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1.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 963419, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36090368

RESUMO

Background: A better understanding of the factors and their correlation with clinical first-line nurses' sleep, fatigue and mental workload is of great significance to personnel scheduling strategies and rapid responses to anti-pandemic tasks in the post-COVID-19 pandemic era. Objective: This multicenter and cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the nurses' sleep, fatigue and mental workload and contributing factors to each, and to determine the correlation among them. Methods: A total of 1,004 eligible nurses (46 males, 958 females) from three tertiary hospitals participated in this cluster sampling survey. The Questionnaire Star online tool was used to collect the sociodemographic and study target data: Sleep quality, fatigue, and mental workload. Multi-statistical methods were used for data analysis using SPSS 25.0 and Amos 21.0. Results: The average sleep quality score was 10.545 ± 3.399 (insomnia prevalence: 80.2%); the average fatigue score was 55.81 ± 10.405 (fatigue prevalence: 100%); and the weighted mental workload score was 56.772 ± 17.26. Poor sleep was associated with mental workload (r = 0.303, P < 0.05) and fatigue (r = 0.727, P < 0.01). Fatigue was associated with mental workload (r = 0.321, P < 0.05). COVID-19 has caused both fatigue and mental workload. As 49% of nurses claimed their mental workload has been severely affected by COVID-19, while it has done slight harm to 68.9% of nurses' sleep quality. Conclusion: In the post-COVID-19 pandemic era, the high prevalence of sleep disorders and fatigue emphasizes the importance of paying enough attention to the mental health of nurses in first-class tertiary hospitals. Efficient nursing strategies should focus on the interaction of sleep, fatigue and mental workload in clinical nurses. In that case, further research on solutions to the phenomenon stated above proves to be of great significance and necessity. Clinical trial registration: [https://clinicaltrials.gov/], identifier [ChiCTR2100053133].

2.
RSC Adv ; 12(36): 23692-23703, 2022 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36090407

RESUMO

To provide a low-cost photocatalyst and new methodology for the utilization of waste rice noodle (WRN), a carbon quantum dots/zinc oxide (CQDs/ZnO) composite using WRN as the raw material was synthesized and characterized. The CQDs/ZnO composite based on WRN exhibited a highly efficient photocatalytic degradation effect on various organic pollutants and could be a good alternative for commercial ZnO. For methylene blue, the CQDs/ZnO composite showed a good degradation rate of 99.58% within 40 min, a high degradation rate constant of 0.2630 min-1, and could be recycled and reused for ten photocatalytic cycles without an appreciable decrease in the degradation effect, which was much better than that of commercial ZnO. The resulting CQDs/ZnO composite also displayed a nice photocatalytic degradation effect on other common organic pollutants, such as malachite green, methyl violet, basic fuchsin, rhodamine B, aniline and tetracycline. In particular, it could achieve excellent photocatalytic degradation on malachite green with an extremely high degradation rate constant of 1.9260 min-1. Besides, the CQDs/ZnO composite could also be used to control the pollution of tetracycline or aniline. The introduction of CQDs based on WRN to ZnO resulted in efficient electron-hole pair separation and enabled more photogenerated electrons to reduce O2 and more photogenerated holes to oxidize H2O, which caused stronger abilities in producing radicals (such as O2˙- and ˙OH) and a better photocatalytic degradation effect to organic pollutants.

3.
Test (Madr) ; : 1-21, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091581

RESUMO

We consider the problem of testing for the existence of fixed effects and random effects in one-way models, where the groups are correlated and the disturbances are dependent. The classical F-statistic in the analysis of variance is not asymptotically distribution-free in this setting. To overcome this problem, we propose a new test statistic for this problem without any distributional assumptions, so that the test statistic is asymptotically distribution-free. The proposed test statistic takes the form of a natural extension of the classical F-statistic in the sense of distribution-freeness. The new tests are shown to be asymptotically size α and consistent. The nontrivial power under local alternatives is also elucidated. The theoretical results are justified by numerical simulations for the model with disturbances from linear time series with innovations of symmetric random variables, heavy-tailed variables, and skewed variables, and furthermore from GARCH models. The proposed test is applied to log-returns for stock prices and uncovers random effects in sectors. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11749-022-00828-9.

