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1.
Chin J Traumatol ; 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509352

RESUMO

Intertrochanteric fractures have become a severe public health problem in elderly patients. Proximal femoral nail anti-rotation (PFNA) is a commonly used intramedullary fixation device for unstable intertrochanteric fractures. Pelvic perforation by cephalic screw is a rare complication. We reported an 84-year-old female who fell at home and sustained an intertrochanteric fracture. The patient underwent surgery with PFNA as the intramedullary fixation device. Routine postoperative examination revealed medial migration of the helical blade that eventually caused pelvic perforation. We performed a cemented total hip arthroplasty as the savage procedure. At the latest follow-up 12 months after total hip arthroplasty, the patient had no pain or loosening of the prosthesis in the left hip. Pelvic perforation should be considered when choosing PFNA as the intramedullary fixation device, especially in patients with severe osteoporosis wherein the helical blade can be easily inserted during the operation. The lack of devices to avoid oversliding of the helical blade in PFNA is an unreported cause of this complication and should be considered in such cases.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Studies have reported an increased tuberculosis (TB) incidence among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This nationwide nested Case-control study investigated the risk of active TB due to nosocomial exposure and its correlation with the delay in TB treatment in hemodialysis patients. METHODS: Adult (aged ≥20 years) patients with incident ESRD over 2000-2010 were identified from Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database; 2331 patients with incident active TB (Case) were matched with 11,655 patients without TB (control) by age, sex, year of ESRD onset, Charlson comorbidity index, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and diabetes mellitus, at a 1:5 case-to-control ratio. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the Case group had greater nosocomial exposure to index patients with pulmonary TB (2.36 vs. 0.11 month of exposure, p < 0.001). Nosocomial exposure increased active TB risk (adjusted odds ratio [OR; 95% confidence interval, CI]: 1.60 [1.55-1.66] per month of exposure), particularly when the exposure time was either within 6 months before the index case was diagnosed or 6-15 months before the ESRD patient became an incident active TB case. For patients with active TB, cough-related medication prescriptions (proxy for cough symptoms) exponentially increased over 6 months before TB treatment. CONCLUSION: Nosocomial exposure attributed to delay in the diagnosis of index pulmonary TB is important in TB transmission among patients undergoing regular hemodialysis. Additional studies investigating how TB can be diagnosed and treated early are warranted. SUMMARY AT A GLANCE: Our study revealed that nosocomial exposure, attributed to delay in pulmonary TB diagnosis, is important in TB transmission among patients undergoing regular hemodialysis. Strategies to diagnose and treat TB early are crucial to infection control, and they warrant further investigations.

3.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-6, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324411

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the parent cognition of information regarding the human papillomavirus (HPV) and their willingness toward HPV vaccination of their middle-school-aged children in Zunyi, Guizhou Province, China.The results provide a basis for improving the awareness concerning HPV-related information as a key vaccination strategy for implementing the HPV vaccine in the local context. Methods include the random cluster sampling method and questionnaires to survey parents. General descriptive and single-factor analyses were used to assess cognition to determine factors influencing vaccine willingness. Of 1,074 parents, 28.2% (302) and 38.0% (408) had heard of HPV and its vaccine before the survey, and when given HPV-related information, 73.9% (794) parents were willing to vaccinate their children. Reasons why parents did or did not want the vaccination were surveyed, with lack of sufficient knowledge about HPV and its vaccine being the primary reason to refuse vaccination. Concerns about safety, effectiveness, and perceiving low risk are the biggest obstacle in promoting vaccination. When the price is <1000, most parents (56.1%) are willing to vaccinate their children; thus, cost is also one of the concerns. Therefore, strategies for improving public awareness regarding the risk of cervical cancer and confidence in vaccination must be considered by policymakers.If the national authority confirms that the vaccine is safe and effective, the vaccine should be included in the national immunization program to increase publicity, address safety concerns, and allow for price regulation.

