drug release, offering great promises in various therapeutics for diverse disorders. Additionally, the radial extracorporeal shock wave (rESW) has been shown to function as a robust trigger source for the NDDS to release its contents, as the rESW harbors a potent capability in generating pressure waves and in creating the cavitation effect. Here, we explored the performance of oxygen-loaded nanoperfluorocarbon (Nano-PFC) combined with the rESW as a treatment for DFUs. Prior to in vivo assessment, we first demonstrated the high oxygen affinity in vitro and great biocompatibility of Nano-PFC. Moreover, the rESW-responsive oxygen release behavior from oxygen-saturated Nano-PFC was also successfully verified in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, the wound healing of DFUs was significantly accelerated due to improved blood microcirculation, which was a result of rESW therapy (rESWT), and the targeted release of oxygen into the wound from oxygen-loaded Nano-PFC, which was triggered by the rESW. Collectively, the oxygen-saturated Nano-PFC and rESW provide a completely new approach to treat DFUs, and this study highlights the advantages of combining nanotechnology with rESW in therapeutics.

9.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1086: 122-132, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561787

RESUMO

Novel multifunctional core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted widespread attention due to their easy-to-modify surface properties and abundant functional groups. This study introduces a facile approach to synthesize Ag@ iron oxide (Fe3O4) @C NPs, and modify with amino-poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG)-carboxyl and folate (FA) on the exposed carbon surface to produce high contrast for excellent stability, good biocompatibility, cancer cell targeting, and synergistic treatment. The multi-armed PEG at the edge of Ag@Fe3O4@C NPs provides the materials an excellent capacity for doxorubicin (DOX) loading. The carbon layer could be used as a photothermal reagent due to its excellent near-infrared (NIR) absorbance capacity, and Fe3O4 was used as a reagent for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. In vivo combination therapy with this agent was administered in a mouse tumor model, and a remarkable synergistic antitumor effect that is superior to that obtained by monotherapy was achieved. Concerning these features together, these unique multifunctional Ag@Fe3O4@C-PEG-FA/DOX NPs could be regarded as an attractive nanoplatforms for chemo-photothermal synergistic tumor therapy with dual-modal fluorescence and MR imaging-guided targeting.

10.
Plant J ; 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454118

RESUMO

The plant flavonoid dogma proposes that labile plant flavonoid carbocations (PFCs) play vital roles in the biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins (PAs). However, whether PFCs exist in plants and how PFCs function remain unclear. Here, we report the use of an integrative strategy including enzymatic assays, mutant analysis, metabolic engineering, isotope labeling and metabolic profiling to capture PFCs and demonstrate their functions. In anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) assays, an (-)-epicatechin conjugate was captured in protic polar nucleophilic methanol alone or methanol-HCl extracts. Tandem mass spectrum (MS/MS) analysis characterized this compound as an (-)-epicatechin-4-O-methyl (EOM) ether, which resulted from (-)-epicatechin carbocation and the methyl group of methanol. Acid-based catalysis of procyanidin B2 and B3 produced four compounds, which were annotated as two EOM and two (+)-catechin-4-O-methyl (COM) ethers. Metabolic profiling of seven PA pathway mutants showed an absence or reduction of two EOM ether isomers in seeds. Camellia sinensis ANRa (CsANRa), leucoanthocyanidin reductase c (CsLARc), and CsMYB5b (a transcription factor) were independently overexpressed for successful PA engineering in tobacco. The EOM ether was remarkably increased in CsANRa and CsMYB5b transgenic flowers. Further metabolic profiling for eight green tea tissues revealed two EOM and two COM ethers associated with PA biosynthesis. Moreover, an incubation of (-)-epicatechin or (+)-catechin with epicatechin carbocation in CsANRa transgenic flower extracts formed dimeric procyanidin B1 or B2, demonstrating the role of flavan-3-ol carbocation in the formation of PAs. Taken together, these findings indicated that flavan-3-ol carbocations exist in extracts and are involved in the biosynthesis of PAs of plants.