4.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 959497, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091804

RESUMO

Serum creatinine is an endogenous biomarker to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and is commonly used to assess renal function in clinical practice. Acetaminophen (APAP), the most available analgesic and antipyretic medication, is recommended as the drug of choice for pain control in patients with renal diseases. However, an overdose of APAP can lead to severe acute liver injury, which is also the most common cause of acute liver failure in western countries. The role of creatinine in APAP-induced liver injury is unclear and should be further explored. Herein, clinical data on patients with drug-induced liver injury revealed that the creatinine concentration between 82-442 µmol/L for female and 98-442 µmol/L for male is positively correlated with alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST). While there was no correlation between creatinine and ALT and AST when creatinine concentration is over 442 µmol/L. In addition, mice were administrated with creatinine intraperitoneally for 1 week before APAP injection to investigated the pathophysiological role of creatinine in APAP-induced acute liver injury. The results showed that creatinine administration aggravated hepatic necrosis and elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and ALT levels in mice upon APAP injection. The mechanism study demonstrated that creatinine could increase the production of reactive oxygen activation (ROS) and the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Furthermore, the liver injury was alleviated and the difference between APAP-treated mice and APAP combined with creatinine-treated mice was blunted after using specific ROS and JNK inhibitors. Significantly, creatinine stimulation aggravates APAP-induced cell death in HepaRG cells with the same mechanism. In summary, this study proposed that creatinine is closely related with liver function of drug-induced liver injury and exacerbates APAP-induced hepatocyte death by promoting ROS production and JNK activation, thus providing new insight into the usage of APAP in patients with kidney problems.

5.
Pathol Oncol Res ; 28: 1610588, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091937

RESUMO

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare and aggressive non-Hodgkin's B cell lymphoma characterized by the translocation t(11;14) (q13;32) and overexpression of CCND1. MCL is immunophenotypically identified as CD20+, CD5+, CyclinD1+, CD43+, CD10-, BCL6-, and CD23-. It is often distinguished from B cell lymphomas of germinal center cell origin by the absence of CD10 expression. Here we report the unique clinicopathologic features of a patient with CD10+ MCL with gastrointestinal involvement and review current literature identifying this unique immunophenotype.


Assuntos
Linfoma de Células B , Linfoma de Célula do Manto , Adulto , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Linfoma de Células B/patologia , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/genética , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/metabolismo , Neprilisina , Translocação Genética
6.
Skin Health Dis ; 2(3): e115, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36092264

RESUMO

Pilomatricoma (PM; calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe) is an uncommon adnexal tumour originating from the matrix of the hair follicles. Bullous appearance is a rare variant of PM, and its pathogenesis remains unclear. Here, we present a case of a 17-year-old girl with a pseudobullous PM on the right shoulder. Lymphatic dilatation and collagen disorder were histopathologically observed in this case, which may provide clues to elucidate the pathogenesis of pseudobullous PM.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36097173

RESUMO

Highland birds evolve multiple adaptive abilities to cope with the harsh environments; however, how they adapt to the high-altitude habitats via the gut microbiota remains understudied. Here we integrated evidences from comparative analysis of gut microbiota to explore the adaptive mechanism of black-necked crane, a typical highland bird in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Firstly, the gut microbiota diversity and function was compared among seven crane species (one high-altitude species and six low-altitude species), and then among three populations of contrasting altitudes for the black-necked crane. Microbiota community diversity in black-necked crane was significantly lower than its low-altitude relatives, but higher microbiota functional diversity was observed in black-necked crane, suggesting that unique bacteria are developed and acquired due to the selection pressure of high-altitude environments. The functional microbial genes differed significantly between the low- and high-altitude black-necked cranes, indicating that altitude significantly impacted microbial communities' composition and structure. Adaptive changes in microbiota diversity and function are observed in response to high-altitude environments. These findings provide us a new insight into the adaptation mechanism to the high-altitude environment for birds via the gut microbiota. KEY POINTS: • The diversity and function of gut microbiota differed significantly between the low- and high-altitude crane species. • Black-necked crane adapts to the high-altitude environment via specific gut microbiota. • Altitude significantly impacted microbial communities' composition and structure.

