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1.
Nanotechnology ; 31(5): 055702, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671071

RESUMO

Filtering of industrial PM2.5 is a major challenge for global environmental and animal protection. Filtering of materials with excellent thermal stability and other comprehensive performances is required for the removal of fine particles in high-temperature operating industries such as steel, cement, metallurgy, incineration, etc. In this study, a meta-aramid/polysulfone-amide (PMIA/PSA) composite nanofibrous filtration membrane is prepared via solution electrospinning for the development of high-temperature-resistant filtering products. To maximize the merits of each component, PMIA/PSA composite nanofibrous membranes with different mass blending ratios are prepared to determine the optimal balance. It is found that the PMIA/PSA composite nanofibrous membranes show excellent thermal stability and thermal shrinkage performance. They also maintain superb mechanical retention ratios after 200 h treatment at 200 °C. In addition, they exhibit excellent removal efficiency of polystyrene aerosol (PSL) particles of various sizes. It is found that the removal efficiency of PMIA/PSA (3/7) is 96.7% for 0.1 µm, 98.3% for 0.2 µm and 99.6% for 0.3 µm particles and it possesses optimal filtration resistance (79 Pa), while other composite membranes can reach a removal efficiency of over 99.7%. Our experimental results illustrate that the filtration efficiency for PM2.5 of PMIA/PSA (7/3), (5/5) composite nanofibrous membranes is still kept as high as 99.9% even after being treated at 200 °C for 120 h. It indicates that the prepared composite nanofibrous membranes have potential for applications where high-efficiency filtration is desired, such as bag dust filters for use under high temperatures.

2.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124779, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521934

RESUMO

Laccase mediator system (LMS), a very attractive candidate for refractory organics biodegradation, harbors tremendous potential on industry application. However, the performance of LMS usually varies with the discrepancy of mediators and substrates in their chemical structures. Here, we adopt electrochemical analysis that is able to assess the degradation performance of various LMS on three different dyes by quantitative analysis of reaction outcome. Two mechanisms were suggested to explain the grafting of three mediators (1-Hydroxybenzotriazole, Violuric Acid and Acetosyringone), involving the transformation of proton or electron to produce active moieties, which subsequently react with target substrates. A thorough electrochemical insight into the redox features of mediators and its change in the presence of laccase and substrates were carried out using electrochemical analysis. The effectiveness of each kind of LMS on substrates was preliminarily evaluated by analyzing the change of the peak current and potential of mediators. The actual conversion rate of dyes was used to verify the analysis results, which confirms the important role of the stability of the oxidized form as well as their redox potential of the mediators in determining the mechanism of substrate oxidation. The application of electrochemical analysis in efficiency evaluation of LMS shed new light on effective selection of suitable mediators for degradation of refractory organics. It was therefore possible to prejudge the efficacy of LMS by analyzing the electrochemical parameters of target substances and mediators, which undoubtedly has broad further application prospects of LMS.

3.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124935, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563720

RESUMO

Increasing studies have established the toxic effects of BPA on development and reproduction in animals. In present study, we investigated epigenetic effects on the transcription of several ovarian steroidogenic genes in rare minnows Gobiocypris rarus after BPA exposure at 15 µgL-1 for 21, 42 and 63 d. Results showed that short term BPA exposure (21 d) caused significant increase of both estradiol and testerone levels whereas long term exposure (63 d) led to significant decrease of them. The oocytes development was hindered after BPA exposure. BPA treatments for 21 and 42 d resulted in significant increase of genome DNA methylation in ovary while 63-d exposure caused marked decrease. The histone trimethylation levels (H3K4me3, H3K9me3 and H3K27me3) in the ovary were also disturbed by BPA. H3K9me3 was significantly decreased after 21 d whereas it was markedly increased after 42 and 63 d. The 42-d exposure caused significant decrease for H3K4me3. Meanwhile, 42- and 63-d BPA exposure led to significant decrease of H3K27me3. DNA methylation could involve in gene expression regulation of cyp17a1 and cyp19a1a after BPA exposure. After short (21 d) and long term (63 d) BPA exposure, the respective mRNA expression down-regulation and up-regulation of star, cyp11a1, and cyp17a1 were mediated by H3K9me3. This study suggests that epigenetic modulation including DNA and histone methylation could be responsible for the detrimental effects on ovary development upon BPA exposure in G. rarus. It is speculated that BPA exposures for short or long term duration could disturb the steroidogenesis in entirely different mechanisms.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 146(1): 103-114, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199508