4.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(9): e23895, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233042

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is an important tumor marker for small cell lung cancer and neuroblastoma. However, the test of serum NSE compromised by specimen hemolysis is presented as a falsely higher result, which seriously disturbs clinical decision. This study aimed to establish a solution integrated with laboratory information system to clear the bias from hemolysis on serum NSE test. METHODS: The reference range of serum hemolysis index (HI) was first established, and specimen hemolysis rate was compared between HI test and visual observation. NSE concentration in serum pool with normal HI was spiked with serial diluted lysates from red blood cells to deduce individual corrective equation. The agreement between individual corrective equation and original NSE test was assayed by Bland and Altman plots. RESULTS: The high HI existed in 32.6% of specimens from patients. The NSE median of hemolyzed specimens was significant higher than the baseline (p = 0.038), while the corrected NSE median had no difference compared with the baseline (p = 0.757). The mean difference of corrected NSE and initial NSE was 1.92%, the SD of difference was 5.23%, and furthermore, the difference was independent of tendency of HI (Spearman r = -0.069, p = 0.640). The 95% confidence interval of mean difference (from -8.33% to 12.17%) was less than the acceptable bias range (±20%). CONCLUSION: The agreement between individual correction equation and NSE assay was satisfied. Our automated processing algorithm for serum NSE could provide efficient management of posttest data and correct positive bias from specimen hemolysis.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175241

RESUMO

Patients receiving hemodialysis (HD) are at risk of TB development. IGRA-positive patients showed significant decrease in quantitative IGRA result with alterations in CD3+CD4+CD45RO+, NK cell, and monocyte subsets immediately upon HD procedure. Our result suggested that the timing of IGRA testing is crucial in end-stage renal disease population.

6.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(2): 197-200, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788470

RESUMO

The clinical experience of professor WU Han-qing in treatment of cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR) with the tendon-bone needling therapy of Chinese medicine is introduced. Professor WU believes that the pathogenesis of CSR is the damage on the neck and the sinew of hand three yang meridians, the formation of clustered nodules, obstruction in meridians and the stagnation of qi and blood. In treatment, the tendon-bone needling therapy is mainly adopted to relaxing clustered nodules and the sinew of hand three yang meridians and promoting qi and blood circulation. Regarding the acupoint selection, the "three-yangguan localization method" is used. The three hand-yangguan points and the three wrist-yangguan points are selected. The knotted points corresponding to the affected transverse processes of cervical vertebra are selected as well. Meanwhile, the adjuvant treatment points are selected on the base of the principle as "selecting the points along the affected meridian sinew". During treatment, according to needling sites and layers, the different needling techniques are optioned flexibly. Besides, the attentive experience in needling sensation in physician and the interaction between physician and patient are emphasized so as to improve the safety of treatment.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Meridianos , Radiculopatia , Pontos de Acupuntura , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Radiculopatia/terapia , Tendões
7.
Cell Res ; 31(7): 801-813, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514914

RESUMO

Cathepsin D (cathD) is traditionally regarded as a lysosomal protease that degrades substrates in acidic compartments. Here we report cathD plays an unconventional role as a cofilin phosphatase orchestrating actin remodeling. In neutral pH environments, the cathD precursor directly dephosphorylates and activates the actin-severing protein cofilin independent of its proteolytic activity, whereas mature cathD degrades cofilin in acidic pH conditions. During development, cathD complements the canonical cofilin phosphatase slingshot and regulates the morphogenesis of actin-based structures. Moreover, suppression of cathD phosphatase activity leads to defective actin organization and cytokinesis failure. Our findings identify cathD as a dual-function molecule, whose functional switch is regulated by environmental pH and its maturation state, and reveal a novel regulatory role of cathD in actin-based cellular processes.