8.
Clin Exp Med ; 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098834

RESUMO

Clusterin (CLU) is a highly evolutionary conserved glycoprotein with multiple isoform-specific functions and is widely distributed in different species. Accumulated evidence has shown the prominent role of CLU in regulating several essential physiological processes, including programmed cell death, metastasis, invasion, proliferation and cell growth via regulating diverse signaling pathways to mediate cancer progression in various cancers, such as prostate, breast, lung, liver, colon, bladder and pancreatic cancer. Several studies have revealed the potential benefit of inhibiting CLU in CLU inhibition-based targeted cancer therapies in vitro, in vivo or in human, suggesting CLU is a promising therapeutic target. This review discusses the multiple functions and mechanisms of CLU in regulating tumor progression of various cancers and summarizes the inhibitors of CLU used in CLU inhibition-based targeted cancer therapies.

9.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 217: 114709, 2022 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115123

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma is one of the most frequent primary sarcoma of bone among adolescents. Early diagnosis of osteosarcoma is the key factor to achieve high survival rate of patients. Nevertheless, traditional histological biopsy is highly invasive and associated with the risk of arousing tumor spread. Herein, we develop a method integrating microfluidics and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to isolate plasma-derived exosomes and profile multiple exosomal biomarkers for the diagnosis of osteosarcoma. The method showed highly efficient isolation of exosomes directly from human plasma and can profile exosomes based on protein biomarkers, with the detection limit down to 2 exosomes per µL. The whole assay can be performed in 5 h and only consumed 50 µL of plasma for one analysis. With the method, we analyzed the level of three protein biomarkers, i.e., CD63, vimentin (VIM) and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), on plasma-derived exosomes from 20 osteosarcoma patients and 20 heathy controls. Significantly higher levels of CD63, VIM and EpCAM were observed on plasma exosomes from the osteosarcoma patients compared to the healthy controls. Based on the level of the exosomal biomarkers, a classification model was built for the rapid diagnosis of osteosarcoma, with the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 100%, 90% and 95%, respectively. The proposed method does not require complex operations nor expensive equipment, and has great promise in clinical diagnosis of cancer as a liquid biopsy technique.

10.
Eur J Med Chem ; 243: 114694, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115206

RESUMO

In this work, a series of water-soluble triptolide prodrugs were synthesized, and their triptolide release rate, pharmacokinetic characteristics and anti-tumor effect were measured. We found that inserting glycolic acid as a linker between triptolide and the cyclic amino acid accelerated the release of triptolide from prodrugs into the plasma while preserving its safety. Among them, prodrug TP-P1 was significantly better than Minnelide (the only water-soluble triptolide prodrug in clinical trials) in terms of release rate in plasma and synthetic yield. In mouse models of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML), TP-P1 was effective in reducing xenograft tumors at dose levels as low as 25 µg/kg, and eliminating tumors at dose 100 µg/kg. Furthermore, TP-P1 could significantly enhance the efficacy of FLT3 inhibitors in the treatment of AML. These experimental results showed the potential of TP-P1 as water-soluble prodrugs of triptolide.