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing of cell-free circulating DNA (cfDNA) has emerged as promising technique for identifying minimally invasive genomic profiling of tumor cells recently. However, it remains relatively unknown in LAM disease. In our study, paired cfDNA and genomic DNA (gDNA) in blood samples were obtained from 23 LAM patients and seven healthy controls to explore mutations profiles of targeted 70 cancer-related genes. As results, log2-based allele frequencies of mutations in cfDNA were significantly different from those of gDNA. By comparing the mutual mutations identified both in cfDNA and gDNA, a significant correlation was also observed. After removing mutations in gDNA, distinct somatic mutation profiles of cfDNA were observed in LAM patients. Forty of 70 targeted genes had recurrent mutations, of which ATM, BRCA2 and APC showed the highest frequency. Based on the mutation, correlation network constructed of 40 mutated genes, 11 hub genes bearing intensive interactions were highlighted, including BRCA1, BRCA2, RAD50, RB1, NF1, APC, MLH3, ATM, PDGFRA, PALB2 and BLM. Expression of the hub genes showed significant clusters between LAM patients and controls and that RAD50 and BRCA2 had the strongest associations with subject phenotypes. Myogenesis and estrogen response were confirmed to be positively regulated in LAM patients. Collectively, our study provided a landscape of genomic alterations in LAM and discovered several potential driver genes, that is, BRCA2 and RAD50, which shed a substantial light on the clinical application of key molecular markers and potential therapy targets for precision diagnosis and treatment in the future.

5.
Talanta ; 207: 120288, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594593

RESUMO

The exploration of advanced photoactive materials with fine photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance is always the hot subject in PEC bioanalysis. Herein, Mn-doped CdS nanocrystals (CdS:Mn)-sensitized 2D/2D heterostructured g-C3N4-MoS2 was prepared and served as photoactive matrix of PEC sensing platform for myoglobin (Myo) detection using CuO nanoparticles labeled anti-Myo (anti-Myo-CuO) conjugates as signal amplification tags. The heterostructured g-C3N4-MoS2 could effectively promote the electron transfer and evidently restrain the recombination of electron-hole pairs, producing the high photocurrent response. Upon loaded CdS:Mn on the heterostructured g-C3N4-MoS2 to form co-sensitized structure, the photocurrent further gives a dramatically increase. To proof the performance of the co-sensitized structure in PEC bioanalysis, a sandwich type PEC immunosensor was designed by using the co-sensitized structure as photomatrix, Myo as model protein, and anti-Myo-CuO conjugates as amplifying tags. The introduction of anti-Myo-CuO conjugates in this system could significantly quench the PEC response of the sensing interface owing to the competition of the light-generated electron, poor conductivity and steric hindrance of the anti-Myo-CuO conjugates. In virtue of synergistic amplification of the CdS:Mn sensitized heterostructured g-C3N4-MoS2 and the anti-Myo-CuO conjugates, the immunosensor could respond down to 0.42 pg mL-1 Myo with a detectable range of 1.0 pg mL-1 to 50 ng mL-1. Moreover, this PEC platform demonstrates high specificity and sensitivity for Myo detection in real biological matrices. This strategy may furnish new insights for applications of novel 2D/2D heterostructures in PEC bioanalysis.

6.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 132: 109391, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731956

RESUMO

Styrene monooxygenases (SMOs) are two-component enzymes known to catalyze the epoxidation of styrene to (S)-styrene oxide. In this work, we identified a new oxygenase component, named StStyA, from the genome of Streptomyces sp. NRRL S-31. StStyA displayed complementary stereoselectivity to all of the known SMOs when coupled with a known reductase component (PsStyB), which made it the first natural SMO that produces (R)-styrene oxide. Accordingly, a plasmid co-expressing StStyA and PsStyB was constructed, which led to an artificial two-component SMO, named StStyA/B. When applied in the bio-epoxidation of nine aromatic alkenes, the enzyme showed activity toward five alkenes, and consistently displayed (R)-selectivity. Excellent stereoselectivity was achieved for all five substrates with enantiomeric excesses ranging from 91% to >99%ee.