8.
Asian J Androl ; 23(2): 170-177, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154202

RESUMO

This study aimed to propose an operational definition of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) that incorporates both clinical symptoms and serum testosterone measurements to evaluate the prevalence of LOH in aging males in China. A population-based sample of 6296 men aged 40 years-79 years old was enrolled from six representative provinces in China. Serum total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured and free testosterone (cFT) was calculated. The Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) scale was used to evaluate the LOH symptoms. Finally, 5078 men were included in this analysis. The TT levels did not decrease with age (P = 0.59), and had no relationship with AMS symptoms (P = 0.87 for AMS total score, P = 0.74 for ≥ 3 sexual symptoms). The cFT levels decreased significantly with age (P < 0.01) and showed a negative association with the presence of ≥ 3 sexual symptoms (P = 0.03). The overall estimated prevalence of LOH was 7.8% (395/5078) if a cFT level <210 pmol l-1 combined with the presence of ≥ 3 sexual symptoms was used as the criterion of LOH. Among them, 26.1% (103/395) and 73.9% (292/395) had primary and secondary hypogonadism, respectively. After adjustment for confounding factors, primary and secondary hypogonadism was positively related to age and comorbidities. Body mass index was an independent risk factor for secondary hypogonadism. The results suggest that the AMS total score is not an appropriate indicator for decreased testosterone, and that the cFT level is more reliable than TT for LOH diagnosis. Secondary hypogonadism is the most common form of LOH.

9.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 70: 101861, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On Nov 17, 2020, WHO launched a global initiative to accelerate the elimination of cervical cancer through the implementation of HPV vaccination, cervical cancer screening and treatment for precancer and cancer. China has the largest burden of cervical cancer in the world, but only has a national cervical cancer screening program in rural areas since 2009. Here, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening in urban China, using Shenzhen City as an example. METHODS: We use an extensively validated platform ('Policy1-Cervix'), calibrated to data from Shenzhen city and Guandong Province. We evaluated a range of strategies that have previously been implemented as pilot studies in China, or recommended as guidelines within China and globally, spanning primary HPV, cytology and co-testing strategies. We additionally considered alternate triaging methods, age ranges and screening intervals, resulting in 19 algorithms in total. RESULTS: Of the 19 strategies considered, the most effective approach involved primary HPV testing. At 3- to 10-yearly intervals, primary HPV testing reduced the age-standardized cancer mortality rate by 37-71 %. The most cost-effective strategy was 5-yearly primary HPV testing with partial genotyping triage for ages 25-65, discharging to 10-yearly screening for low-risk women (ICER = US$7191/QALYS using 2018 costs; willingness-to-pay threshold<1xGDP [US$9771]). This strategy gave an incidence and mortality reduction of 56 % and 63 %, respectively. This remained the most cost-effective strategy under most conditions in sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSION: Primary HPV testing would be cost-effective in Shenzhen and could more than halve cervical cancer incidence rates to 6 per 100,000 over the long term. In order to achieve rates below 4 per 100,000, the elimination threshold set by the World Health Organization, vaccination will likely also be necessary.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
10.
Sci Adv ; 6(50)2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298434

RESUMO

Organelle transport requires dynamic cytoskeleton remodeling, but whether cytoskeletal dynamics are, in turn, regulated by organelles remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that late endosomes, a type of prelysosomal organelles, facilitate actin-cytoskeleton remodeling via cytosolic translocation of immature protease cathepsin D (cathD) during microglia migration. After cytosolic translocation, late endosome-derived cathD juxtaposes actin filaments at the leading edge of lamellipodia. Suppressing cathD expression or blocking its cytosolic translocation impairs the maintenance but not the initiation of lamellipodial extension. Moreover, immature cathD balances the activity of the actin-severing protein cofilin to maintain globular-actin (G-actin) monomer pool for local actin recycling. Our study identifies cathD as a key lysosomal molecule that unconventionally contributes to actin cytoskeleton remodeling via cytosolic translocation during adenosine triphosphate-evoked microglia migration.