11.
J Leukoc Biol ; 2022 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36120949

RESUMO

Dendritic epidermal T cells (DETCs) are the main source of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in epidermal tissue, which promote re-epithelialization and wound healing. In refractory wounds, IL-1ß has been shown to activate NF-κB and suppress IGF-1 expression in DETCs. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that IL-1ß did not inhibit NF-κB binding to IGF-1 promoter, indicating that IL-1ß/NF-κB may suppress IGF-1 expression by alternative mechanisms. MiRNAs negatively regulate gene expression predominantly by base pairing to the 3' untranslation region (UTR) of target mRNAs. Let-7f-5p, miR-1a-3p, and miR-98-5p have been identified as IGF-1-specific miRNAs that can bind directly to the 3'UTR of IGF-1 mRNA and dysregulate IGF-1 mRNA and protein levels. In IL-1ß-treated epidermis around wounds or DETCs in vitro, NF-κB promoted the expression of let-7f-5p, and IGF-1 expression was impeded via NF-κB/let-7f-5p pathway. As pre-let-7f-5p, let-7f-1 is located in the 3'UTR of LOC118568094, and let-7f-2 is located in the intron of HUWE1. We discovered that NF-κB p65 bound to the promoters of LOC118568094 and HUWE1 to accelerate let-7f-5p expression, but NF-κB p65 did not affect the methylation levels of LOC118568094 and HUWE1 CpG islands. Injections of Let-7f-5p antagomir into IL-1ß-treated and ischemic wound margins restored IGF-1 secretion in DETCs and promoted wound healing. In conclusion, we demonstrated that NF-κB signaling pathway activated by IL-1ß could increase let-7f-5p expression to inhibit IGF-1 production in DETCs and delay wound healing. And let-7f-5p antagomir utilized in wound margin could effectively promote refractory wound healing.

12.
Nurs Open ; 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126210

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to (1) assess the relationship between intensive care unit (ICU) nurses' burnout, organizational commitment and turnover intention, (2) examine the moderating effect of the organizational commitment on the relationship between ICU nurses' burnout and turnover intention, and (3) explore the prevalence and influencing factors of hospital workplace violence among ICU nurses. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study design. METHODS: Data were collected from August to October 2020 and a convenience sample of registered nurses was recruited. To control common method biases, one-month temporal separation, Harman's single-factor analysis and method of latent variables were adopted. The moderating effect was tested by SPSS Hayes PROCESS Macro. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to examine workplace violence data. RESULTS: Organizational commitment (ß = -.23, 95% confidence interval -.45 to -.03) and continuance commitment (ß = -.15, 95% confidence interval -.24 to -.16) have negative moderation effects on the relationship between emotional exhaustion and turnover intention. 77.7% of ICU nurses experienced workplace violence, male and staff nurses, and nurses with lower professional titles and shorter working years have greater odds of experiencing this violence.

13.
FEBS Lett ; 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36129621

RESUMO

Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are a group of highly heterogeneous T cells expressing diverse T cell antigen receptors (TCRs), but possessing wide major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unrestricted anti-tumor activity, which have been used in the treatment of many tumors. However, the clonal diversity of different T cell subsets and whether there is a certain clonal preference during CIK culture remains to be clarified. We found that the proportion of oligoclones seen in some subfamilies of freshly isolated T cells decreased in varying degrees after culturing. This indicates that the diversity of T cell clones had been restored to a certain extent. The diversity differed among different T cell subsets, as some TCR subfamily oligoclones mainly appeared in CD3+CD56+ cells, which also indicates the heterogeneity of the CIK cell composition.

14.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 994567, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36119616

RESUMO

TCP proteins are plant-specific transcription factors, which are involved in a broad range of physiological processes of plant growth and development. However, the origin and evolutionary history of this gene family is not fully resolved. Here, we present a genome-wide survey of TCP genes in 59 species (including 42 genomes and 17 transcriptomes) covering all main lineages of green plants, and reconstruct the evolutionary history of this gene family. Our results suggested that the origin of TCP genes predated the emergence of land plants, possibly in the common ancestor of Phragmoplastophyta. The TCP gene family gradually experienced a continuous expansion and grew from a few members in algae, moss and lycophytes to dozens, and sometimes over 50 members in angiosperms. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that at least four subclades (Class I and three subclades of Class II) have been occurred in the ancestor of spermatophyte (seed plant). Both dispersed duplication and segmental duplication or whole-genome duplication (WGD) contributed significantly to the expansion of the TCP gene family over the course of evolution. Our findings provide a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of the TCP gene family and highlight the importance of gene duplications in the evolution of this plant-specific transcription factors.