7.
Opt Express ; 27(21): 29547-29557, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684214

RESUMO

Flexible electronics, as a futuristic technology, is presenting tremendous impact in areas of wearable displaying, energy saving, and adaptive camouflage. In this work, we constructed a simple triple-layered electrochemical device with high flexibility using the electroplated nickel (Ni) grid electrode and the multifunctional hydrogel. The Ni grid electrode with low resistance (0.5 Ω/sq), high optical transparency (84.8%) and good mechanical flexibility, is beneficial for efficient electron injection, while the transparent lithium chloride hydrogel functions simultaneously for ion storage, ion transportation and counter-conducting. The thin polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT: PSS) film is utilized as the electrochromic (EC) material and it also distributes the electrons evenly for uniform coloration. The triple-layered EC architecture not only simplifies the manufacturing procedures but also improves the device performance in terms of optical contrast and mechanical robustness. The device shows fast response for coloration and bleaching with an absolute transmittance contrast of 40% and a contrast retention over 72% after 2500 bending cycles. The ability of the flexible electrochromic device for conformable attaching was also investigated without obvious performance degradation. The electroplated Ni grid electrode and the multifunctional hydrogel are advantageous in constructing flexible electrochromic devices in terms of the response time, the working stability and the bending capability, paving a way for next-generation flexible electronics.

8.
Opt Express ; 27(20): 28214-28222, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684578

RESUMO

Real-time detection of the ultrafast dynamics in complex nonlinear optical systems provides novel insights into pulse interactions and dynamic patterns, especially for soliton molecules. Herein, the concept of soliton molecule is extended to the pulsating regime, revealing the dynamical diversity of soliton molecule and the universality of pulsating behavior. By virtue of the dispersive Fourier transform (DFT) technique, we present the first experimental observation of the dissociation dynamics within a pulsating soliton molecule generated in an L-band normal-dispersion mode-locked fiber laser. The results provide valuable references for resolving the interactions in complex dissipative systems.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718799

RESUMO

Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) often leads to neonatal death or severe, irreversible neurological deficits. Pathologically, the occurrence of massive cell death and subsequent inflammation suggested that pyroptosis, an inflammation associated programed cell death, might play a role in HIE. Here, by measuring changes of key molecules in pyroptosis pathway in HIE patients, we discovered that their elevation levels tightly correlate with the severity of HIE. Next, we demonstrated that application of MCC950, a small molecule to inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome and thus pyroptosis, substantially alleviated pyroptosis and the injury severity in rats with neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD). Mechanistically, we showed that NLRP-3/caspase-1/GSDMD axis is required for microglia pyroptosis and activation. Our data demonstrated that microglia mediated pyroptosis played a crucial role in neonatal HIE, which shed lights into the development of intervention avenues targeting pyroptosis to treat HIE and traumatic brain injuries.

10.
ChemSusChem ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713317

RESUMO

Using water as a reaction medium, a large number of 2-phosphorylated thioflavones were prepared via the reaction of methylthiolated alkynones and phosphine oxides catalyzed by 4CzIPN under visible-light irradiation. These reactions can be carried out at ambient temperature, feature simple operation, wide reaction scope, and recyclability of aqueous media.

11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17719, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689809

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) is a coexistence of both urgency urinary incontinence and stress urinary incontinence. Medical, Epidemiologic, and Social aspects of Aging (MESA) questionnaire is a validated and commonly used tool to diagnose predominant components of it and assess the severity, which can offer help in clinic. However, MESA questionnaire is still not available in China. The aim of the study is to translate English MESA questionnaire into a Chinese version, adapt it in Chinese culture, and validate the measurement properties among female patients with MUI and urgency-predominant MUI. METHODS: MESA questionnaire will be translated and culturally adapted in China. The validation will be embedded in a multicentered randomized controlled trial targeted at women with urgency-predominant MUI. Apart from MESA questionnaire, 3 groups of patients are to receive clinical extended assessment, keep 3-day voiding diary, and complete International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form to evaluate the measurement properties of reliability and validity (internal consistence, test-retest reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness). DISCUSSION: If MESA questionnaire is of relatively high reliability and validity in diagnosing subtypes of MUI and assessing the severity, it can help to choose more appropriate therapy for patients and simplify the workload of clinicians. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03803878, January 11, 2019.