11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6045, 2020 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247136

RESUMO

Touch can positively influence cognition and emotion, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we report that tactile experience enrichment improves memory and alleviates anxiety by remodeling neurons along the dorsoventral axis of the dentate gyrus (DG) in adult mice. Tactile enrichment induces differential activation and structural modification of neurons in the dorsal and ventral DG, and increases the presynaptic input from the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC), which is reciprocally connected with the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), to tactile experience-activated DG neurons. Chemogenetic activation of tactile experience-tagged dorsal and ventral DG neurons enhances memory and reduces anxiety respectively, whereas inactivation of these neurons or S1-innervated LEC neurons abolishes the beneficial effects of tactile enrichment. Moreover, adulthood tactile enrichment attenuates early-life stress-induced memory deficits and anxiety-related behavior. Our findings demonstrate that enriched tactile experience retunes the pathway from S1 to DG and enhances DG neuronal plasticity to modulate cognition and emotion.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Giro Denteado/fisiopatologia , Memória/fisiologia , Tato/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Espinhas Dendríticas/fisiologia , Córtex Entorrinal/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Integrases/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Sinapses/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Cancer Med ; 9(24): 9336-9345, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conventional protocols utilize core needle biopsy (CNB) or fine needle aspiration (FNA) to produce cell suspension for flow cytometry (FCM) is a diagnostic challenge for lymphoid malignancies. We aim to develop an alternative CNB rinsing technique (RT) to produce cell suspension for FCM during this mini-invasive procedure of CNB for lymphoma diagnosis. METHODS: FNA and CNB specimens from the same lesion of 93 patients with suspected lymphoma were collected under the guidance of B-ultrasound simultaneously. The fresh CNB samples were prepared to cell suspension by RT for FCM immunophenotyping analysis (Group CNB-RT). Then, the CNB tissues after performing the RT process and the fresh FNA tissues were processed by conventional tissue cell suspension (TCS) technique to obtain the cell suspensions (Groups of CNB-TCS & FNA-TCS), respectively, as comparison. The diagnostic efficacies, as well as the concordances of the FCM results with reference to the morphologic diagnoses were compared in these three groups. RESULTS: RT could yield sufficient cells for FCM immunophenotyping analysis, though a lower cell numbers compared to TCS technique. The diagnostic concordance was comparable in group CNB-RT (91.1%) to the group CNB-TCS (88.9%) and group FNA-TCS (88.4%) (p = 0.819). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of CNB-RT (91.1%; 100%) was not inferior to that of CNB-TCS (88.9%; 100%) and FNA-TCS (88.4%; 98.8%). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the CNB-RT presented non-inferior diagnostic concordance and efficacy as compared to the TCS technique. CNB-RT has the potential to produce cell suspension for FCM immunophenotyping while preserving tissue for lymphoma diagnosis and research.

13.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 167, 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chest blunt trauma (CBT) and the resultant rib fractures often lead to thoracic collapse. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of displacement of the rib fracture and thoracic collapse on the thoracic volume by using normal chest CT data. METHODS: In this retrospective study, seven consecutive normal participants were selected from our hospital between June and July 2018. Normal thoracic models were reconstructed, followed by simulation of lateral fractures through the 4th to 9th ribs under three collapse modes with 1-5 cm of collapse. The thoracic collapse models (n = 630) were reconstructed using 3Dmax 2014. We calculated the thoracic volume and reduction percentage for each thoracic collapse model. Linear regression-based comparisons of thoracic volume reductions were performed. RESULTS: In all three collapse modes, the degree of the collapse was linearly correlated with the mean thoracic volume reduction. The reduction percentage in the posterior collapse mode was higher than that in the anterior collapse mode (P < 0.001). The largest volume reductions in the anterior, posterior, and simultaneous collapse models were in the 6th rib fracture model (P < 0.001), 8th rib fracture model (P < 0.001), and 7th rib fracture model (P < 0.001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The influences of rib fracture displacement and collapse on the thoracic volume in the 6th through 8th ribs are critical in lateral rib fractures. For patients with 6th to 8th rib fractures and posterior rib collapse, surgical intervention to restore thoracic volume may be more essential.