15.
ACS Omega ; 7(36): 32442-32456, 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36119979

RESUMO

Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a 125 kDa nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that plays an important role in many carcinomas. Thus, the targeting of FAK by small molecules is considered to be promising for cancer therapy. Some FAK inhibitors have been reported as potential anticancer drugs and have entered into clinical development; for example, VS-4718 is currently undergoing clinical trials. However, the lack of crystal structural data for the binding of VS-4718 with FAK has hindered the optimization of this anticancer agent. In this work, the VS-4718/FAK interaction model was obtained by molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations. The binding free energies of VS-4718/FAK were also calculated using the molecular mechanics generalized Born surface area method. It was found that the aminopyrimidine group formed hydrogen bonds with the C502 residue of the hinge loop, while the D564 residue of the T-loop interacted with the amide group. In addition, I428, A452, V484, M499, G505, and L553 residues formed hydrophobic interactions with VS-4718. The obtained results therefore provide an improved understanding of the interaction between human FAK and VS-4718. Based on the obtained binding mechanism, 47 novel compounds were designed to target the adenosine 5'-triphosphate-binding pocket of human FAK, and ensemble docking was performed to assess the effects of these modifications on the inhibitor binding affinity. This work is also expected to provide additional insights into potential future target design strategies based on VS-4718.

16.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 939169, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36120289

RESUMO

Background: Central fatigue (CF) is a subjective sense of tiredness associated with cognitive and memory disorders, accompanied by reduced physical endurance and negative emotions, such as anxiety and depression. Disease progression and prognosis with regards to CF have been unfavorable and possibly contribute to dementia, schizophrenia, and other diseases. Additionally, effective treatments for CF are lacking. KangPiLao decoction (KPLD) has been widely applied in clinical treatment and is composed of six Chinese herbal medicines, some of which have confirmed anti-fatigue effects. While glutamic acid (Glu) is the main excitatory transmitter in the central nervous system (CNS), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory transmitter. Both are involved in emotional, cognitive, and memory functions. This research was designed to explore how KPLD regulates cognitive and emotional disorders in rats with CF and to identify the relationship between the regulatory effect and the GABA/Glu pathway. Methods: The compounds comprising KPLD were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sixty Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups. The modified multiple platform method was used to induce CF. Cognitive, emotional, and fatigue states were evaluated by performing behavioral tests (Morris water maze [MWM], open-field test [OFT], and grip strength test). Histomorphology, western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and RT-qPCR were performed to investigate protein and mRNA expression levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortexes involved in the GABA/Glu pathway. Results: Rats with CF exhibited impaired spatial cognition and increased negative emotions in the MWM and OFT. KPLD enabled the improvement of these symptoms, especially in the high-concentration group. Western blotting and RT-qPCR demonstrated that the expression of GABAARα1, GABAARγ2, GABABR1, and GAD67 in rats with CF was higher, whereas GAT-1 and NMDAR2B were lower in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. KPLD decreased the expression of GABAARα1, GABABR1, GABAARγ2, and GAD67 in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex and enhanced the expression of NR2B in the prefrontal cortex. Conclusion: KPLD significantly improved cognitive and emotional disorders in rats with CF by regulating the GABA/Glu pathway. Overall, KPLD may be a promising candidate for developing a drug for treating CF.

17.
Food Funct ; 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36124641

RESUMO

The antimicrobial actions of natural compounds derived from medicinal plants have been well documented. However, their detailed mechanisms underlying the action against microorganisms remain largely unexplored. Salmonella enterica is a common pathogen causing both gastrointestinal and systemic diseases. In Salmonella enterica, the type III secretion system (T3SS) is employed to export secreted effectors directly to the cytoplasm of host cells. Using a SipA-ß-lactamase reporter, we found that hyperoside (HYP) inhibited the activity of Salmonella T3SS needle protein InvG, prevented damage to host cells and protected mice against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. It was also observed that HYP binds to InvG directly through hydrogen-bridged cations and hydrophobic interactions. The unique mechanism of antibacterial action of HYP suggested that it could be used as a potentially effective candidate for future antimicrobial regimens.