Assuntos
Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Incontinência Urinária/diagnóstico , Idoso , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , China , Feminino , Humanos , Linguagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Traduções , Incontinência Urinária/psicologia , Estudos de Validação como Assunto
12.
Nanoscale ; 11(44): 21433-21448, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681915

RESUMO

The intestinal epithelium is the main barrier for nanocarriers to orally deliver poorly water-soluble and absorbed agents. To further improve the transmembrane transport efficiency of polymeric micelles, intestinal oligopeptide transporter PepT1-targeted polymeric micelles were fabricated by Gly-Sar-conjugated poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(d,l-lactic acid). The functionalized polymeric micelles with about 40 nm diameter, uniform spherical morphology and favorable cytocompatibility with Caco-2 cells were demonstrated to distinctly enhance the cellular uptake and transmembrane transport of the loaded agents. The results of intestinal absorption strongly evidenced the higher accumulation of the micelles inside the epithelial cells, at the apical and basolateral sides of the epithelium within the villi in mice. Furthermore, the interaction of Gly-Sar decorated polymeric micelles with PepT1 was explored to promote the internalization of the micelles through fluorescence immunoassay, and the PepT1 level on the membrane of Caco-2 cells treated with the micelles appeared to change in a distinctly time-dependent manner. Both clathrin- and caveolae-mediated pathways were involved in the transcellular transport for undecorated polymeric micelles, while the transcellular transport pathway for Gly-Sar decorated ones was changed to be mainly mediated by clathrin and lipid rafts. The colocalization of Gly-Sar decorated micelles with the organelles observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated that late endosomes, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus appeared to participate in the intracellular trafficking progression of the micelles. These results suggested that PepT1-targeted polymeric micelles might have a strong potential to greatly promote the oral absorption of poorly water-soluble and absorbed agents.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134244, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677460

RESUMO

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an important haze index, and the researches on the evolutionary characteristics of the PM2.5 concentration will provide a fundamental and guiding prerequisite for the haze prediction. However, the past researchers were usually based on the overall time-domain evolution information of PM2.5. Since the temporal evolution of PM2.5 concentration is nonstationary, previous studies might neglect some important localization features that the evolution has various predominant periods at different scales. Therefore, we applied the wavelet transform to study the localized intermittent oscillations of PM2.5. First, we analyze the daily average PM2.5 concentration collected from the automatic monitoring stations. The result reveals that the predominant oscillation period does vary with time. There exist multiple oscillation periods on the scale of 14-32 d, 62-104 d, 105-178 d and 216-389 d and the 298d is the first dominant period in the entire evolutionary process. Moreover, we want to figure out whether the temporal characteristics of PM2.5 in the days with heavy haze also have localized intermittent periodicities. We select the hourly average PM2.5 concentration in 120 h when the haze pollution is serious. We find that the principal period has experienced two abrupt shifts and the energy at the 63-hour scale is the most powerful. The results in these two independent analyses come into the same conclusion that the multiscale features shown in the temporal evolution of PM2.5 cannot be ignored and may play an important role in the further haze prediction.

14.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-20, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694733

RESUMO

Prior data on long-term association between habitual legume consumption and hypertension risk remained sparse. We aimed to evaluate whether total legume and subtype intakes were prospectively related to lower hypertension incidence among 8,758 participants (aged ≥30 years) from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2004-2011. Dietary intakes were assessed by interviews combining 3-day 24-h food recalls and household food inventory weighing method at each survey round (median dietary assessment times during follow-up was three). Incident hypertension was identified by self-reports or blood pressure measurements. Multivariable Cox regression model was applied to estimate hazard ratio (HR) for hypertension across increasing categories of cumulatively averaged legume intake. For 35,990 person-years (median 6.0 years per person), we documented 944 hypertension cases. After adjustment for covariates, higher consumption of total legumes was significantly associated with a lower hypertension risk, with HR comparing extreme categories being 0.56 (95% CI 0.43-0.71; P for trend <0.001). Then we found that intakes of dried legumes (HR 0.53; 95% CI 0.43-0.65; P for trend <0.001) and fresh legumes (HR 0.67; 95% CI 0.55-0.81; P for trend <0.001) were both related to reduced hypertension risks. However, further classification of dried legumes revealed that the inverse association with hypertension substantially held for higher soybean (HR 0.51; 95% CI 0.41-0.62; P for trend <0.001) but not non-soybean intakes. In stratified analyses, the association of interest remained similar within strata defined by gender, body mass index, physical activity, smoking and drinking status; however, significant heterogeneity of results was detected across age strata (P for interaction = 0.02). Total legume intake related to a more pronounced decrease in hypertension risk for the elderly (≥65 years [HR 0.47; 95% CI 0.30-0.73; P for trend <0.001]), in contrast to that for the non-elderly. Our findings suggest inverse associations of all kinds of legume but may not non-soybean intakes with risk of developing hypertension.