Assuntos
Fraturas das Costelas/diagnóstico por imagem , Cavidade Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Cavidade Torácica/patologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fraturas das Costelas/etiologia , Fraturas das Costelas/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações
14.
Chin Med Sci J ; 35(2): 157-169, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684236

RESUMO

Objective Hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC) is invariably fatal without surgical resection. The primary aim of the current study was to determine the safety of variable surgical resections for patient with HC and their survival after surgical resection. In addition, prognostic factor for the overall survival was also evaluated. Methods The study included 59 consecutive patients who were newly diagnosed with HC and underwent surgical resections with curative intend between February 2009 and February 2017. Patients were followed up at 3-6 months intervals after hospital discharge. Postoperative complications and overall survival were determined. Associations of clinicopathologic and surgeon-related factors with overall survival were evaluated through univariate analysis and Cox regression analysis. Results Of patients with Bismuth and Corlette (B & C) type Ⅲ (n=19) and Ⅳ (n=25) HC lesions, 33 (55.9%) were treated with hilar resection combined with major liver resection (MLR), while the other 11 patients with type Ⅲ and Ⅳ, and those with type Ⅰ (n=8) and Ⅱ (n=7) HC lesions were treated with hilar resection. The overall surgical mortality was 5.1% and surgical morbidity was 35.6%. There was no statistical difference in the mortality between MLR group and hilar resection group (6.1% vs. 3.8%; X2=0.703, P=0.145). The median follow-up period was 18 months (range, 1-94 months). The 1-, 3-, 5-year survival rate was 59.3%, 36.5%, and 17.7%, respectively. The overall survival after resections was 18 months. In HC patients with B & C type Ⅲ and Ⅳ lesions, the median survival was 23 months for hilar resection with MLR and 8 months for hilar resection alone; the 1-, 3-, 5-year cumulative survival rate was 63.9%, 23.3%, and 15.5%, respectively for hilar resection with MLR, and 11.1%, 0, and 0, respectively for hilar resection alone, with significant differene observed (HR, 9.902; 95% CI, 2.636-19.571, P=0.001). Four factors were independently associated with overall survival: preoperative serum Ca19-9 (HR, 7.039; 95% CI, 2.803-17.678, P<0.001), histopathologic grade (HR, 4.964; 95% CI, 1.046-23.552, P=0.044), surgical margins (P=0.031), and AJCC staging (P=0.015). Conclusions R0 resection is efficacious in surgical treatment of HC. MLR in combination with caudate lobe resection may increase the chance of R0 resection and improve survival of HC patients with B & C type Ⅲ and Ⅳ lesions. Preoperatively prepared for biliary drainage may ensure the safety of MLR in most HC patients. Novel adjuvant therapies are needed to improve the survival of HC patients with poor prognostic factors.


Assuntos
Colangiocarcinoma/terapia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/mortalidade , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/terapia , Colangiocarcinoma/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
15.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(9): 1354-1359, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is an important strategy for active disease prevention. Conventional in-person DOT (CDOT) programs are challenged by patient dissatisfaction over problems of convenience and privacy. The present study assessed satisfaction to DOT program and treatment adherence of synchronous video observed treatment (SVOT) programs from patients' perspectives. METHODS: A two-part questionnaire was presented to 240 subjects with LTBI who received a 9-month isoniazid treatment regimen along with mandatory DOT monitoring during January 2014 to December 2017. RESULTS: Satisfactions with location arrangement (p<0.001), ensuring treatment adherence (p=0.027), and privacy issues (p=0.005) were superior in the SVOT group. The overall rate of LTBI treatment completion was 91.25%. One (1.25%) and 20 (12.50%) of the participants in the SVOT and CDOT groups, respectively, quit LTBI treatment (p=0.008). Development of adverse events [adjusted hazard ratio, aHR 8.01 (3.42-18.79)], and the concern of privacy infringement [aHR 5.86 (2.69-12.76)] by the DOT program independently increase the risk of withdrawal. SVOT program [aHR 0.21 (0.06-0.68)] and a belief in the importance of adherence on treatment efficacy [aHR 0.29 (0.08-0.98)] were independent predictors preventing patients from withdrawing from treatment. CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive patient-centered DOT program enables high treatment adherence for the 9-month isoniazid LTBI treatment. Furthermore, SVOT was associated with superior patients' satisfactions which translate into higher treatment completion rates. As treatment adherence is the key to the efficacy of LTBI treatment, SVOT should be a reasonable supplement for LTBI treatment.