11.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 27(4): 1287-1290, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418394

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the methods for verifying and comparing performance of HIV testing methods and procedure analysis in blood station laboratories so as to meet the requirements of ISO15189 accreditation. METHODS: The performance of HIV test was verified by the automatic ELISA analyzer, the intra- and inter-assay precision was analyzed and evaluated by intra- and inter-assay repeat tests, the compliance rate was verified by the test results of the standard serum plate and the external quality assessment from the Ministry of Health in the past 2 years, the limit of detection was verified through continuous dilution of a known amount of reference serum for internal quality control, the status of the instrument was evaluated by testing one HIV-negative specimen, one HIV-negative with other positive markers, one strong HIV-positive specimen and two weak HIV-positive specimens. RESULTS: The intra- and inter-assay precisions were 5.12% and 16.81% respectively, the compliance rate of the serum plate test was 100%, the compliance of the external quality assessment results was 100%, the limits of detection for HIV was 1.42 NCU/ml, and the consistency of the detection systems was 100%. CONCLUSION: The analytical performance of the HIV test methods and procedures accords with the requirements of the reagent instructions, the comparison of the test systems meets the verification requirements.


Assuntos
HIV , Programas de Rastreamento , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Controle de Qualidade , Testes Sorológicos
12.
Curr Drug Targets ; 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465284

RESUMO

HSP90 is a member in the family of heat shock proteins responsible for folding proteins into mature conformations and thus maintaining their biological function in cells. Since it is involved in all hallmarks of cancer, HSP90 has been considered as a promising drug target for cancer therapy. Eighteen HSP90 inhibitors have entered clinical trials, however, none has been approved by FDA. There is still a great need for novel HSP90 inhibitors with strong anticancer activity and good safety profile. In the past several years, many new molecules were identified as HSP90 inhibitors and some of them have shown promising pharmacological profiles in preclinical evaluations. In this review, HSP90 inhibitors identified from 2014 to date are summarized and their design strategies, chemical structures and biological activities are reviewed. The inhibitors are categorized by their different target domains and selectivity as N-terminal, C-terminal, and isoform selective HSP90 inhibitors.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319286

RESUMO

Poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactic acid) (PEG-PLA) is a biocompatible and amphiphilic block copolymer composed of a hydrophilic PEG block and a hydrophobic PLA block, which can self-assemble into micelles in water. It is one of the most commonly used biodegradable polymers for drug encapsulation, drug solubilization and drug delivery. Due to the complexity and heterogeneity of PEG-PLA, the precise analysis of this polymer is a great challenge. This study reports an application of an UPLC tandem mass spectrometry coupled with in-source collision induced dissociation (CID) technique for the analysis of a model compound mPEG2000-PDLLA2500-COOH, which could be dissociated in source and generate a series of fragment ions corresponding to its subunits. These surrogate ions including PLA-specific and PEG-specific fragment ions could be further broken into specific product ions in collision cell. Finally, the ion transition at m/z 505.0 → 217.0 was selected for the quantitation of mPEG2000-PDLLA2500-COOH. This assay achieved a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 0.05 µg/mL with only 30 µL rat plasma. The linear range is 0.05 to 5 µg/mL. Intraday and interday accuracy and precision were within ±12.1%. The method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of mPEG2000-PDLLA2500-COOH in rats. The results revealed that LC-MS/MS coupled with in-source CID is a sensitive and specific strategy for analysis of PEG-PLA. This method can be potentially extended to the analysis of other pharmaceutical polymer excipients.

14.
Molecules ; 24(11)2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163701

RESUMO

Hsp90 (Heat shock protein 90) is involved in various processes in cancer occurrence and development, and therefore represents a promising drug target for cancer therapy. In this work, a virtual screening strategy was employed, leading to the identification of a series of compounds bearing a scaffold of 1,3-dibenzyl-2-aryl imidazolidine as novel Hsp90 inhibitors. Compound 4a showed the highest binding affinity to Hsp90α (IC50 = 12 nM) in fluorescence polarization (FP) competition assay and the strongest anti-proliferative activity against human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7) and human lung epithelial cell line (A549) with IC50 values of 21.58 µM and 31.22 µM, respectively. Western blotting assays revealed that these novel Hsp90 inhibitors significantly down-regulated the expression level of Her2, a client protein of Hsp90, resulting in the cytotoxicity of these novel Hsp90 inhibitors. The molecular docking study showed that these novel Hsp90 inhibitors bound to the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding site at the N-terminus of Hsp90. Furthermore, structure-activity relationship studies indicated that the N-benzyl group is important for the anti-cancer activity of 1,3-dibenzyl-2-aryl imidazolidines.