15.
Food Funct ; 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696186

RESUMO

Flaxseed oil (FO), enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), is an important oil source for intestinal development and health. We aimed to study the different effects of FO versus soybean oil (SO) on growth, intestinal health and immune function of neonates with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) using a weaned piglet model. Forty pairs of male IUGR and normal birth weight piglets, weaned at 21 ± 1 d, were fed diets containing either 4% FO or SO for 3 weeks consecutively. Growth performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal function parameters, immunology and microbiota composition were determined. IUGR led to a poor growth rate, nutrient digestibility and abnormal immunology variables, whereas feeding FO diet improved systemic and gut immunity, as indicated by increased plasma concentration of immunoglobulin G and decreased CD3+CD8+ T lymphocytes, and down-regulated intestinal expression of genes (MyD88, NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-10). Although IUGR tended to decrease villous height, feeding FO diet tended to increase the villi-crypt ratio and up-regulated expressions of tight junction genes (Claudin-1 and ZO-1), together with increased mucosa contents of n-3 PUFAs and a lower Σn-6/Σn-3 ratio. Besides, FO diet decreased the abundance of pathogenic bacteria Spirochaetes, and increased phylum Actinobacteria, and genera Blautia and Bifidobacterium in colonic digesta. Our findings indicate that IUGR impairs growth rate, nutrient digestibility, and partly immunology variables, whereas feeding FO-supplemented diet could improve intestinal function and immunity of both IUGR and NBW pigs, associated with the altered gut microbiome and mucosal fatty acid profile.

16.
Hemoglobin ; : 1-4, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690131

RESUMO

Although mutations causing α-thalassemia (α-thal) are mainly larger deletions involving one or both of the duplicated α-globin genes, point mutations are not rare. We have identified a novel mutation of the translation initiation codon of the α2-globin gene with DNA sequencing and allele-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) in a Chinese family. RNA analysis was performed with reverse transcription-MLPA (RT-MLPA). A novel mutation at the translation initiation codon of the α2-globin gene (HBA2: c.3G>C) was identified. The proband and his father, who were both carriers of this mutation, had a hematological phenotype of mild α+-thalassemia (α+-thal) trait with low-normal limit of mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and normal Hb A2. RNA analysis showed markedly decreased levels of α-globin mRNA and the presence of a small amount of mutant mRNA. The HBA2: c.3G>C mutation most likely caused α-thal by lowering levels of wild α-globin chain. Our study increases the mutation spectrum of α-thal.

17.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686629

RESUMO

Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and its signaling is critical for excitatory synaptic transmission. The well-established glutamate system involves glutamate synthesis, presynaptic glutamate release, glutamate actions on the ionotropic glutamate receptors (NMDA, AMPA, and kainate receptors) and metabotropic glutamate receptors, and glutamate uptake by glutamate transporters. When the glutamate system becomes dysfunctional, it contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases, such as, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, depression, epilepsy, and ischemic stroke. In this review, based on regulating glutamate signaling, we summarize the effects and underlying mechanisms of natural constituents from Chinese herbal medicines in neurological disorders. Natural constituents from Chinese herbal medicine can prevent the glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity via suppressing presynaptic glutamate release, decreasing ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors expression in the excitatory synapse, and promoting astroglial glutamate transporter expression to increase glutamate clearance from the synaptic cleft. However, some natural constituents from Chinese herbal medicine have the ability to restore the collapse of excitatory synapses by promoting presynaptic glutamate release and increasing ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors expression. These regulatory processes involve various signaling pathways, which lead to different mechanistic routes of protection against neurological disorders. Hence, our review addresses the underlying mechanisms of natural constituents from Chinese herbal medicines that regulate glutamate systems and serve as promising agents for the treatment of the above-mentioned neurological disorders.