Assuntos
Terapia Diretamente Observada/métodos , Tuberculose Latente/tratamento farmacológico , Privacidade , Consulta Remota/métodos , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Diretamente Observada/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Humanos , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estereotipagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Neurosci Bull ; 36(10): 1147-1157, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170568

RESUMO

The main lysosomal protease cathepsin D (cathD) is essential for maintaining tissue homeostasis via its degradative function, and its loss leads to ceroid accumulation in the mammalian nervous system, which results in progressive neurodegeneration. Increasing evidence implies non-proteolytic roles of cathD in regulating various biological processes such as apoptosis, cell proliferation, and migration. Along these lines, we here showed that cathD is required for modulating dendritic architecture in the nervous system independent of its traditional degradative function. Upon cathD depletion, class I and class III arborization (da) neurons in Drosophila larvae exhibited aberrant dendritic morphology, including over-branching, aberrant turning, and elongation defects. Re-introduction of wild-type cathD or its proteolytically-inactive mutant dramatically abolished these morphological defects. Moreover, cathD knockdown also led to dendritic defects in the adult mushroom bodies, suggesting that cathD-mediated processes are required in both the peripheral and central nervous systems. Taken together, our results demonstrate a critical role of cathD in shaping dendritic architecture independent of its proteolytic function.

17.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0222760, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574103

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Information on healthcare costs in low-and-middle-income countries is limited. This study presents a framework to perform healthcare cost estimates for each province in China. METHODS: This study has two aims. Using cervical cancer as an example, the first aim is to use data (including micro-costing data) from one province to derive estimates for other provinces in China. This used provincial and national Chinese-language statistical reports and considered levels of service delivery, hospital-seeking behaviour, and the urban/rural population distribution. The second aim is to characterise the relationship between the reference costs estimated using the method mentioned above and two sets of cost estimates derived using simplified cost-scaling method with per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and the Human Development Index (HDI). For simplified methods, regression modelling characterised the relationship between province-specific healthcare costs and macro-economic indicators, then we used the exponential fit to extrapolate costs. RESULTS: Using the reference method, the estimated costs were found to vary substantially by urban/rural regions and between provinces; the ratios of highest to lowest provincial costs were 3.5 for visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), 4.4 for cold knife conisation (CKC) and 4.6 for stage II cancer treatment. The HDI-based scaling method generally resulted in a better fit to reference costs than the GDP method. CONCLUSIONS: These reference costs for cervical cancer can inform cost-effectiveness evaluation of cervical screening and HPV vaccination in China. HDI-based methods for cost-scaling-based on social, as well as purely economic, factors-have potential to provide more accurate estimates.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Infecções por Papillomavirus/economia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , China/epidemiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/economia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
18.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221620, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465473

RESUMO

The visualization of biological networks is critically important to aid researchers in understanding complex biological systems and arouses interest in designing efficient layout algorithms to draw biological networks according to their topology structures, especially for those networks with potential modules. The algorithms of grid layout series have an advantage in generating compact layouts with overlap-free nodes compared to force-directed; however, extant grid layout algorithms have difficulty in drawing modular networks and often generate layouts of high visual complexity when applied to networks with dense or clustered connectivity structure. To specifically assist the study of modular networks, we propose a grid- and modularity-based layout algorithm (GML) that consists of three stages: network preprocessing, module layout and grid optimization. The algorithm can draw complex biological networks with or without predefined modules based on the grid layout algorithm. It also outperforms other existing grid-based algorithms in the measurement of computation performance, ratio of edge-edge/node-edge crossings, relative edge lengths, and connectivity F-measures. GML helps users to gain insight into the network global characteristics through module layout, as well as to discern network details with grid optimization. GML has been developed as a VisANT plugin (https://hscz.github.io/Biological-Network-Visualization/) and is freely available to the research community.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Modelos Biológicos , Transdução de Sinais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Jpn J Radiol ; 37(2): 186-190, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30523499