15.
Planta ; 250(4): 1163-1175, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177387

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Biochemical, transgenic, and genetic complementation data demonstrate that three glutathione S-transferases are involved in the storage of anthocyanins, flavonols, and proanthocyanins in plant cells. Flavonoids are compounds in tea (Camellia sinensis) that confer the characteristic astringent taste of tea beverages; these compounds have numerous benefits for human health. In plant cells, flavonoids are synthesized in different locations within the cytoplasm and are then transported and finally stored in vacuoles. To date, the mechanism involved in the intracellular transport of flavonoids in tea has not been well elucidated. In this study, we report the functional characterization of three cDNAs encoding glutathione S-transferases (CsGSTs) of C. sinensis, namely, CsGSTa, CsGSTb, and CsGSTc. The expression profiles of CsGSTa and CsGSTb were positively correlated with the accumulation of flavonols, anthocyanins and proanthocyanins in tea tissues and cultivars. These three recombinant CsGSTs showed a high affinity for flavonols (kaempferol-3-O-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside) and anthocyanin (cyanidin-3-O-glucoside) in vitro but had no or weak affinity for epicatechin. In vivo, CsGSTa, CsGSTb and CsGSTc fully or partially restored the storage of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins in transgenic tt19 mutants. Metabolic profiling revealed that the contents of anthocyanins, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins were increased in the transgenic petals of Nicotiana tabacum. Taken together, all data showed that CsGSTa, CsGSTb, and CsGSTc are associated with the storage of anthocyanins, flavonols, and proanthocyanins in C. sinensis cells.

16.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 18(7): 1823-1832, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165126

RESUMO

The fluorescence (FL) of calcium-discharged photoprotein (CaDP) can be altered by easily mutating CaDP without modifying coelenteramide (CLM), which is the decarboxylation product of coelenterazine in calcium-regulated photoprotein. The His22-Phe88-Trp92 triad (the ordering numbers of three amino acids are sorted by a crystal structure (PDB: 2F8P) of calcium-discharged obelin, i.e., CaDP-obelin) is closely related to CaDP-obelin FL, since it exists in close proximity to the 5-p-hydroxyphenyl of CLM. Therefore, it is important to thoroughly investigate how the mutations of this triad affect the emission color of CaDP-obelin FL. In this study, by mutating wild-type CaDP-obelin (WT) at the His22-Phe88-Trp92 triad, we theoretically constructed its nine mutants of separable FL colors. Through combined quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, the influence of the mutations of this triad on the CaDP-obelin FL was analyzed considering the H-bond effect and the charge effect. This study demonstrated that the mutations at the His22-Phe88-Trp92 triad redistribute the charges on the D-π-A molecule, CLM, change the charge transfer from the D to the (π + A) moiety, and thereby alter the FL emission. Appending more negative charges on the phenolate moiety of CLM benefits the FL redshift.


Assuntos
Cálcio/química , Proteínas Luminescentes/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Teoria Quântica , Animais , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Hidrozoários/metabolismo , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Conformação Proteica , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
17.
Chemphyschem ; 20(13): 1719-1727, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090243

RESUMO

Firefly bioluminescence is produced via luciferin enzymatic reactions in luciferase. Luciferin has to be unceasingly replenished to maintain bioluminescence. How is the luciferin reproduced after it has been exhausted? In the early 1970s, Okada proposed the hypothesis that the oxyluciferin produced by the previous bioluminescent reaction could be converted into new luciferin for the next bioluminescent reaction. To some extent, this hypothesis was evidenced by several detected intermediates. However, the detailed process and mechanism of luciferin regeneration remained largely unknown. For the first time, we investigated the entire process of luciferin regeneration in firefly bioluminescence by density functional theory calculations. This theoretical study suggests that luciferin regeneration consists of three sequential steps: the oxyluciferin produced from the last bioluminescent reaction generates 2-cyano-6-hydroxybenzothiazole (CHBT) in the luciferin regenerating enzyme (LRE) via a hydrolysis reaction; CHBT combines with L-cysteine in vivo to form L-luciferin via a condensation reaction; and L-luciferin inverts into D-luciferin in luciferase and thioesterase. The presently proposed mechanism not only supports the sporadic evidence from previous experiments but also clearly describes the complete process of luciferin regeneration. This work is of great significance for understanding the long-term flashing of fireflies without an in vitro energy supply.