18.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 13: 2887-2897, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695322

RESUMO

Background: Acute liver failure is an inflammation-mediated hepatocyte injury. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation is currently considered to be an effective treatment strategy for acute liver failure. Exosomes are an important paracrine factor that can be used as a direct therapeutic agent. However, the use of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes (BMSC-Exos) in the treatment of acute liver failure has not been reported. Purpose: Here, we established a model of hepatocyte injury and apoptosis induced by D-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide (D-GalN/LPS) to study the protective effect of BMSC-Exos on hepatocyte apoptosis, and further explored its protective mechanism. Methods: BMSC-Exos was identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and Western blot. Laser confocal microscopy was used to observe the uptake of Dil-Exos by hepatocytes. D-GalN/LPS-induced primary hepatocytes were pretreated with BMSC-Exos in vitro, and then the cells were harvested. The apoptosis of hepatocytes was observed by TUNEL staining, flow cytometry and Western blot. Electron microscopy and mRFP-GFP-LC3 and Western blot was used to observe autophagy. Results: BMSC-Exos increased the expression of autophagy marker proteins LC3 and Beclin-1 and promoted the formation of autophagosomes. After BMSC-Exos treatment, the expression levels of the proapoptotic proteins Bax and cleaved caspase-3 were significantly decreased, while the expression level of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was upregulated. However, when the autophagy inhibitor 3MA was present, the effect of BMSC-Exos on inhibiting apoptosis was significantly reversed. Conclusions: Our results showed for the first time that BMSC-Exos had the potential to reduce hepatocyte apoptosis after acute liver failure. In particular, we found that BMSC-Exos attenuated hepatocyte apoptosis by promoting autophagy.

19.
Math Biosci Eng ; 16(6): 6350-6366, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698566

RESUMO

Secret image sharing has been widely applied in numerous areas, such as military imaging systems, remote sensing, and so on. One of the problems for image sharing schemes is to efficiently recover original images from their shares preserved by the shareholders. However, most of the existing schemes are based on the assumption that the shares are distortion-free. Moreover, the correspondence between secret images and their shares is definite. To overcome these shortcomings, we propose a novel secret sharing scheme using multiple share images based on the generalized Chinese remainder theorem (CRT) in this paper, where all of the shares are needed to recover the original images. Two categories of distortions are considered. In the first category, some pairs of shares with the same moduli are exchanged, while in the second category, some of pixels in the pairs of shares with the same moduli are exchanged. Based on these two sharing methods, we propose a generalized CRT based recovery method. Compared with the existing CRT based methods as well as combinatorial based methods, the proposed approach is much more efficient and secure. Furthermore, the conditions for successful recovery of two images from the given distorted shares are obtained. Simulations are also presented to show the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

20.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-20, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699171

RESUMO

Maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) is the use of a machine to filter wastes, salts and fluid from blood for at least 3 months to prolong the life of patients with advanced kidney failure. Although low dietary energy intake (DEI) has been observed in MHD patients, few studies have related DEI to the risk of mortality. To explore this relationship, a study included 1039 MHD patients from 8 centers was conducted. DEI was assessed by three 24-hour diet recalls including one dialysis day and two non-dialysis days, and was normalized to ideal body weight (IBW). All-cause mortality and CVD mortality were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. During a median follow-up of 28 months, all-cause and CVD mortality occurred in 230 (22.1%) and 140 (13.5%) participants. Overall, a U-shaped relationship was observed between DEI and all-cause or CVD mortality. The risk of all-cause mortality decreased significantly with the increase of DEI in participants with DEI <40kcal/kg IBW/d (HR, 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96-1.00) and increased significantly with the increase of DEI in those with DEI ≥40kcal/kg IBW/d (HR, 1.12; 95%CI: 1.04-1.20). Similarly, the risk of CVD mortality decreased with the increase of DEI in participants with DEI <36.5kcal/kg IBW/d (HR, 0.96; 95%CI: 0.93-0.99) and increased with the increase of DEI in participants with DEI ≥36.5kcal/kg IBW/d (HR, 1.11; 95%CI: 1.04-1.18). In summary, there was a U-shaped association between DEI and all-cause or CVD mortality, with a turning point at about 40 and 36.5 kcal/kg IBW/d, respectively, in MHD patients.

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