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a deep learning-based denoising algorithm, PixelShine (PS), on the quality of 70 kVp pelvic arterial phase CT images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on arterial phase pelvic CT images from 33 patients (body-mass index ≤ 20 kg/m2) obtained with a GE Revolution CT (70 kVp tube voltage; adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-Veo-filtered back projection, 50% blending) and designated group A. Group B images were then obtained by applying PS to group A image datasets. Subjective image quality was evaluated by two radiologists with a 5-point scoring system; the scores of the groups were compared. Image signal was assessed using CT values of the urinary bladder. CT and standard deviation (SD) values of the gluteus maximus were measured, and SD values of the gluteus maximus were used to represent image noise. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the bladder were calculated. Image noise, SNR, and CNR of two groups were compared using paired t-tests. RESULTS: The subjective visual image quality scores of groups A and B, respectively, were 3.11 ± 0.30 vs. 3.82 ± 0.57; image noise was 15.79 ± 2.05 Hounsfield units (HU) vs. 11.06 ± 2.22 HU; SNRs of bladder were 0.50 ± 0.23 vs. 0.79 ± 0.39; and CNRs of bladder were 3.72 ± 0.85 vs. 5.14 ± 1.27. Group B showed better subjective image quality, lower image noise, and improved SNR and CNR, compared to group A; these differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The noise of group B was approximately 30% lower than that of group A; the SNR and CNR values of group B were improved by approximately 58% and 38%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Using 70 kVp +ASiR-V, PS can improve the image quality of pelvic arterial phase CT images, significantly reduce the image noise, and improve the SNR and CNR.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Pelve/diagnóstico por imagem , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pelve/irrigação sanguínea , Doses de Radiação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Razão Sinal-Ruído
20.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 103: 1384-1391, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29864922

RESUMO

AIMS: It has been reported that Vernonia amygdalina Delile(VA) presents an anti-diabetic effect, and the effect of VA on lowering glucose is formulated via suppressing the expression of the key hepatic gluconeogenesis enzyme. Therefore, we further explored the probable mechanism of VA on dismissing hepatic gluconeogenesis through the activation of adenosine-5' monophosphate kinase (AMPK) in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: We developed type 2 diabetic mice with STZ and oral administration with VA (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg) once a day for 6 weeks. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS) and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were conducted. The expression levels of AMPK, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) proteins in live were evaluated by western blot. Then, we further explored the mechanism of VA on hepatic gluconeogenesis in vitro experiments. Glucose production and the expression of AMPK, PEPCK and G6Pase proteins were detected after VA treatment with the presence of the AMPK inhibitor Compound C. KEY FINDINGS: VA reduced FBG and caused a significant improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in STZ-induced mice. VA inhibited the elevated expression of gluconeogenesis key enzymes (PEPCK and G6Pase) and up-regulated AMPK activity in liver. In palmitic acid (PA)-induced HepG2 cells, VA decreased glucose production and the expression of PEPCK and G6Pase proteins, also activated AMPK pathway. The effects of VA on gluconeogenesis could be reversed by Compound C. CONCLUSION: These results reveal that VA suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis at least partially through activating the AMPK.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Gluconeogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vernonia/química , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/enzimologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Jejum/sangue , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Glucose-6-Fosfatase/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Ácido Palmítico/farmacologia , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxiquinase (ATP)/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Estreptozocina
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