Assuntos
Luciferina de Vaga-Lumes/metabolismo , Animais , Cisteína/metabolismo , Vaga-Lumes/química , Vaga-Lumes/enzimologia , Luciferina de Vaga-Lumes/química , Hidrólise , Luciferases de Vaga-Lume/metabolismo , Modelos Químicos , Estereoisomerismo , Tioléster Hidrolases/metabolismo
18.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(11): 5988-5997, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106374

RESUMO

The σ70 family alternative σI factors and their cognate anti-σI factors are widespread in Clostridia and Bacilli and play a role in heat stress response, virulence, and polysaccharide sensing. Multiple σI/anti-σI factors exist in some lignocellulolytic clostridial species, specifically for regulation of components of a multienzyme complex, termed the cellulosome. The σI and anti-σI factors are unique, because the C-terminal domain of σI (SigIC) and the N-terminal inhibitory domain of anti-σI (RsgIN) lack homology to known proteins. Here, we report structure and interaction studies of a pair of σI and anti-σI factors, SigI1 and RsgI1, from the cellulosome-producing bacterium, Clostridium thermocellum. In contrast to other known anti-σ factors that have N-terminal helical structures, RsgIN has a ß-barrel structure. Unlike other anti-σ factors that bind both σ2 and σ4 domains of the σ factors, RsgIN binds SigIC specifically. Structural analysis showed that SigIC contains a positively charged surface region that recognizes the promoter -35 region, and the synergistic interactions among multiple interfacial residues result in the specificity displayed by different σI/anti-σI pairs. We suggest that the σI/anti-σI factors represent a distinctive mode of σ/anti-σ complex formation, which provides the structural basis for understanding the molecular mechanism of the intricate σI/anti-σI system.

19.
J Phys Chem A ; 123(20): 4354-4359, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058505

RESUMO

The oxygenation of reduced flavin has been a fascinating research hotspot in flavin-dependent proteins because it plays an indispensable role in cellular metabolism and has potential applications in biocatalysis. This spin-forbidden reaction of high efficiency is far from being fully understood. Although investigation on the flavin chemistry has been going on for more than 60 years, there are few mechanistic explanations for the reaction of the singlet-reduced flavin with triplet oxygen. In this paper, the reaction between oxygen and the model of free reduced flavin (reduced lumiflavin anion) was studied by density functional and multireference calculations in detail. The results reveal that the reaction proceeds by an electronically nonadiabatic proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism. The intersystem crossing point has been captured.

20.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 116: 108967, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102937

RESUMO

Ulcerative colitis (UC), a bowel disease with significant morbidity, is associated with inflammation. In this study, the effect of Qingchang Huashi granule (QCHS) on UC and its underlying mechanisms were explored using both animal and cell culture experiments. A rat UC model was induced with trinitro-benzene-sulfonic acid (TNBS), concentrations of the cytokines IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1ß, and TNF-α were significantly up-regulated and the concentrations of IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 were significantly down-regulated compared with the control group (P < 0.05). In contrast, the QCHS and salicylazosulfapyridine (SASP) groups reversed these modulations (P < 0.05). A UC cell model in HT-29 cells was generated using TNF-α combined with lipopolysaccharide treatment. Cells treated with QCHS were used to investigate the possible mechanisms. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins, including Bax/Bcl-2, caspase-3, caspase-9, Fas/Fas-L, and Rafl in the QCHS and SASP groups, were significantly lower than that in the control group in both animal and cell experiments (P < 0.05). In addition, the in vitro results indicate changes in these indicators mediate the MEK/ERK signaling pathways via SGK1. Our results suggested that QCHS could be beneficial in preventing UC progression as an alternative drug for UC treatment.

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