18.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202210985, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068177

RESUMO

Electroreduction of CO2 to CO is a promising approach for the cycling use of CO2 , while it still suffers from impractical current density and durability. Here we report a single-atom nanozyme (Ni-N5 -C) that achieves industrial-scale performance for CO2 -to-CO conversion with a Faradaic efficiency (FE) exceeded 97 % over -0.8--2.4 V vs. RHE. The current density at -2.4 V vs. RHE reached a maximum of 1.23 A cm-2 (turnover frequency of 69.7 s-1 ) with an FE of 99.6 %. No obvious degradation was observed over 100 hours of continuous operation. Compared with the planar Ni-N4 site, the square-pyramidal Ni-N5 site has an increase and a decrease in the d z 2 and dxz/yz orbital energy levels, respectively, as revealed by density functional theory calculations. Thus, the Ni-N5 catalytic site is more superior to activate CO2 molecule and reduce the energy barriers as well as promote the CO desorption, thus boosting the kinetic activation process and catalytic activity.

19.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079919

RESUMO

Hawk tea (Litsea coreana Levl. var. lanuginosa) is a traditional herbal tea in southwestern China, and was found to possess hepatoprotective effects in our previous study. However, it is unclear whether hawk tea flavonoids (HTF) can alleviate alcoholic liver damage (ALD). Firstly, we extracted and identified the presence of 191 molecules categorized as HTFs, with reynoutrin, avicularin, guaijaverin, cynaroside, and kaempferol-7-O-glucoside being the most prevalent. After taking bioavailability into consideration and conducting comprehensive sorting, the contribution of guaijaverin was the highest (0.016 mg/mice). Then, by daily intragastric administration of HTF (100 mg/kg/day) to the ALD mice, we found that HTF alleviated liver lipid deposition (inhibition of TG, TC, LDL-C) by reducing liver oxidative-stress-mediated inflammation (up-regulation NRF2/HO-1 and down-regulation TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway) and reshaping the gut microbiota (Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Bacillus increased). Overall, we found HTF could be a potential protective natural compound for treating ALD via the gut-liver axis and guaijaverin might be the key substance involved.


Assuntos
Flavonoides , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas , Chás de Ervas , Animais , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Eur J Pediatr ; 2022 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114833

RESUMO

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, many reports have indicated that children shed the virus longer than adults in stool, and that most of the children had mild or even asymptomatic infections, which increased the potential risk for feces to be a source of contamination and may play an important role in the spread of the virus. In this review, we collected relevant literature to summarize the duration of fecal viral shedding in children with COVID-19. We found that in about 60% of the cases, the fecal shedding time was between 28 and 42 days, which was much longer than that of adults. We further explored the possible reason for prolonged shedding and its the potential impact. The poor hand hygiene practices of children, their tendency to swallow sputum and/or saliva, the significant difference in expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in intestine between children and adults, and the variance in immune status and intestinal microbiome could be considered as potential casual agents of longer fecal viral shedding duration of children.   Conclusion: Children with COVID-19 show prolonged fecal shedding compared to adults. Several mechanisms may be involved in the longer fecal viral shedding. Viral shedding in the stool could be contributing to a possible route of transmission. Therefore, we think that further preventive measures in children should be taken to reduce the spread of the disease. What is Known: • Children with COVID-19 are more likely to have asymptomatic infections and to experience mild symptoms. • Some patients continue to shed the virus in feces, despite respiratory samples testing negative. What is New: • Children with COVID-19 carried a longer-term fecal viral shedding than adults. • The poor hand hygiene practices of children, their tendency to swallow sputum and/or saliva, the difference in expression of ACE2 in intestine between children and adults, and the variance in immune status and intestinal microbiome could be considered as potential casual agents of longer fecal viral shedding duration of children.

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